Relationship between Dose and Duration of Administration of Potassium Bromate on Selected Electrolytes and Hepatorenal Parameters in Male Albino Wistar Rats

Main Article Content

Samuel Y. Gazuwa
Jonathan D. Dabak
Kiri H. Jaryum
Ige Oluwa


Aim: To monitor the effects of dosage and duration of administering KBrO3 on some electrolytes and hepatorenal parameters in male albino Wistar rats.

Study Design: 24 rats, mean weight of 181.3 g were grouped into 4 with 6 rats of each. Experiment spanned over 12 days. In the control group, animals were fed standard diet. Animals in the test groups were fed diet containing 67, 100 and 167 mg/kg dose of KBrO3 according to body weight. 2 rats from each group were sacrificed on the 4th, 8th and 12th days.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Jos; 1 month including writing the report.

Methods: Spectrophotometric and titrimetric techniques were applied. InStat3 statistical software was used to analyse the data obtained. P≤.05 was considered significant.

Results: on the 4th day at 67mg/kg dose, showed raised serum activities (IU) of ALT, 41.0±9.6, and AST, 130.2±31.53, (P=.05). At 100 mg/kg dose, serum activities of ALT, 52.12±1.12, AST, 180.0±0.41, and level (g/L) of Total Proteins, TP, 67.77±0.35, were elevated (P=.05).On the 8th day at 67mg/kg dose, there were no significant increases (P>.05). At 100 mg/kg dose, only AST activity, 98.0±43.86, increased (P=.05). Levels of urea (UR) and creatinine (CR) were lower than the control at both 60 and 100 mg/kg dose. At 167mg/kg dose, level of TP and activities of ALT, and AST increased (P=.05) relative control. On the 12thday, treatments at 67 mg/kg dose raised the activities of ALT and AST (P=.05).At 100 mg/kg dose, level of creatinine, 106±19.2 µmol/L, was significantly (P=.05) elevated. For urea, mmol/L, test groups results (4.26±1.39; 6.70±2.01; 21.07±2.21) were higher (P=.05) relative control group. Activities of AST and ALP were raised (P=.05). On the 12th day at 167 mg/kg dose, TP, ALT, AST and ALP significantly (P=.05) elevated implying toxicity of KBrO3 is both dose and duration of exposure-depended. On 4th and 8th day of treatment, mean level of Cl- was significantly (P=.05) raised whereas HCO3- was not significantly (P>.05) increased. 12th day of experimentation resulted in dose, and duration of exposure dependent increase concentration of Cl- (P=.05).

Conclusion: This compound could potentially cause injury to, especially hepatocytes and nephrons. It can also perturb the redox status of the cell with its attendant metabolic consequences; hence, moderate use is imperative.

Potassium, bromate, renal, hepatocytes, nephrons, liver, kidney.

Article Details

How to Cite
Y. Gazuwa, S., D. Dabak, J., H. Jaryum, K., & Oluwa, I. (2020). Relationship between Dose and Duration of Administration of Potassium Bromate on Selected Electrolytes and Hepatorenal Parameters in Male Albino Wistar Rats. European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 11(4), 214-220.
Original Research Article


Vadlamani KR, Seib PA. Effect of zinc and aluminium ions in bread making. Cereal Chem.1999;76(3):355–360.

International Agency for research on Cancer (IARC). Potassium bromate. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans Lyon, France: World Health Organisation, International Agency for Research on Cancer. 1986;207–220.

Kurokawa Y, Maekawa A, Takashi M, Hayashi Y. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of potassium bromate – A new renal carcinogen. Environ Health Perspectives.1990;87:309–335.

Uchida HA, Sugiyama H, Kanehisa S, Harada K, Fujiwara K, Ono T. An elderly patient with severe acute renal failure due to sodium bromate intoxication. Intern Med. 2006;45:151-154.

Mark RB. Round up the usual suspects. Potassium bromate poisoning. N Carolina Med J. 1993;49:243–245.

Magomya AM, Yebpella GG, Udiba UU Amos HS, Latayo MS. Potassium Bromate and Heavy Metal Content of Selected Bread Samples Produced in Zaria, Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Technology. 2013;2:(2).

Gornail AG, Bardawill CJ, David MM. Determination of serum Proteins by the Biuret reaction. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1949;177:751-751.

Doumas BT, Watson W, Biggs HG. Albumin Standards & the measurement of serum albumin with Bromocresol green. Clinical Chemistry Acta. 1971;31:87-96.

