Effect of Experimental Variables on the Malting Performance of Nigerian Maize Oba Super 2 Variety

Main Article Content

A. O. Agbo
F. J. C. Odibo
A. E. Mbachu

Abstract

Background: The Nigerian cultivar, Oba Super 2 (OS2) maize is inexpensive but under- utilized owing to poor development of malting technology for brewing.

Aim: To study the effects of experimental variables on the malting performance of Nigerian maize Oba Super 2 variety.

Study Design: Exploratory.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria, between March, 2018 to September, 2019.

Methodology: Certified Oba Super 2 maize variety was obtained from Premier Seed Limited, Zaria. The grain sample was malted at varying steeping (S) period (S30, S36 and S42 hours), different germination (G) period (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days) and varying kilning (K) temperatures (45, 50 and 55°C) to determine the malting performance. The properties of the un-malted and malted maize were determined using standard methods. Data were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) at P < 0.05.

Results: The malting loss (ML) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at different steeping period, on the fifth day of germination (G5). The cold water extract (CWE) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) on the fourth day of germination (G4) kilned at K50. The values for hot water extract (HWE) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) on the G4 at K45, K55 and K50, respectively, while free alpha amino nitrogen (FAN) values were significantly higher (P < 0.05) on the G4, all kilned at K50. The values for diastatic power (DP) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) on the G5, kilned at K50, while the cold water soluble protein (CWS-P) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) on the G3 kilned at K50.

Conclusion: The results indicated that longer steeping and germination periods as well as moderate kilning temperature contributed maximally in improving the malting properties and high extract yields.

Keywords:
Malting, steeping, germination, kilning, Oba Super 2 maize variety.

Article Details

How to Cite
Agbo, A. O., Odibo, F. J. C., & Mbachu, A. E. (2020). Effect of Experimental Variables on the Malting Performance of Nigerian Maize Oba Super 2 Variety. European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 12(10), 20-31. https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030299
Section
Original Research Article

References

Amankwah EA, Barimah J, Acheampong R, Addai LO, Nnaji CO. Effects of germination and malting on the viscosity of maize – soyabean weaning blends. Pakistan J. of Nutri. 2009;8(10):1671-1675. DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2009.1671.1675

Olaniyan AB. Maize: Panacea for hunger in Nigeria. Afr. J. of Plant Sci. 2015;9(3): 155-174. Available:https://doi.org/10.5897/AJPS2014.1203

Iken JE, Amusa NA. Maize research and production in Nigeria. Institute of Agriculture Research and Training (IAR and T). Obafemi Awolowo University, Moore plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2004;3(6):302-307.

Wallington T, Anderson J, Mueller S. Corn ethanol production, food exports and indirect land use change. Environ. Sci. and Technol. 2012;46:379-6384. DOI: 10.1021/es300233m

Goode D, Wijngaard H, Arendt E. Mashing with unmalted barley- impact of malted barley and commercial enzyme (Bacillus spp.) addition. Master Brewers’ Association of the American, Technical Quarterly. 2005;42(3):184-198.

Sani DM, Fatoki TH. Evaluation of malting properties and activities of three enzymes from sorghum during malting. Afr. J. of Food Sci. and Technol. 2017;8(6):90–98. Available:http:/doi.org/10.14303/ajfst.2017.113

Eneje LO, Odibo FJC, Nwani CD. Diastatic power and hot water extract development during malting of two Nigerian millet varieties (Pennisetum maiwa and Sossat). World J. of Dairy and Food Sci. 2012;7(2): 181-184. DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wjdfs.2012.7.2.6512

Iwouno JO, Odibo FJC. Partial purification and characterization of endo- β –glucanases of two Nigerian malted maize varieties. European J. of Food Sci. and Technol. 2015;3(2):18-48.

