Manner of Ethiopian Dairy Products Processing and Their Nutritional and Health Importance

Main Article Content

Jemal Mohammed

Abstract

Dairy products play a vital role in human nutrition and protecting against numerous diseases. Understanding the meticulous characteristics of traditionally processed dairy products as well as appropriate examination of the indigenous processing steps are important in order to vouch for suitable manufacturing procedure and protocols for commercialization. In Ethiopia, fortunately, some evidence is available on the general characteristics and processing practices of traditional dairy products nevertheless a few data is available about their role in human nutrition and health. Therefore, the objective of this review was to assess and compile information on processing of traditional dairy products in Ethiopia and their nutritional and health benefits. Ergo, ayib , arera,  kibe, neter kibe, aguat, ititu, and dhanaan are the major dairy products encompassed in this review.

Keywords:
Dairy products, ergo, fermentation, nutrition, health.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mohammed, J. (2019). Manner of Ethiopian Dairy Products Processing and Their Nutritional and Health Importance. European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 10(2), 137-148. https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i230106
Section
Review Article

References

Francesco V, Andrea S. Milk, Dairy products, and their functional effects in humans: A review of recent evidence. american society for nutrition. Adv. Nutr. 2014;5:131–143.

Ferenčík M, Ebringer L. Probiotics, allergy and asthma. 2003;5:224–230.

Gill HS, Guarner F. Probiotics and human health: A clinical perspective. Postgrad. Med. J. 2004;80:516–526.

Santosa S, Farnworth E. Jones PJ. Probiotics and their potential health claims. Nutr. Rev. 2006;64:265–274.

Ebringer M, Ferenčík M. Krajčovič J. Beneficial health effects of milk and fermented dairy products – Review. Folia Microbiol. 2008;53:378–394.

O’Connor CB, Tripathi BR. Milk processing techniques-sour milk. ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 1992;2:20-30.

Vierhile T. Functional ‘add-ins’ boost yogurt consumption. J. Food Tec. 2006;60:44-48

Mekonnen A. Women’s role on production, processing and marketing of milk and milk products in Delbo watershed of Wolaita zone, Ethiopia. Ethiopia. 2006:64.

Ashenafi M. Fikadu B. Microbial load, micro flora and keeping quality of raw an pasteurized milk from dairy farm. African journal of science. 1994;43:171-176.

Tola A. Traditional milk and milk products handling practices and raw milk quality in eastern Wollega. Alemaya University, Alemaya, Ethiopia. 2002:108

Fita L. Assessment of butter quality and butter making efficiency of new churns compared to smallholders’ butter making techniques in East Shoa Zone of Oromia., Ethiopia. 2004:129-135.

Ayenew YA, Wurzinger M, Tegegne A. Handling, processing and marketing of milk in the north western ethiopian highlands. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2009:21.

Ashenafi M. Effect of container smoking and incubation temperature on the microbiological and some biochemical qualities of fermenting 'Ergo', a traditional Ethiopian sour milk. Int. Dairy J. 1996;6: 95–104.

Tsehai G, Amiha K, Berhanu, A. Microbial profile of 'metata' (fermented cheese) and the role of spices as an antimicrobial agent against spoiling microorganisms in traditional fermentation process. Msc. Thesis, Haramay University; 2013.

Seifu E. Chemical composition and microbiological quality of Metata Ayib: a traditional Ethiopian fermented cottage cheese. International Food Research Journal. 2013;20:93-97.

Gonfa A, Alemu F, Kelbessa U, Berhanu AG. Microbiological aspects of 'Ergo' ('Ititu') fermentation. SINET: Ethio. J. Sci. 1999;22:283-289.

Kumisa T. Smallholder dairy in Ethiopia. ILCA. 1982:51–57.

FAO. Food and Agricultural Organization. The technology of traditional milk products in developing countries. FAO Animal production Health Paper, Rome, Italy. 1990;85:333-349.

O’Connor CB. Smallholder and village milk processing in the highlands of Ethiopia. 1994:12–16.

Gonfa A, Foster HA. Holzapfel WH. Field survey and literature review on traditional fermented milk products of Ethiopia. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2001;68:173-186.

Ehnri. Food composition table for use in Bulletin 468, Ethiopia. Part III. Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute. Addis Abeba. 1997:34.

Gebreselassie G, Abrahamsen RK, Beyene F, Narvhus JA. A survey on spontaneously fermented buttermilk in Northern Ethiopia. African J of Food Science and Tec. 2012;3:78-89.

Berhe T, Vogensen FK, Ipsen R, Seifu E, Kurtu MY, Hansen EB. Traditional fermented dairy products of Ethiopia: A Review. East African Journal of Sciences, 2017;11:73-80.

Vedamuthu ER. Microbiologically induced desired flavours in the fermented foods of the west. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 1979; 20:187–202.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). The technology of traditional milk products in developing countries. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper 85. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.1990:333.

Seifu E, Abraham A, Kurtu MY, Yilma Y. Isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria from Ititu: Ethiopian traditional fermented camel milk. J of Camelid Science. 2012;5:82-98.

