Nutritional Composition of Flour Blends from Water Yam, Yellow Maize and African Yam Bean

Main Article Content

C. E. Kalu
I. C. Alaka
F. C. Ekwu


Adequate and proper understanding of the nutritional composition of different flour materials is important in their use in the production of baked food materials. The proximate composition of water yam-yellow maize and African yam bean flour mixtures was therefore evaluated in this study. Standard procedure for dry-milling unit operation was used in the flour processing. Flour samples were blended in different ratios to form the following composite samples: AFK which comprised of 30% water yam (WY):40% yellow maize (YM):30% African yam bean (AYB); BGL which comprised of 40WY:30%YM:30%AYB CHM comprising of 50%WY:20%YM:30%AYB; DIN comprising of 60%YM:10%YM:30%AYB and control treatment comprising of 100%WY. Crude protein content ranged from 4 to 22.50%; fat content ranged from 1.80%; ash content ranged from 7.00%; moisture content ranged from 6.00 to 10.00% carbohydrate content ranged from 50.43 to 80.90% and energy content ranged from 331.50 to 356.35%ked. Addition of yellow maize and African yam bean statistically (p<0.05) increased the protein, fat, fibre, ash, moisture and energy content of flour blend but statistically (P<0.5) reduced the carbohydrate content. Flour sample DIN found to be adequate for both children and adult consumption of the flour when compared to the Codex Alimentarius Commission [1].

Nutritional composition, flour, water yam.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kalu, C. E., Alaka, I. C., & Ekwu, F. C. (2019). Nutritional Composition of Flour Blends from Water Yam, Yellow Maize and African Yam Bean. European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 10(2), 116-124.
Original Research Article


Codex Alimentarius Commission (1994). Codex standard for processes cercal based foods or infants and children codex standard Camended, CODEX Ahmentarius commission/FAO/WHO Rome Italy. 1987;4:74-198,91,981.

Eka EB, Akaninwor JO. Effect of processing on the nutritional quality of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocoipa) and Bambara groundnut (Voandzeia subterrence). Global J. Pure and Applied Sciences. 2000;6(2):181-188.

Badrie N, Mellowes WA. Cassava starch or amylase effects characteristics of cassava flour extrudate. Journal of Food Science. 1992;57:108-111.

Banigo EB. Optimization of the level of incorporation of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) flour into comminuted meat type product as an extrudate. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference of Nifst. 2002;239-240.

Okwor GC. The production, economic and social cultural important seminar of the African yam address at the inauguration and the fircotonou. Republic of Benin. 1998;21.

FAO. Food and agricultural organization of United Nations production. Rome Italy. 2001;50.

Onwueme IC. The tropical tuber crops. John Wiley and sons. Chi Chester, UkJJS. 1978;34.

AOAC. Official method of analysis 18th Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemistry Gaibersburg U.S.A.; 2005.

Iwe MO, Ngoddy PO. Proximate composition and some functional properties of extrusion cooked soybean and sweet potato blends plant foods for human nutrition. 1998;55:159-168.

Benitez LV. Amino acid and fatty acid profiles in aqua culture nutrition studies, P. In S.S. De Silva (Ed), Fish Nutrition Research in Asia. Proceedings of the Third Asia Fishery Society Spec Publication. Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Philippines. 1989;4:23-35,166.

Obatolu VA. Nutrient and sensory qualities of extruded malted or unmalted millet soybean mixture. Food Chemistry. 2002;76:129-133.

Akissoe NH, Hounhouigan JD, Ericas N, Vernier P, Nago MC, Olorunda OA. Physical, chemical and sensory evavluation of dried yam (Dioscorea rotundata) tubers flour and amala- a flour derived product. Tropical Science. 2001;41:151-156.

Shanthakumari S, Mohan VR, Britto A. Nutritional evaluation and elimination of toxic principles in wild yam (Dioscorea spp). Tropical and Subtropical Agro-ecosystems. 2008;8:313-319.

Egbedike C, NsOzo NO, Ikegwu OJ, Odo MO, Gkoprie PA. Effect of ricebran substitution on the physicochemical properties of water yarn flour. Asian Journal of Agricultural and Food Science. 2016;4:246 -257.

Idowu Atinuke. Chemical composition, sensory and pasting properties of a lends of maize-African yam bean seed. Journal of Nutritional Health and Food Science. 2015;3(3):1-6.

Adeoti GA, Elutilo OO, Babalola JO, Jimoh KO, Azeez LA, Rafru KA. Proximate, mineral amino acid and fatty acid compositions of maize tuwo- cirinaforda flour blends greener. Journal of Biological Science. 2013;3(4):165-171.

Nneoma EO, Nozi U, Enyidiya E, Okafor GL, Usman GO. Production and evaluation of breakfast cereal from blends of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) and maize (Zea mays) ancfefatted coconut (Cocos nucifera). Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2012;38(3): 1037-43.

