Main Article Content
Extrusion cooking is one of the most efficient and versatile food processing technologies that can be used to produce pre-cooked and dehydrated food products. This study aimed at investigating the mineral compositions and organoleptic properties of fermented and extruded ripe plantain and groundnut blend. Ripe plantain and groundnut samples were obtained from Oja Oba market, Akure. The dehauled groundnut seeds were milled to give a paste after which the oil was removed to give fine flour, plantains were dried and milled and both were kept in an airtight container before use. The unripe plantain and groundnut flours were formulated in the ratio of (ripe plantain: groundnut) 100:0; 80:20; 60:40; 50:50 and 0:100 Sample A (100:0) = 100% ripe plantain flour Sample B (80:20) = 80% ripe plantain flour and 20% groundnut flour, Sample C (60:40) = 60% ripe plantain flour and 40% groundnut flour, Sample D (50:50) = 50% ripe plantain flour and 50% groundnut flour and Sample E (0:100) = 100% groundnut flour. A batch of the flour blends was fermented using submerged state fermentation method for 96 hours. The fermentation process was terminated by oven drying at 60°C for 24 hours and later extruded. The sensory evaluation was carried out on the products. The study revealed that fermentation had significant (p<0.05) effects on high sodium contents (ranging from 37.90±0.00 to 44.80±0.01 mg/g) of the blends, potassium (K) content was highest in fermented blends with values ranging from 115.23±0.31 to 125.06±0.06 mg/g, extrusion and fermentation increased magnesium and calcium contents ranging from 18.00±0.57 to 150.0±0.00 and 50.01±0.24 to 220.0±0.57 mg/g respectively of the blends significantly (p<0.05) while there was no significant difference (p<0.05) in iron content between all the blends. Fermented blends had the highest overall acceptability. The investigation so far revealed that the blending of ripe plantain and groundnut has the potential of producing enriched complementary food for teeming malnourished children of developing countries.
Valmayor RV, Jamaluddin SH, Silayoi B, Kusumo S, Danh LD, Pascua OC, Espino RRC. Banana Cultivar Names and Synonyms in Southeast Asia. Bioversity International. 2000;55.
Egbebi AO, Bademosi TA. Chemical composition of ripe and unripe banana and plantain. International Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. 2011;1(1):1-5.
Zakpaa HD, Al-Hassan A, Adubofour J. An investigation into the feasibility of production and characterization of starch from “Apantu” plantain (Giant horn) grown in Ghana. African Journal of Food Science. 2010;4(9):571-577.
Odenigbo MA, Asumugha VU, Ubbor S, Nwauzor C, Otuonye AC, Offia-Olua BI. Proximate composition and consumption pattern of plantain and cooking banana. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 2013;3(4):1035-1043.
Opeke LK. Essential of crop farming. Spectrum Book Limited. Spectrum house Ring Road, Ibadan, 2006;81-84.
Skinner P. Plantain and Banana. London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd; 2005.
Seijo G, Lavia GI, Fernández A, Krapovickas A, Ducasse DA, Bertioli DJ, Moscone EA. Genomic relationships between the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea, Leguminosae) and its close relatives revealed by double GISH. American Journal of Botany. 2007;94: 1963-1971.
Anyasor GN, Ogunwenmo KO, Oyelana OA, Ajayi D, Dangana J. Chemical analyses of groundnut (Arachi hypogaea) oil. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2009;(3): 269-272.
USDA. United State Department of Agriculture (USDA); 2013.
FAOSTAT. Peanut production, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Statistics Division; 2014.
(Retrieved 23 November 2016)
Heuzé V, Thiollet H, Tran G, Lebas F. Peanut forage. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO; 2017.
Yu J, Ahmedna M, Goktepe I. Peanut protein concentrates: Production and functional properties as affected by processing, Food Chemistry. 2007;103: 121-129.
Lokko P, Armar-klemesu A, Mattes RD. Regular peanut consumption improves plasma lipid levels in healthy Ghanaians. International Journal of food Sciences and Nutrition. 2007;58(3):190-200.
Kris-etherton PM, Hu FB, Ros E, Sabate J. The role of tree nuts and peanuts in the prevention of coronary heart disease: Multiple potential mechanisms. The Journal of Nutrition. 2008;138(9):1746S-1751.
Ojokoh AO, Ajayi-Choco T. Effects of fermentation and extrusion on the microbiological and proximate composition of ripe plantain and groundnut blend, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2018;8(9):668-676.
McGovern PE, Zhang J, Tang J, Zhang Z, Hall GR, Moreau RA, Nunez A, Butrym ED, Richards MP, Wang C. Fermented beverages of pre - and proto-historic China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2004;101(51): 17593–17598.
Ojokoh AO. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum, Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis. Ife Journal of Science. 2014; 16(3):1-11.
Achi OK. Traditional fermented protein condiments in Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;4(13):1612-1621.
Fagbemi TN, Oshodi AA, Ipinmoroti KO. Processing effects on some antinutritional factors and in vitro multienzyme protein digestibility (IVPD) of three tropical seeds: Breadnut (Artocarpus altilis), cashewnut (Anacardium occidentale) and fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2005;4:250-256.
Perez-Navarrete C, Gonzalez R, Chel Guerrero L, Betancur-Ancona D. Effect of extrusion on nutritional quality of maize and lima bean flours blends. Journal of Science, Food and Agriculture, 2006; 86(14):2477-2484.
Osundahunsi OF. Functional properties of extruded soybean with plantain flour blends. Jounal of Food and Agricultural Environment. 2006;4(1):75-60.
Karwe Mukund V. Food extrusion. Food Engineering. 3. Oxford Eolss Publishers Co Ltd; 2008.
Riaz Mian N. Extruders in Food Applications. CRC Press. 2000;193.
AOAC. Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International. 19th edition. Gathersburg, Maryland, U.S.A; 2012.
Bergman BC, Tsvetkova T, Lowes B, Wolfel EE. Myocardial FFA metabolism during rest and atrial pacing in humans. American Journal of Physiological Endocrinology Metabolism. 2009;296: E358–E366.
Baiyeri KP, Aba SC, Otitoju GT, Mbah OB. The effects of ripening and cooking methods on mineral and proximate composition of plantain (Musa sp. AAB cv. ‘Agbagba’) fruit pulp. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2011;10(36):6979-6984.
Shodehinde SA, Oboh G. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro. Asian Pacific. Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2013;3(6):449-457.
Onoja US, Obizoba IC. Nutrient composition and organoleptic attributes of gruel based on fermented cereal, legume, tuber and root flour. Agro-science Journal of Tropical Agricultural and Food Environmental Extension. 2009;8(3):162-168.