Taylor J, Dlamini B, Kruger J. 125th anniversary review: The science of the tropical cereals; sorghum, maize, and rice in relation to lager beer. J. Inst. of Brew. 2013;11(9):1-14. Available:https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jib.68

Yangcheng H, Jiang H, Blanco M, Jane JL. Characterization of normal and waxy corn starch for bioethanol production. J. Agric. and Food Chem. 2013;61:379-386. DOI: 10.1021/jf305100n

Agu RC, Chiba Y, Goodfellow V, Mackilay J, Brosnan JM, Bringhurst TA, et al. Effect of germination temperatures on proteolysis of the gluten free rice grains and buckwheat during malting and mashing. J. of Agric. Food and Chem. 2012;60:10147-10154. Available:https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jf3028039

Hager AS, Taylor JP, Waters DM, Arendt EK. Gluten free beer- A review. Trends in Food Sci. and Technol. 2014; 36:44-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.tifs.2014.01.001

National centre for genetic resource and biotechnology (NCGRB). Crop varieties released and registered in Nigeria. Moore plantation, Ibadan Nigeria. 2009;45.

Drought tolerant maize for Africa (DTMA). A quarterly bulletin of the drought tolerant maize for Africa project. 2014;3:1-1.

Giwa EO, Ikujeniola AV. Application of quality protein maize (QPM) in the formulation of broilers and finisher feed. J. of Sci. Food and Hospitality. 2009;1(1):47-50.

Prasama BM, Vasal SK, Kassaghum B, Singh WN. Quality protein maize (QPM). Curr. Sci. 2001;81:1308-1319.

Eneje LO, Odibo FJC, Agu RC, Palmer GH, Ugwu AH. Enzymic modification of millet varieties (Sossat and Pennisetum maiwa) with similar nitrogen contents during malting. Master Brewers Association of the Americans (MBAA), Technical Quarterly. 2007;44(2):98-103.

Ghasemi DS, Godsvali AR, Fazeli F. The effect of steeping and germination duration on quantity and quality characteristics of barley malt. 2nd National Seminar on Food Safety. Islamic Azadllni and Savadkoohbrach, Iran. 2012;33-40.

Ogbonna AC, Obi SKC, Okolo BN. Modification of the methods for the extraction of carboxypeptidase and proteinase activities from Sorghum malts. J. Inst. of Brew. 2003;109:51-56. Available:https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/j.2050-0416.2003.tb00593.x

Bryce JH, Googfellow V, Agu RC, Brosnan JM, Bringhurst TA, Jack FR. Effect of different steeping conditions on endosperm modification and quality of distilling malt. J. Inst. of Brew. 2010;116: 125-133. DOI: 10.1002/j.2050-0416.2010.tb00408.x

Ayernor GS, Ocloo FCK. Physicochemical changes and diastatic activity associated with germinating paddy rice. Afr. J. of Food Sci. 2007;1:37-41.

Institute of brewing. Recommended Methods of Analysis. The Society, London; 1989.

Association of official analytical chemists (AOAC). Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists. Dr. George WL (Jr.), 20th edition, Washington, D C.; 2016.

American association of cereal chemists. Approved methods of analysis of the american association of cereal chemists (AACC). 11th edition, AACC International, St, Paul MN; 2010.

Pearson D. The chemical analysis of foods. 7thedition, Churchill living stone, Edinburgh London. 1976;9-13.

Nnamchi CI, Okolo BN, Moneke AN. Grain and malt quality properties of some improved Nigerian sorghum varieties. Institute of Brewing and Distilling (IBD). 2014;120:353-359. Available:http.//online.wiley.com/doi/abs10.1002/jib.164

Ogbonna AC, Obi SKC, Okolo BN. Optimization of proteolytic activities in malting Sorghum. Process Biochem. 2004; 109:179-186.

Abiodun AA. The effect of kernel size and texture on the malting properties of sorghum. Afr. J. Food Technol. 2002;7: 78–81. DOI: 10.4314/jfta.v7i3.19236

Archibong EJ, Irondi CR, Ezemba CC, Awah NS, Ozuah CL. Extraction of enzymes from improved Sorghum cultivars (SSV98001, SSV98002 and SK5912) and their applications in the mashing studies of a Nigerian local white sorghum variety. Inter. J. Curr. Res. in Biosci. and Plant Biol. 2015;2:20-28.