Bekele T, Kebebew T. Camel production and productivity in eastern lowlands of Ethiopia. Proceedings of the 9th annual conference of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP) held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, August 30-31; 2001.

Hawaz E. A review on lactic acid bacteria in indigenous traditionally fermented camel milk of Ethiopia. Int. J. Microbio. Research and Reviews. 2014;3:122-126.

Seifu E. Handling, preservation and utilization of camel milk and camel milk products in Shinile and Jijiga Zones, eastern Ethiopia. Livestok Res. Rural Develop. 2007;19:1-9.

Kassa B, Seifu E. Physicochemical properties and microbiological quality of Dhanaan: Traditional fermented camel milk produced in eastern Ethiopia MSc thesis submitted to school of Animal and Range Sciences, Haramaya University, Ethiopia; 2012.

Mozaffarian D. The great fat debate: taking the focus off of saturated fat. J. Am.

Diet. Assoc. 2011;111(5):665–666.

German JB, Dillard CJ. Composition, structure, and absorption of milk lipids: a source of energy, fat-soluble nutrients, and bioactive molecules. Crit. Rev Food Sci Nut. 2006;46:57–92.

Kris-Etherton P, Fleming J, Harris WS. The debate about n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid recommendations for cardiovascular health. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 2010;110:201–204.

FAO, WHO. Interim summary of conclusions and dietary recommendations on total fat & fatty acids. From the joint FAO/WHO expert consultation on fats and fatty acids.

[Accessed 5 October 2012]

Feinman RD. Saturated fat and health: recent advances in research. Lipids. 2010;45:891–892.

Ashley FP, Wilson R.F. Dental plaque and caries. A 3-year longitudinal study in children. Brit. Dent. J. 1977;142:85–91.

Schamschula RG, Bunzel M, Agus HM, Adkins BL, Barmes DE, Charlton G. Plaque minerals and caries experience: associations and interrelationships. J. Dent. Res. 1978;57:427–432.

Aimutis WR. Bioactive properties of milk proteins with particular focus on

anticariogenesis. J. Nutr. 2004;134:989S–995S.

Ferrazzano GF, Cantile T, Quarto M, Ingenito A, Chianese L, Addeo F. Protective effect of yoghurt extract on dental enamel demineralization in vitro. Aus. Dent. J. 2008;53:314–319.

Öhlund I, Holgerson PL, Bäckman B, Lind T, Hernell O. Diet intake and caries prevalence in four-year-old children living in a low prevalence country. Caries Res. 2007;41:26–33.

Tanaka K, Miyake Y, Sasaki S. Intake of dairy products and the prevalence

of dental caries in young children. J. Dent. 2010;38:579–583.

Johansson I, Lif Holgerson P. Milk and oral health. In RA. Clemens O. Hernell KF. Michaelsen, eds. Milk and milk products in human nutrition. Basel, Switzerland, S. Karger AG; Vevey, Switzerland, Nestlé Nutrition Institute. 2011:55–66.

Sahlin P. Fermentation as a method of food processing production of organic acids, pH development and microbial growth in fermenting cereals. Lund University; 1999.

McBean LD. Emerging Dietary Benefits of Dairy Foods. Nutr. Today. 1999;34:47-53.

Schanbacher FL, Talhouk RS, Murray, FA, et al. Milk-Borne Bioactive Peptides. Int. J. Dairy. 1998;8:393-403.

Huth PJ, Dirienzo DB, Miller GD. Major specific advances with dairy foods in nutrition and health. J. Dairy Sci. 2006;89: 1207–1221.

McIntosh GH, Royle PJ, Le Leu RK, Johnson MA, Grinsted RL, Kenward RS, Smithers GW. Whey Proteins as Functional Food Ingredients. Int J Dairy. 1998;8:425-434.

Vegarud GE, Langsrud T, Svenning C. Mineral-binding milk proteins and peptides; occurrence, biochemical and technological characteristics. Brit. J. Nutr. 2000;84:91–98.

Gandhi DN. Fermented Dairy Products and Their Role in Controlling Food Borne Diseases” In: S. S. Marwaha and J. K. Arora, Eds., Food Processing: Biotechnological Applications, Asiatech Publishers Inc., New Delhi. 2000;209-220.

Panesar PS. Fermented Dairy Products: Starter Cultures and Potential Nutritional Benefits. Food Nutr Sci. 2011;2:47-51.

Kirjavainen PV, Salminen SJ, Isolauri E. Probiotic Bacteria in the Management of Atopic Disease Underscoring the Importance of Viability. J of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 2003;2:223-227.

Estruch Ros E, Salas‐Salvadó J, et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. New England Journal Medicine. 2013; 368:1279‐1290.

Pouliot Y, Gauthier SF. Milk growth factors as health products: Some technological aspects. Internat. Dairy J. 2006;16:1415–1420.

Smithers GW. Isolation of growth factors from whey and their application in food and biotechnology industries – A brief review. Int. Dairy Federation, Brussels. 2004;16–19.

Paulin Y, Pouliot Y, Lamiot E, Aattouri N. Safety and efficacy of a milk-derived extract in the treatment of plaque psoriasis: an open label study. J. Cutan. Med. Surg. 2005;9:271–275.

