Quality Evaluation of Tea Brewed from Blends of Soursop (Annona muricata) and Moringa (Moringa oleifera) Leaves

Main Article Content

Adanma C. Innocent-Ukachi
Ugochi C. Onukwugha


Tea is commonly made from the leaves of Camellia sinensis. Production of similar drinks from other plant leaves with potential health benefits would help to prevent diseases. This study examined the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of tea made from blends of dried moringa (Moringa oleifera) and soursop (Annona muricata) leaves. Mature, fresh and green leaves from both plants were washed in water and sun-dried for 10 h. The dried leaves were milled and sieved to obtain the tea powders. Blends of soursop: Moringa tea were formulated as follows: A: 100% Soursop, B: 100% Moringa, and soursop: Moringa blends as C:50:50%; D: 60:40% and E: 40:60%. Ten grams of each blend of tea powder was brewed in 100 ml of hot water (90°C) for 10 min and cooled to room temperature (28 ±- 2°C) before analysis. From the result, 50:50 soursop-moringa tea gave the highest levels of vitamins C and A. Mineral levels were significantly different among the samples (p<0.05) with higher values recorded for calcium (2117.10 mg/100 ml), sodium (146.02 mg/100 ml), magnesium (362.03 mg/100 ml), phosphorous (241 mg/100 ml), zinc (7.13 mg/100 ml) and potassium (1207.20 mg/100 ml) in 50:50 soursop-moringa tea. The pH differed significantly (p<0.05) in all the tea samples and ranged from 7.28–7.81. Total solids gave values ranging from 3.47 mg/l-3.82 mg/l (p˂0.05) and total sugars 1.12–3.07% (p<0.05). The amount of tannin was significantly higher (p<0.05) in all tea blends compared to other antinutrients analyzed in this study and ranged from 8.95-9.84%. Assessment of the antioxidant capacity by Diphenol-2,2picrylhydroxyl (DPPH) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the tea samples with the 50:50 soursop: Moringa blend having the highest antioxidant activity with values up to 89.04% and 531.44 (µM/L) in each case. Overall the soursop-moringa tea blends exhibited good chemical composition and antioxidant activity, with 50:50 formulation showing the best nutritional quality attributes.

Soursop (Annona muricata), Moringa (Moringa oleifera), tea, antioxidant activity, DPPH, FRAP.

Article Details

How to Cite
C. Innocent-Ukachi, A., & C. Onukwugha, U. (2019). Quality Evaluation of Tea Brewed from Blends of Soursop (Annona muricata) and Moringa (Moringa oleifera) Leaves. European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 10(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i130090
Original Research Article


Martin LC. Tea: The drink that changed the world. Tuttle Publishing; 2007.

Penelope O. Complete guide to medicinal herbs. New York, NY: Dorling Kindersley Publishing. 2000;48.

Yang CS, Chen G, Wu Q. Recent scientific studies of a traditional Chinese medicine, tea, on prevention of chronic diseases. J. Tradit. Complement Med. 2014; 4(1):17-23.

Meydani M, Hassan ST. Dietary polyphenol and obesity. 2010;2(7):737-751.

Leung LK, SU Y, Chen R, Zhang Z, et al. The aflavins in black tea and catechins in green tea are equally effective antioxidants. J. Nutr. 2001;131:2248-22251.

Peters U, Poole C, Arab L. Does tea affect cardiovascular disease? A meta-analysis. Am. J. Epidemiology. 2001;6:495-503.

Galajakshmi S, Vijayalakshmi S, Devi Rajeswari V. Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Annona muricata: A review. Int J Pharm Sci. 2012; 4(2):13–16.

Paull RE. Soursop. In Shaw PE, Chan HT (Eds.), Tropical and subtropical fruits. 1998; 386–400.

Worrell DB, Carrington CM.S and Huber DJ. Growth, maturation and ripening of soursop (Annona muricata L.) fruit. Scientia Horticulturae. 1995;57:7–15.

Nambiar V, Seshadri S. Bioavailability of beta carotene from fresh and dehydrated drumstick leaves in a rat model. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 2001;56(1):83-95.

Singh BN, Singh BR, Singh RL, Prakash D, Dhakarey R, Upadhyay G, Singh HB. Oxidative DNA damage protective activity, antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing potential of Moringa oleifera. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2009;47(6):1109-1116.