Banusha S, Vasantharuba S. Effect of malting on nutritional contents of Finger millet and Mungbean. American-Eurasian J. of Agric. and Enviro. Sci. 2013;13(12): 1642-1646, DOI: 10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2013.13.12.12-285

Gomez MI, Obiana AB, Martin DF, Madzavamuse M, Monyo ES. Manual of laboratory procedures for quality evaluation of Sorghum and pearl millet ICRIST, Pantechem 502, 324, Andhra Pradesh, India Technical Manual. 1997;2. Available:http://oar.icrisat.org.1051/

Iwuagwa YOU, Izuagbe, YS. Evalaution of Nigerian millet, Pennisetum typhoideum as a raw material for beer production. Acta Biotechnologica. 2004;6:299-303. Available:https://doi.org/10.1002/abio.370060325

Eneche HE. Rate of water absorption in maize grain during soaking. Proceedings of the AGM/conference, Nig. Inst. of Food Sci. and Technol. Yola. 2009;41-42.

Gernah DI, Ariahu CC, Ingbian EK. Effects of malting and lactic fermentation of some chemical and functional properties of maize (Zea mays L.). Amer. J. Food Technol. 2011;6:404-412. Avaialble:https://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=ajft.2011.404.412

Malomo O, Alamu EA. Protein modification during germination of Sorghum of bicolor. Res. J. of Pharm. Biol. and Chem. Sci. 2013;4(4):1044-1055.

Hasjim J, Srichuwong S, Scotto MP, Jane JL. Kernel composition, starch structure and enzyme digestibility of opaque-2 maize and quality protein maize. J. Agric. and Food Chem. 2009;57:2049-2055.

Giwa EO, Ikujeniola AV. Application of quality protein maize (QPM) in the formulation of broilers and finisher feed. J. of Sci. Food and Hospitality. 2009;1(1):47-50.

Cozzolino D, Roumeliotis S, Eglinto JK. The role of total lipids and fatty acids profile on the water uptake of barley grain during steeping. Food Chem. 2014;151: 231-235. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.073

Feyzipour NAR, Ghaboos SH. Malt and non- alcoholic malt drink, Iran. 2010;14-16.

Ogu EO, Odibo FJC, Agu RC, Palmer GH. Quality assessment of different sorghum varieties for their brewing potential. J. Inst. of Brew. 2006;112:117-121. Available:https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/j.2050-0416.2006.tb00241.x

Aloh CU, Agu RC. Malting performance of a millet variety Pennisetum maiwa grown at the same site during different growing seasons. Master Brewers Association of the Americans (MBAA), Technical Quarterly. 2010;47(4):167-174.

Pelembe LAM, Dewar J, Taylor JRN. Effect of germination moisture and time on pearl millet quality, with respect to its opaque and lager beer brewing potential. J. Inst. of Brew. 2004;110(4):320-325. Available:https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/j.2050-0416.2004.tb00627.x

Egwim EC, Oloyede OB. Comparison of α- amylase activity in some sprouting Nigeria cereals. Biochem. J. 2006;18(1):15-20. DOI: 10.4314/biokem.v18i1.56386

Evan CE, Monday OA. Prediction of α-amylase yield and malt quality of some sprouting cereals using 2ed order polynomial model. Afr. J. Biochem. 2009; 3:288-292. Available:https://doi.org/10.5897/AJBR.9000190

Akoma O, Onouha SA, Ajiboye MO, Akoma AO, Alawoki AM. The nutritional and sensory quality characteristics of Kunun-zaki produced with the addition of hydrolytic enzymes from malted rice (Oryza sativa). Agric. and Food Sci. J. 2002;50(3):260-272.

Osman EM, Coverdale SM, Onley-watson K, Bell B, Heatly P. The gel filtration chromatographic-profile of proteins and peptides of wort and beer; fermentation and filtering. J. Inst. of Brew. 2003;109(1): 41-50 Availablehttps://doi.org/10.1002/j.2050-0416.2003.tb00592

Cizakova H, Dostalek P, Fiala J, Kolouchova I. Importance of proteins from the view point of stability of the beer foam. Chemicke Listy. 2006;100:478- 485.