Reitman S, Frankel S. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase and serum Glutamic pyruvic transaminase. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1957;28:56-63.

Kind PRM, King EJ. Estimation of serum alkaline phosphatase activity by colorimetric methods. Journal of Clinical Pathology.1954;7:322-324.

Berthelot MPE. Report Chim. Appl. 1859; 384.

Bonses RW,Tausskay HH. The colorimetric determination of Creatinine by the Jaffe reaction. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1945;158:581-591.

Maas AHJ. A titrimetric method for the determination of actual bicarbonate in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma or serum. Clinica Chimica Acta. 1970;29(3):567-574.

Chipman JK, Davies JK, Parson JL, Nair J, O'NeillG, Fawell JK. DNA oxidation by potassium bromate; A direct mechanism or linked to lipid peroxidation. Toxicol. 1998; 126:93-102.

Fatma FK, Mehmet T. Genotoxic effects of potassium bromate on human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro. Mutation Research/ Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis. 2007;626(12): 48-52.

Rahman MF, Siddiqui MK, Jamil K. Effects of vepacide (Azadirachtaindica) on aspartate and alanine aminotransferase profiles in sub-chronic study with rats. J. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 2001;20:243–249.

Per L, Ingalill R, Clive C, Ulf A, Jesper J, Hedberg A, Anders S, Heike H, Ian C, Björn G. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 2007;466(1):66-77.

Mousa MA, Khattab YA. The counteracting effect of vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) on the physiological perturbations induced by ochratoxin intoxication in African Catfish (Clariagariepinus). J. Egypt Acad. Environ. Dev. 2003;4:177–128.

Hanley KS, Schmidt E, Schmidt FM. Enzymes in serum, their volumes in diagnosis, Charles Thomas Springfield, Illinois. 1986;79–81.

Abdel–Taiwab M, Shalaby AME, Ahmed MH. Effect of supplement dietary L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) on mercury intoxication and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Orechromisniloiicus L). Ann. Agric. Sci. 2001;39(2):961–973.

Karmen A, Wroblewski F, La D. Transaminase activity in human blood. J. Clin. Invest. 2005;34:126 –130.

Malomo SO. Toxicological implication of ceftriaxone administration in rats. Nig. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2000;15(1):33–38.

Yakubu MT, Bilbis LS, Lawal M. Effect of repeated administration of sildenafil citrate on selected enzyme activities of liver and kidney of male albino rats. Nig J Pure & Appl Sci. 2003;18:1395– 4000.

Akanji MA, Ngaha EO. Effects of repeated administration of berenil on urinary excretion with corresponding tissue on pattern in rats. Pharmacol.Toxicol. 1989; 81:173–179.

Singh NS, Vats P, Suri S. Effect of an antidiabetic extract of Catharanthus roseus on enzymic activities in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001;76:269–277.

Shahjahan M,Sabitha KE, Mallika J. Effect of Solanum trilobatum against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in albino rats. Indian J. Med. Res. 2004;120: 194–198.

Akanji MA, Olagoke OA, Oleyede OB. Effect of chronic consumption of metabisulphite on the integrity of rat cellular system. Toxicol. 1993;81:173–79.

Yakubu MT. Aphrodisiac potentials and toxicological evaluation of aqueous extract of Fadogiaagrestis (Schweinf. Ex Heirn) stem in male albino rats. Asian Journal Androl. 2005;7(4):399-404.

Yakubu MT, Olatunji IK, Akanji MA. Comparative effects of administration of halofantrine hydrochloride and dihydroartemisinin on some enzymes of selected rat tissues. NISEB J. 2002;2(3): 175–180.

Watanabe S, Tajima Y, Yamaguchi T, Fukui T. Potassium bromate induced hyper-uricemia stimulates acute kidney damage and oxidative stress. J. Health Sci. 2004;50:647-653.

Nisha R, Srinivasa KSR, Thanga MK, Jagatha P. Biochemical evaluation of creatinine and urea in patients with renal failure undergoing hemodialysis. J Clin Path Lab Med. 2017;1(2):1-5.

Gilda D, Bharat B, Sindhagatta V. Fluid and sodium imbalance: Clinical implications. Hindawi books. Open access peer reviewed chapter; 2018.
DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.79121

El-Solh AA, Abou PJ, Porhomayon, J. Bicarbonate therapy in the treatment of septic shock: A secondlook. Internal Emergency Medicine. 2010;5(4):341- 347.