Ahmed SA, Rajan RK. Exploration of Vanya silk biodiversity in north eastern region of India: Sustainable livelihood and poverty alleviation In: International Conference on Management, Economics and Social Sciences (ICMESS) Bangkok. 2011;485-489.

AOAC. Official methods of analysis 17th Ed. Association of official analytical chemists, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 2000.

Carpenter CE, Hendricks DG. Mineral analysis. In: SS Nielsen (Ed). Food Analysis. 3rd Ed. 2003;198-206.

Singleton VR, Orthifer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM. Analysis of total phenol and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol.1999;299:152-178.

AOAC. Official methods of analysis 18th Ed. Association of official analytical chemists, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 2005.

Harbone JB. Methods of extraction and isolation. In: Phytochemical methods. Chapman and Hall, London. 1998;60- 66.

Onwuka GI. Food analysis and instrumentation. Theory and practice. Naphtali prints. Surulere, Lagos, Nigeria; 2005.

Burda S, Oleszek W. Antioxidant and antiradical activities of flavonoids. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2001;49(6):2774-2779.

Benzie I, Strain J. Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay: Direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration. Methods Enzymol. 1999;299:15-27.

Gabriel IO, Nkemakonam MO. Production and quality evaluation of green and black herbal teas from Moringa oleifera leaf. J. Food Resour. Sci. 2015;4:62-72.

Esteve MJ, Frigola A, Rodrigo C, Rodrigo D. Effect of storage period under variable conditions on the chemical and physical composition and colour of Spanish refrigerated orange juices. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2005;43:1413-1422.

Somanchi M, Phillips K, Haile E, Pehrsson P. Vitamin C content in dried and brewed green tea from US retail market. The FASEB Journal. 2017;31(1).

Wardlaw GM, Hampl JS, DiSelvestro RA. Nutrition and cancer. In: Perspectives in Nutrition. (6th edition), McGraw Hill Higher Education. 2004;364–368.

Fleck H. Introduction to nutrition 3rd Edn. Macmillan. New York. 1998;207-219.

Ilyas M, Arshad MU, Saeed F, Iqbal M. Antioxidant potential and nutritional comparison of Moringa leaf and seed powders and their tea infusions. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 2015;25(1):226-233.

Oshodi AA, Ogungbenle HN, Oladimeji MO. Chemical composition, nutritionally valuable minerals and functional properties of Benniseed, pearl millet and quinoa flours. Int. J. food Sci. Nutr. 1999;50:325–333.

Teklit GA. Chemical compositions and nutritional value of Moringa oleifera available in the market of Mekelle. J. Food and Nutr. Sci. 2015;3(5):187-190.

Ahmed RS, Butt MS, Huma N, Sultan MT, Arshad MU, Mushtag Z, Saeed F. Qualitative and quantitative portrait of green tea catechins (Gtc) through HPLC. Int. J. Food Prop. 2014;17(7):1626-1636.

Gayathri P, Antha T, Suganya S, Chithra S, Lasyaja AB and Lintu T. Comparison of biochemical, mineral and nutritive analysis of Camellia sinensis L. (green tea) with normal tea dust. Int. J. Adv. Sci. Res. 2017;2(3):05-08.

Costa ASG, Nuns MA, Almeida IMC, Carvallo MR Barroso MF, Alves RC, Oliveira MBPP. Teas, dietary supplements and fruit juices: A comparative study regarding antioxidant activity and bioactive compound. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 2012;49:324-328.

Nzeagwu OC, Onimawo IA. Nutrient composition and sensory properties of juice made from pitanga cherry (Eugenia uniflora l.) fruits. Afr. J. of Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2010;10(4):1-15.

Ishida H, Suzuno H, Sugiyama N, Innami S, Todokoro T, Maekawa A. Nutritional evaluation of chemical components of leaves, stalks and stems of sweat potatoes (Ipomea batatas). Food Chem. 2000;68:359-367.

Onimawo IA, Ibekwe JO, Uchechukwu N, Emebu KP. Functional properties and production of improved biscuits from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and fermented bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean) flour blends. Niger. J. Nutr. Sci. 2007;28(1): 90-98.

Onimawo AI, Egbekun KM. Comprehensive Science and Nutrition. Ambik Press Ltd. Benin City. 1998;103-208.