West CEF, Pepping F, Temalikwa, CR. Composition of food commonly eaten in east Africa development of human nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University, Dedriejen, EC. Wageningen, Netherlands. 2018;12:256-259,670.

Alozie YE, Udofia U, Lawal O, Ani EF. Nutrient composition and senseory properties of cake from wheat and African yam bean flour blends. Journal of Jbod Technology. 2009;7(4):115-118.

Eneche HE. Enrichment of starchy flours with African yam bean protein concentrate. Nigeria Journal of Nutrition and Science. 2005;26:30-37.

Samaila J, Nwabueze TU. Quality evaluation of extruded full fat blends of African breadfruit soybean-corn snack. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research. 2013;2:9.

Limroongreungrat K, Hauang YW. Pasta products made from sweet potato fortified with soy proteins. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 2007;40:200-206.

Uzodinma EO, Onwurafor EU, Ugwu EO. Quality evaluation funripe plantain and water yam composite flours and their cooked paste; 2015.

Senanyake SA, Ranaweera KKDS, Bamunuarachchi A, Genaratne A. A proximate analysis and phytochemical and mineral constituents in four cultivars of yams and tubers crops in Sri Lanka. Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension. 2012;15(1):20,32-36. Expeller. J. Sci. Foodagric. 73:160-168.

Annan T, Plahar WA. Development and quality evaluation of soy forti led Ghanaian wearing food. Food and Nutrition. 1995;16(930):263-269.

Anuonye JC, Saad MF. Improvement of the pasting properties of yam flour/ cassava starch mead enriched with soybean flour for preparation of yam meal. American Journal of Food Science aid Nutrition Research. 2012;2(2):40-46.

Shajeela PS, Mohan UR, Louis Jesu das L, Treasina Sons. Nutritional and antinutritional evaluation of wild yam (Dioscovea spp). Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosysten. 2011;14:723-730.

Adeyeye EI, Akingbala. Proximate, mineral and phytate profiles of some selected spices found in Nigeria-Pakistan. Journal of Science and Industrial Resources. 2014;48(1):14-22.

Protein Advisory Group of the United Nation System). Nutritional improvement of food legumes by breeding. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 1973;399.

Woolfe JA. The potato in the human diet. Cambridge University. Press, Cambridge, UK. 1987;2(9):56-60.

Baah FD, Maziya Dixon B, Asiedu R, Oduro I, Ellis WO. Nutritional and biochemical composition of D. alata (Dioscorea spp) tubers. J. Food Agric Environ. 2009;7(2):373-378.

Shajeela PS, Mohan UR, Louis Jesu das L. Treasina Sons: Nutritional and antinutritional evaluation of wild yam (Dioscovea spp). Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosysten. 2011;14:723-730.

Ezeocha VC, Ojimelukwe PC. Impact of cooking on the proximate composition and anti-nutritional factor of water yam (Diosconea alata) joined of stored products and post-harvest research. 2012;3(13): 172-176.

Polycarb I, Afoakwa EO, Budu, Otoo E. Characterization of chemical composition and anti-nutritional yam (Dioscorea) germplasm. International Food Research Journal. 2012;19(3):985-992.

Olitino MO, Sanni LO, Daniel I, Maziya-Dixon B. Dixostarches from cassava varieties in Southwest Nigeria. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment. 2012;5(384):108-114.

Butt MS, Nasir M, Akhtar S, Sharif. Effect of moistire and packaging on the shelf life of wheat flour. Journal of Food Safety. 2004;5:1-6.

Sanni LO, Adebowale AA, Filani TA, Oyewole OB, Westby A. Quality of flashand rotary dried fufu flour. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment. 2006;4:74-78.

Kuye A, Sanni LO. Industrialization of fermented food processes: How far in Nigeria? Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 1991;58(11):837-843.

Apotiola ZO, Fashakin JF. Evaluation of cookies from (wheat, yam and soybean). Blend Jounuil Food Science and Quality Management; 2013.

Lula Nadia M. AmanWirakarkusumah, NuriAdarwulan, EkoHariPurnomo, Takahiro Noda and Koji Ishiguro. J. Ng. Techno. Sci. 2015;47:92-103.

Lyimo ME, Gimbi DM, Shayo NB. Nutritional evaluation of composite flour based on root and tuber crops and sensory acceptability of the developed products. Proceedings of the 13th ISTRC Symposium. 2007;514-520.

Onwuka GI, Ihuma C. Physico-chemical composition and product behavior of flour and chips from two yam spp (Deoscorea rotundata and Dioscorea alata). Research Journal of Applied Science. 2007;2(1):30-38.

Aberounnand A, Deokule SS. Studies on nutritional value of some wild edible plants from Iran and Indian. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2009;8(1):26-31.