Impacts of Acquired Iron Deficiency on Adolescent Health

Main Article Content

Luiz Antonio Del Ciampo
Ieda Regina Lopes Del Ciampo

Abstract

Adolescence is a period of growth and physical and emotional development for which, among other factors, it is necessary to ingest nutrients in sufficient quantity and quality to supply all the demands of the organism. As it is a phase of nutritional vulnerability, adolescents need to have their nutritional status monitored to prevent the lack of micronutrients from interfering with their full growth and development. Iron is a fundamental micronutrient for humans and its lack can lead to several physical and emotional impairments that interfere with good health conditions. This article presents the characteristics of the adolescent's growth and development and the consequences that can be caused by acquired iron deficiency during the second decade of life, with repercussions that can extend throughout adult life. It also proposes measures to prevent or minimize this nutritional problem among adolescents.

Keywords:
Adolescence, adolescent development, iron deficiency, anemia.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ciampo, L. A. D., & Ciampo, I. R. L. D. (2020). Impacts of Acquired Iron Deficiency on Adolescent Health. European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 12(10), 87-93. https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030305
Section
Minireview Article

References

WHO. Nutritional anaemias: tools for effective prevention and control. ISBN 978-92-4-151306-7 – Geneva. 2017;96.

Shaban L, Al-Taiar A, Rahman a, Al-Sabah R, Mojiminiyi O. Anemia and its associated factors among Adolescents in Kuwait. Sci Rep. 2020;10:5857.

Ford ND, Bichha RP, Parajuli KR, Paudyal N, Joshi N, Ralph D. Whitehead Jr RD. Factors associated with anaemia among adolescent boys and girls 10–19 years old in Nepal. Matern Child Nutr. 2020;e13013.

Ibáñez-Alcalde MM, Vázquez-López MA, López-Ruzafa E, Lendínez-Molinos FJ, Bonillo-Perales A, Parrón-Carreño T. Prevalence of iron deficiency and related factors in Spanish adolescents. Eur J Pediatr; 2020. [Online ahead of print].

Sarna A, Porwal A, Ramesh S, Agrawal PK, Acharya R, Johnston R. Characterization of the types of anaemia prevalent among children and adolescents aged 1-19 years in India: a population-based study. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2020;4:515-525.

Andriastuti M, Ilmana G, Nawangwulan SA, Kosasih KA. Prevalence of anemia and iron profile among children and adolescent with low socio-economic status. Int J Ped Adol Med 2020;7(2020):88e92.

United Nations. World Population Prospects; 2019. Available:https://population.un.org/wpp/ Accessed in August 20,2020.

Soliman A, De Santis V, Elalaily R. Nutrition and pubertal development. Indian J Endocr Metab 2014;18:39-47.

Sawyer SM, Azzopardi PS, Wickremarathne D, Patton GC. The age of adolescence. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2018;2:223-228.

Greydanus DE, Patel DR, Pratt HD. Essential adolescent medicine. McGraw Hill, New York; 2005.

World Health Organization. Issues in Adolescent Health and Development: Nutrition in Adolescence – Issues and Challenges for the Health Sector. Geneva: Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2005.

Christian P, Smith ER. Adolescent undernutrition: global burden, physiology, and nutritional risks. Ann Nutr Metab 2018;72:316–328.

Tesfaye M, Yemane T, Adisu W, Asres Y, Gedefaw L. Anemia and iron deficiency among school adolescents: burden, severity, and determinant factors in southwest Ethiopia. Adolesc Health Med Ther. 2015;6:189-196

Powers JM, Buchana GR. Disorders of iron metabolism: new diagnostic and treatment approaches to iron deficiency. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2019;33:393-408.

Wan D, Wu Q, Ni H, Liu G, Ruan Z, Yin Y. Treatments for iron deficiency (ID): prospective organic iron fortification. Curr Pharm Des. 2019;25:325-332.

O'Brien S. Evaluation and management of heavy menstrual bleeding in adolescents: the role of the hematologist. Hematol Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2018;1:390-398.

Cairo RCA, Silva LR, Bustani NC, CMarques CDF. Iron deficiency anemia in adolescents; a literature review. Nutr Hosp. 2014;29:1240-1249.

Alfaris NA, Al-Tamimi JZ, Al-Jobair MO, Al-Shwaiyat NM. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh. Food Nutr Res. 2015;59:26488.

Ruiz-de-Cenzano M, Rochina-Marco A, López-Salazar O, Cervera ML, de la Guardia M. Mineral profile of children's fastfood menu samples. J AOAC Int. 2017;100:1879-1884.

Muller P. Vegan diet in young children. Global Landscape of Nutrition Challenges in Infants and Children - 93rd Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop, Kolkata; 2019.

Larpin C, Wozniak H, Genton L, Serratrice J. Vegetarian and vegan diets and their impact on health. Rev Med Suisse. 2019;15:1849-1853.

Maldonado EG, Gallego-Narbón A, Vaquero MA. Are vegetarian diets nutritionally adequate? A revision of the scientific evidence. Nutr Hosp. 2019;36:950-961.

Cooper MJ, Cockell KA, L’Abbe MR. The iron status of Canadian adolescents and adults: current knowledge and practical implications. Can J Diet Pract Res. 2006;67:130-8.

