Serum Vitamin A Content among Malnourished and Healthy Children in Kisangani City, DRC

Main Article Content

F. Lusamaki Mukunda
E. Solomo
Mosisi Moleka
Omekomba Konde
L. E. Likaka
Bosuandole Litua
A. Kayisu Kalenga
S. Batina Agasa
C. Kayembe Tshilumba

Abstract

Summary: Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient needed by the body for various physiological functions. Its deficiency is associated with several functional disorders. The objective of this study is to determine blood vitamin A levels in malnourished and healthy children.

Methods: It is a cross-sectional analytical study, consisting of determining the vitamin A content in the blood of children suffering from malnutrition and those in good nutritional status. Our sampling was casual and 59 children aged 6 to 59 months were retained. Among them 30 healthy children chosen from those attending preschool consultation at U HC and 29 malnourished children from those followed at M TNU for the management of malnutrition. The serum vitamin A assay was performed according to the method described by Tietz. Children with serum vitamin A level below 30 μg / 100 ml had vitamin A deficiency and those with a serum level greater than or equal to 30 μg / 100 ml had good vitamin A status. Percent, average and standard deviation calculations were performed. The Chi square statistical test was used to compare serum vitamin A content in healthy and malnourished children, as well as other maternal parameters for a significance level of 0.05. 

Results: from 59 children examined, 30 or 50.8% were 6-17 months old, the average age was 21.9 ± 13 months. 45.7% had a serum retinol level between 50-59 μg/100 ml; the average value was 46.84 μg ± 14.27.  The prevalence of VAD was 20.3% and this deficit was more marked in children aged 6-17 months that is 50% (P<0.014). Among 12 children with VAD, 10 or 83.3% were the wealthy and two were the malnourished, the difference was statically significant (P< 0.011).

Conclusion: Vitamin A deficiency remains a major health problem in the DRC. This affect all children regardless of their current nutritional status. Supplementation with this vitamin remains one of the palliative solutions.

Keywords:
Serum vitamin A, malnourished and healthy children, Kisangani-DRC.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mukunda, F. L., Solomo, E., Moleka, M., Konde, O., Likaka, L. E., Litua, B., Kalenga, A. K., Agasa, S. B., & Tshilumba, C. K. (2019). Serum Vitamin A Content among Malnourished and Healthy Children in Kisangani City, DRC. European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 9(3), 269-276. https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i330066
Section
Original Research Article

References

Tariku A, Abel F, Ayanaw TF, Solomon M, Akilew A Vitamin-A defciency and its determinants among preschool children: a community based cross-sectional study in Ethiopia BMC Res Notes. 2016;9:323.
DOI: 10.1186/13104-016-2134

Bain LE, Awah PK, Geraldine N, Kindong NP, Sigal Y, Bernard N, Tanjeko AT. Malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa: Burden, causes and prospects. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;15:120.

Geoffrey SS, James KA, Gaston AT. Contribution of instant amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.)-based vegetable soup to nourishment of boarding school adolescents. Food Sci N; 2017.
[Revised: 1 April 2018]
[Accepted: 8 April 2018]
Available:www.foodscience-nutrition.com utr. 2018; 6:1402–1409

Evaluation de l’importance de la malnutri-tion par carence en micronutriments en ligne sur www.who.int>nutr 2016. Consulté le 12/10/2018

Evaluation de l’importance de la malnutrition par carence en micronutri-ments www.who.int>nutr 2016 consulté le 06/12/2018

FAO/WHO. New business models to help eliminate food and nutrition insecurity: Roadmap for exploration. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO); 2013.

Pière Aubry, Malnutrition protéino-énergétique et avitaminose, actualisés en 2003 et mise à jour le 07/01 /2004.

Agne-Djigo A, Idohou-Dossou N, Kwadjode KM, Tanumihardjo SA, Wade S. High prevalence of vitamin A deficiency is detected by the modified relative dose-response test in six-month-old Senegalese breast-fed infants. J Nutr. 2012;142:1991–6.

Sabina BM, Maria FC, Suzana LS, Alex SRS, Camila CS, Malaquias BF. The prevalence of vitamin a deficiency and associated factors in pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a reference maternity hospital in Northeastern Brazil Nutrients. 2018;10:1271.
DOI: 10.3390/nu10091271
Available:www.mdpi.com/journal/nutrients

PRONANUT, Programme National de Nutrition. L’intégration de la lutte contre la carence en vitamine A. Kinshasa, avril, 2002 Module de formation No 3 RDC ; 2002.

Ignace Balw’a Kalonji Kamuna. Evaluation du statut de la vitamine A dans la ville de Kinshasa par la méthode HKI (Helen Keller International); 2007.

Saari JC. Retinoids in photosensitive systems. In the Retinoids: Biology, Chemistry, and Medicine, 2nd ed.; Sporn MB, Roberts AB, Goodman DS, Eds.; Raven Press: New York, NY, USA. 1994; 351–386.
[ISBN 0781700825 9780781700825]

D’Ambrosio DN, Clugston RD, Blaner WS. Vitamin a metabolism: An update. Nutrients. 2011;3:63–103.

World Health Organization. Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk: WHO global database on vitamin a deficiency. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009.

Kara A. Bresnahan, Sherry A. Tanumihardjo undernutrition, the acute phase response to infection, and its effects on micronutrient status indicators. 2014 American Society for Nutrition. Adv. Nutr. 2014;5:702–711.
DOI: 10.3945/an.114.006361

Tanumihardjo SA. Vitamin A: Biomarkers of nutrition for development. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(Suppl):658S–65S.

Tietz. Clinical guide to laboratory tests, 4e edition, 1995 Bioforma, Cahier de formation Biologie Médicale, Les vitamines, no 38 Edition: Janvier 2013; 2007.

Rongwang Yang, Rong Li, Shujiong, et al. The survey of serum retinol of the children aged 0~4 years in Zhejiang Province, China, BMC Public Health 2007;7:264.
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-264

Ajuluchukwa U. Vitamin A and E deficiencies among pregnant women attending Antenatal care General hospital Dawakin KuDU, North-West Nigeria international Journal of Preventive Medecine Int J prev Med. 2015;6:65.
[PMCID: PMC4521299]

Lusamaki MF, Solomo E, Borive A, Posho I, Kayembe T, Batina A, et al. Nutritional quality of palm oils sold at the central market of Kisangani. Int J Recent Sci Res. 2017;8(3):15982-15985.

Seck I, Fall IS, Faye A, Ba O, Tal-Dia. Connaissances attitudes et pratiques de femmes sur le paludisme dans la zone rurale de Sénégal Méd Trop (mars). 2008; 68:629-33.

Lukuka KA, Fumie OS, Mulumbu MR, Lokombe BJ, Muyembe TJJ. Prévalence du paludisme à l’accouchement dans quatre maternités de la ville de Kinshasa, République Démocratique du Congo. “Santé publique”. 2005;5:215-223

Chun Y, Jin C, Zhen L, Chunfeng Y, Jianhua P, Xiaoguang Y. Prevalence and influence factors of vitamin A deficiency of Chinese pregnant women. Nutrition Journal. 2016;15:12.
DOI: 10.1186/s12937-016-0131-7

Gurgel CS, Grilo EC, Lira LQ, Assuncao DG, Oliveira PG, Melo LR, et al. Vitamine a nutritional status in high-and low-income postpartum women and its effect on colostrums and the requirements of the newborn. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2018;94:207-215.