Jimoh FO, Oladiji AT. Preliminary studies on Piliostigma thonningii seeds: Proximate analysis, mineral composition and phyto-chemical screening. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2005; 4:1439-1442.

Aja PM, Ibiam UA, Uraku AJ, Orji OU, Offor CE, Nwali BU. Comparative proximate and mineral composition of moringa oleifera leaf and seed. Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci. 2013; 2(5):137-141.

Ogbe AO, Affiku JP. Proximate study, mineral and anti-nutrient composition of Moringa oleifera leaves and potential benefits in poultry nutrition and health, J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Food Sci. 2011;1(3): 296-308.

Offor IF, Ehiri RC, Njoku CN. Proximate, nutritional analysis and heavy metal composition of dried Moringa oleifera leaves from Oshiri Onicha L.G.A, Ebonyi State, Niger. J. Envir. Sci. Toxicol. Food Technol. 2014;8(1):57-62.

Drouzas AE, Tsami E, Saravacos GD. Microwave/vacuum drying of model fruit gels. J Food Eng. 1999;39:117-122.

Lunkes LBF, Hashizume LN. Evaluation of the pH and titratable acidity of teas commercially available in Brazilian market. Revista Gaύcha de Odontologia. 2014;62(1).

Brusie C. Acidity in tea: pH levels, effects and more. Healthline; 2017.
[Accessed on 26/06/2019]

Someswararao C, Srivastav PP, Das H. Quality of black teas in Indian market. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 2013;8(5):491-494.

Pal SK, Mukherjee PK, Saha BP. Studies on the antiulcer activity of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on gastric ulcer models in rats. Phytother. Res. 1995;9:463-465.

Obadoni BO, Ochuko PO. Phytochemical studies and comparative efficacy of the crude extracts of some haemostatic plants in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. Global J. Pure Appl. Sci. 2002;8:203-208.

Mohammed MI, Sulaiman MA. Proximate, caffeine and tannin analyses in some brands of tea consumed in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria. Bayero J. Pure Applied Sci. 2009;2:19-21.

Chung CT, Wong TY, Huang YW, Lin Y. Tannins and human health: A review. Crit Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 1998;38(6):421-64.

Bingham S. Nutrition: A consumer's guide to good eating, Transworld Publishers London. 1978;123-127.

Salawu SO, Sanni DM, Aladenika YV, Boligon AA. Evaluation of two tea beverages (Camellia sinensis as Matricaria chamomilla) as functional effects on liver biomarkers in Wistar rats. J. Nutr Health Food Eng. 2019; 9(1):29-40.

Chemoprevention Branch and Agent Development Committee. Clinical development plan: Tea extracts green tea polyphenols epigallocatechin gallate. J. Cell Biochem S. 1996;26:236-257.

Shamsuddin AM, Vucenik I, Cole KE. IP6: A novel anti-cancer agent. Life Sci. 1997; 614:343-354.

Khatiwada J, Verghese M, Davis S, Williams LL. Green tea, phytic acid, and inositol in combination reduced the incidence of azoxymethane-induced colon tumors in Fisher 344 male rats. J. Med. Food. 2011; 14(11):1313-1320.

Haqqi TM, Anthony DD, Gupta S, Ahmad N, Lee MS, Kumar GK, et al. Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis in mice by a polyphenolic fraction from green tea. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1999;96 4524–4529.

Havsteen BH. The biochemistry and medical significance of the flavonoids. Pharmacol. Therapeut. 2002;96:67- 202.

Davies KJ. Oxidative damage and repair: Chemical, biological and medical aspects. Oxford Pergamon Press, London. 1991;87-92.

Kasolo JN, Bimenya GS, Ojok L, Ochieng J, and Ogwal-Okeng JW. Phytochemicals and uses of Moringa oleifera leaves in Ugandan rural communities. J. Med. Plants Res. 2010;4:753-757.

Bolarinwa IF, Oke MO, Olaniyan SA, Ajala AS. A review of cyanogenic glycosides in edible plants. Toxicology–New Aspect to this Scientific Conundrum, Sonia Soloneski and Marcelo L. Larramendy, Intech Open; 2016.
DOI: 105772/64886
[Accessed on 02/07/2019]

Fu L, Xu BT, Gan RY, Zhang Y, Xu XR, Xia EQ, Li HB. Total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of herbal and tea infusions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011;12(4):2112-2124.