Dunham L, Kollar LM. Vegetarian eating for children and adolescents. J Pediatr Health Care. 2006;20:27-34.

Curran CP, Marczinski CA. Taurine, caffeine, and energy drinks: Reviewing the risks to the adolescent brain. Birth Defects Res. 2017;109:1640-1648.

de Sanctis V, Soliman N, Soliman AT, Elsedfy H, Di Maio S, El Kholy M et al. Caffeinated energy drink consumption among adolescents and potential health consequences associated with their use: A significant public health hazard. Acta Biomed. 2017;88:222-231.

Musallam KM, Ali T Taher. Iron deficiency beyond erythropoiesis: should we be concerned? Curr Med Res Opin. 2018;34:81-93.

Kontoghiorghes GJ, Kontoghiorghe CN. Iron and chelation in biochemistry and medicine: new approaches to controlling iron metabolism and treating related diseases. Cells. 2020;9:E1456.

Helman SL, Anderson GJ, Frazer DM. Dietary iron absorption during early postnatal life. Biometals 2019;32:385-393.

Hunt JR. Bioavailability of iron, zinc, and other trace minerals from vegetarian diets. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78(suppl):633S–639S.

Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Available:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK545442/table/appJ_tab3/?report=objectonly Accessed august 28, 2020.

Yadav D, Chandra J. Iron deficiency: beyond anemia Indian J Pediatr. 2011;78:65–72.

Sherene E, Nalini G. Adolescent anemia. J Ped Nurs. 2019;7:224-227.

Auerbach M, Adamson JW. How we diagnose and treat iron deficiency anemia. Am J Hematol. 2016;91:31-38.

Camaschella C. Iron deficiency. Blood. 2019;133:30-39.

Cappellini MD, Musallam KM, Taher AT. Iron deficiency anaemia revisited. J Intern Med. 2020;287:153-170.

Hanif N, Answer F. Chronic iron deficiency In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020.

Ashraf T. Soliman, Vincenzo De Sanctis, Mohamed Yassin, Ashraf Adel. Growth and growth hormone – Insulin Like Growth Factor – I (GH-IGF-I) axis in chronic anemias. Acta Biomed. 2017;88:101-111.

Clénin GE. The treatment of iron deficiency without anaemia (in otherwise healthy persons). Swiss Med Wkly. 2017;147:w14434.

WHO. Serum ferritin concentration for the assessment of iron status and iron deficiency in populations. Geneva; 2011.

Spear LP. Adolescent neurodevelopment. J Adolesc Health. 2013;52:S7-S13.

Erhardt J, Zagorac I. Neuroenhancement and vulnerability in adolescence. Eur J Bioeth. 2019;10:149-170.

Lamblim M, Murawski C, Wittle S, Fornito A. Social connectedness, mental health, and the adolescent brain. Neurosc Biobehav Rev. 2017;80:57-68.

Jáuregui-Lobera I. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2014;10:2087-2095.

Agrawal S, Berggren KL, Marks E, Fox JH. Impact of high iron intake on cognition and neurodegeneration in humans and in animal models: a systematic review. Nutr Rev. 2017;75:456-470.

Shaw GA, Dupree JL, Neigh GN. Adolescent maturation of the prefrontal cortex: Role of stress and sex in shaping adult risk for compromisse. Genes Brain Behav. 2019;e12626. [Epub ahead of print].

More S, Shivkumar VB, Gangane N, Shende S. Effects of iron deficiency on cognitive function in school going adolescent females in rural area of central India. Anemia. 2013;2013:1-5.

Prado EL, KG. Nutrition and brain development in early life. Nutr Rev. 2014;72:267-84.

McCann S, Amadó MP, Moore SE. The role of iron in brain development: A systematic review. Nutrients 2020;12:E2001. [Epub ahead of print].

Kim J, Wessling-Resnick M. Iron and mechanisms of emotional behavior. J Nutr Biochem. 2014;25:1101-1107.

Młyniec K, Davies CL, Sánchez IGA, Pytka K, Bogusława Budziszewska B, Nowak G. Essential elements in depression and anxiety. Part I. Pharmacol Rep. 2014;66:534-44.

Uçar HN, Koker SA, Tekin U. Irritability and perceived expressed emotion in adolescents with iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia: a case-control study. J Ped Hematol Oncol. 2020;42:403-409.

Leung W, Ishmeet Singh, Scout McWilliams, Sylvia Stockler, Osman S Ipsiroglu. Iron deficiency and sleep - a scoping review. Sleep Med Rev. 2020;51:101274. [Epub ahead of print].

Ji X, Cui N, Liu J. Neurocognitive function is associated with serum iron status in early adolescents. Biol Res Nurs. 2017;19:269-277.

Bailey RL, West Jr KP, Black RE. The epidemiology of global micronutrient deficiencies. Ann Nutr Metab. 2015;66(Suppl 2):22-33.

Mesías M, Seiquer I, Navarro MP. Iron Nutrition in Adolescence. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013;53:1226-1237.

World Health Organization. Guideline: Intermittent iron and folic acid supplementation in menstruating women. World Health Organization; 2011. Available:whqlibdoc.who.int/ publications/2011/9789241502023_eng.pdf

Nguyen M, Tadi P. Iron Supplementation. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020.