Fell JM, Paintin M, Arnaud-Battandier F, et al. Mucosal healing and a fall in mucosal pro-inflammatory cytokine m RNA induced by a specific oral polymeric diet in pediatric Crohn’s disease. Aliment.Pharmacol. Ther. 2000;14:281–289.

Toba Y, Takada Y, Motouri M., et al. Milk basic protein promotes bone formation and suppresses bone resorption in healthy adult men. Biosci. Biotec. Biochem. 2001;65:1353–57.

Berhammou N, Bekkara FA, Panovska TK. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activites of the Pistacia lentiscus and Pistacia atlantica extracts. Afr. J. Pharm Phrmacol. 2008;2:22-28.

Bhattacharyya S, Chakraborty C, Moitra S. Potential application of milk and milk products as carrier for herpes and spices: A Review. Int. J. Eng. Res. Sci. Technol. 2017;6:113–124.

Tajkarimi MM, Ibrahim SA, Cliver DO. Antimicrobial herb and spice compounds in food. Food Control. 2010;21:1199–1218.

Borek C. Antioxidant health effects of aged garlic extract. J. Nutr. 2001;131:1010-1015.

Kumar M, Berwal JS. Sensitivity of food pathogens to garlic (Allium sativum). J. Appl. Microb. 1998;84:213-215.

Maidment DCF, Dembny Z, Harding M. A study into the antibiotic effect of garlic Allium sativum on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus albus. J. Nutr. & Food Sci. 1999;45:170-172.

Jakhetia V, Patel R, Khatri P. Cinnamon: A pharmacological review. J Adv Scientific Res. 2010;1(2):19‒12.

Wondrak GT, Villeneuve NF, Lamore SD, et al. The cinnamon-derived dietary factor cinnamic aldehyde activates the Nrf 2-dependent antioxidant response in human epithelial colon cells. Molecules. 2010; 15(5):3338‒3355.

Hossein N, Zahra Z, Abolfazl M, et al. Effect of Cinnamon zeylanicum essence and distillate on the clotting time. J Medicinal Plants Res. 2013;7(19): 1339‒1343.

Kim SH, Hyun SH, Choung SY. Anti-diabetic effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose in db/db mice. J Ethnopharm. 2006;104(1‒2):119‒123.

Naveed R, Hussain I, Tawab A, et al. Antimicrobial activity of the bioactive components of essential oils from Pakistani spices against Salmonella and other multi-drug resistant bacteria. BMC Complementary & Alternative Med. 2013;13:265.

Al-Mariri A, Safi M. In vitro antibacterial activity of several plant extracts and oils against some Gram negative bacteria. Iran J Med Sci. 2014;39(1):36‒43.

Modak M, Dixit P, Londhe J, et al. Indian herbs and herbal drugs used for the treatment of diabetes. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 2007;40:163-173.

Lu YR, Foo YL, Antioxidant activities of polyphenols from sage (Salvia officinalis). Food Che M. 2001;75:197-202.

Baratta MT, Dorman HJD, Deans SG, Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of laurel, sage, rosemary, oregano and coriander essential oils. J. Essential Oil Res.1998;10:618-627.

Matsui T, Matsumoto K. Antihypertensive peptides from natural resources. In: Khan Math (Ed.), Advances in Phytomedicine. Elsevier Publisher, USA. 2006:273-299.

Korhonen H, Pihlant A. Bioactive peptides: Production and functionality. International Dairy Journal. 2006;16:945-960.

Niranjan A, Prakash D. Chemical constituents and biological activities of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)-a review. J. Food Sci., Technol. 2008;45:109-116.

Onyeagba RA, Ugbogu OC, Okeke CU, Studies on the antimicrobial effects of garlic (Allium sativum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). African J Biotechnol. 2004;3:552-54.

Bin S, Yi-Zhong C, John DB, Harold C. Potential application of spice and herb extracts as natural preservatives in cheese. J. Med. Food. 2011;14:284– 290.

Verma SK, Jain V, Verma D. Garlic “the spice of life”: composition, cooking chemistry and preparations. J Herb Med Toxicol. 2008;2:21-28.

Saeed S, Tariq P. Antibacterial activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare linn.) against gram positive bacteria. Pak J PharmSci. 2009;22:421-24.

Guynot ME, Ramos AJ, Seto L, Purroy P, Sanchis V, Marın S. Antifungal activity of volatile compounds generated by essential oils against fungi commonly causing deterioration of bakery products. J Appl Microbiol. 2003;94:893–99.

Gutierrez J, Barry-Ryan C, Bourke P. The antimicrobial efficacy of plantessential oil combinations and interactions with food ingredients. Int J Food Microbiol. 2008;124:91–97.

Mekonen A, Mahder P, Moses NK. Isolation and identification of staphylococcus speces from Ethiopian cottage cheese from Debrezeit. Ethiopian Veterinary Research. 2011;4:13-17.

Seifu E. Chemical composition and microbiological quality of Metata Ayib: A traditional Ethiopian fermented cottage cheese. International Food Research Journal. 2013;20:93- 97.