Main Article Content
Aims: The effect of cooking method and temperature on amino acid composition of breakfast sausage (BS) was undertaken in this study.
Methodology: Three batches of prepared BS from beef, were randomly allotted to three cooking methods (CM): (boiling, grilling and frying) each at cooking temperatures (CT) of 80, 90 and 100°C to attain internal temperature of 72°C in a completely randomized design. Samples from each treatment were oven-dried and assayed for amino acid and proximate composition using standard procedures. Data obtained was analysed using descriptive statistic and ANOVA at α0.05.
Results: Results showed that grilled sausage at 80°C had highest total amino acid profile (3.2%). Grilled sausage at 80°C had highest crude protein (25.58%). Grilled BS at 80°C recorded least fat content (15.99%). Grilled sausage at 80°C had the higher ash (6.66%) and least (1.40%) in boiled sausage at 90°C.
Conclusion: Therefore, breakfast sausage could be best grilled at 80°C due to maintain high amino acid profile, crude protein, ash and lower fat content.
FAO. Small-scale sausage production, food and agriculture organization of the United Nation, Rome. ISBN:92-5-102187-2; 2007.
Alfaia CM, Lopes A, Prates JAM. Cooking and diet quality: A focus on meat. In Victor R. Preedy, Lan-Anh Hunter, Vinood B. Patel (Eds.), Diet quality: An evidence-based approach. 2013;257–284.
Mora B, Curti E, Vittadini E, Barbanti D. Effect of different air/steam convection cooking methods on turkey breast meat: Physical characterization, water status and sensory properties. Meat Science. 2011; 88:489–497.
Tornberg E. Effects on heat on meat proteins-Implications on structure and quality of meat products. Meat Science. 2005;70:493–508.
Alfaia CMM, Alves SPA, Lopes AF, Fernandes MJE, Costa ASH, Castro MLF, Fontes CMGA, Bessa RJB, Prates JAM. Effect of household cooking methods on fatty acids, conjugated isomers of linoleic acid and nutritional quality of beef intramuscular fat. Meat Science. 2010;84:769–777.
Christensen M, Purslow PP, Larsen LM. The effect of cooking temperature on mechanical properties of whole meat, single muscle fibres and perimysial connective tissue. Meat Science. 2000;55: 301–307.
Chiavaro E, Rinaldi M, Vittadini E, Barbanti D. Cooking of pork longissimusdorsi at different temperature and relative humidity values: Effects on selected physico-chemical properties. Journal of Food Engineering. 2009;93:158−165.
Offer G. Progress in the biochemistry, physiology and structure of meat. Proceedings from the 30th European meeting of meat research workers, Bristol. 1984;87–93.
Wilkinson BHP, Lee E, Purchas RW, Morel PCH. The retention and recovery of amino acids from pork longissimus muscle following cooking to either 60°C or 75°C. Meat Science. 2014;96:361–365.
Moore S, Stein WH. A modified ninhydrin reagent for the photometric determination of amino acids and related compound. J. biol. chem. 1954;211:907-913.
AOAC, (Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington D.C; 2016.
SAS. Statistical Analysis System Institute, User's Guide. 6th Edn. SAS Institute, North Carolina, USA; 2010.
Skog K, Steineck G, Augustsson K, Gerstad JM. Effect of cooking temperature on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried meat products and pan residues. Carcinogenesis. 1995;16:861-867.
Murphy EW, Criner PE, Gray BC. Comparisons of methods for calculating retentions of nutrients in cooked foods. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry. 2008;23:1153–1157.
Oz F, Kaban G, Kaya M. Effects of cooking methods on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines of two different species trout. Food Chem. 2007;104:67-72.
Fillion L, Henry C. Nutrient losses and gains during frying: a review. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 1998;49:157-168.
Yu TH, Wu CM, Ho CT. Volatile compounds of deep-oil fried, microwave-heated and oven-baked garlic slices. J. Agric. Food Chem., 1993;41:800-805.
Dal Bosco AD, Castellini C, Bernardini M. Nutritional quality of rabbit meat as affected by cooking procedure and dietary vitamin E. Sensory and Nutritive Qualities of Food. 2001;66:1047–1051.
Farfán NB, Sammán N. Retention of nutrients in processed cuts of Creole cattle. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2003;16:459–468.