Main Article Content
Cookies were made from wheat and blanched coconut flour blends in ratios 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, 75:25, 70:30, 60:40 and 55:45 respectively with 100% wheat as control. Proximate, sensory and microbial analysis of the cookies were assessed using standard methods and established level of significance difference (p<0.5). Results showed that moisture, crude fibre, fat and calorific value ranged between 5.72%-7.80%, 5.77%-7.80%, 9.81-17.21% and 197.08-312.85 Kcal/100g respectively showing increased parameters with increased substitution levels. Carbohydrate and protein ranged from 49.27%-78.21% and 12.69%-15.66% respectively. Mean sensory score for colour, crunchiness and flavor ranged between 7.30-8.50, 7.01-8.02 and 6.30-8.50 respectively while sample 70:30 was the most acceptable in most of the parameters assessed. Total viable count ranged from 1.4x104 cfu/g- 2.5x104 cfu/g between 2nd -5th week of storage while most samples had no fungi growth for the five weeks except for sample 60:40 and 55:45 with growth ranging from 4.0-7.1x104 Cfu/g. Safe and nutritious cookies can be made from wheat-blanched coconut flour.
Olaoye OA, Onilude AA, Oladoy CO. Breadfruit flour in biscuit making: Effects on product quality. Afri. J. Food Sci. 2007; 10:20-23.
Abayomi HT, Oresanya TO, Opeifa AO, Rasheed TR. Quality evaluation of cookies produced from blend of sweet potatoes and fermented soybeans flour. Inter. J. Biol. Agric. Food Biotech. Eng. 2013;7:350-355.
Adebayo-Oyetoro AO, Ogundipe OO, Azoro CG, Adeyeye SAO. Production and evaluation of ginger spiced cookies from wheat –plantain composite flour. The Pacific J. Sci. Technol. 2016;17(1):280-287.
Dhankhar P. Study on development of coconut based gluten-free cookies. Inter. J. Engr. Sci. Invention. 2013;2(12):10-19.
Feldman M, Kislev ME. Domestication of emmer wheat and evolution of free-threshing tetraploid wheat. Israel J. Plant Sci. 2008;55(3-4):207–221.
Shewry P, Hey S. The contribution of wheat to human diet and health. Food and Energy Security. 2015;4(3):178-202. DOI: 10.1002/fes3.63.
Nalam VJ, Vales Ml, Watson CJW, Kianran SF, Ricra-Lizarazu O. Map based analysis of genes affecting the brittle rachis character in tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L) Theor. Appli Gen., 2006; 112:373-381.
Kumar P, Yadava RK, Gollen B, Kumar S, Vermq RK, Yadav S. Nutritional contents and medicinal properties of wheat: A review. Life Sci. Med. Res. 2011;22:1-10.
DebMandal M, Mandal S. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L: Arecaceae) in health promotion and diseases prevention. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Med. 2011;4(3):241-247.
Uwubanmwen IO, Nwawe CN, Okere RA, Dada M, Eseigbe E. Harnessing the potentials of the coconut palm in the Nigeria economy. World J. Agric. Sci. 2011;7(6):684-691.
Lalitha R. Coconut flour. A low carbohydrate gluten flour: A review. Inter. J. Ayurvedic and Herbal Med. 2014;4(1): 1426-1436.
Ihekoronye AI. Quantitative gas liquid chromatography of amino acid in enzymic hydrolysates of food proteins. J. Sci. Food Agric. 1999;56:1004-1012.
AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC. Gaithersburg, 18. MD, USA. Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA; 2005.
Nwanekezi EC, Ohaji NC, Afam-Anene OC. Nutritional and organoleptic quality of infant food formulation from natural and solid state fermented tubers (cassava, sprouted and unsprouted yam)- soybean flour blend. Nig. Food. J. 2001; 19:55-62.
Sosulski FW, Garatt MO, Slinkard AE. Functional properties of ten legumes flours. Inter. J. Food Sci. Technol. 1976;6: 66-69.
Iwe MO. Handbook of sensory methods and analysis. PROJOINT Communications Services Limited, Enugu, Nigeria. 2002;70-72.
Jideani VA, Jideani IA. Laboratory manual of food bacteriology. Kaduna- Nigeria: Amana Printing Publishing and Advertising Limited; 2006.
SON. Nigerian Industrial Standard for biscuits. ICS: 664.68. Standard Organisation of Nigeria, 2007;1-8.
Sidorova LN, Baikov VG, Bessonov V, Skobel’skaia ZG. Efect of dietary fibers on preservation of lipid componte in flour confectionery. Voprosy Pitaniia. 2007; 76(3):78-81
Agu HO, Okoli NA. Physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological assessments of wheat-based biscuits improved with beniseed and unripe plantain. Food Sci. Nutr. 2014;2(5):464-469.
Obike A. Proximate and trace metal analysis of coconut (Cocos nucifera) collected form Southeastern, Nigeria. ABSU J. Environ, Sci Technol. 2013;3:357-361.
Mollakhalili N, Mirmoghtadaie L, Shedaei Z, Mortazavian AM. Wheat bread:Potential approach to fortify its lysine content. Current Nutr. Food Sci. 2019;15(7). DOI: 10.2174/157340131566619022812-5241
Sujiritha N, Mahendran T. Production, quality assessment and shelf life evaluation of protein-rich biscuits made from blends of wheat and defatted coconut. Proceeding of 2nd International Conference on Agriculture and Forestry, 2015;1:19-27. DOI: 10.1750/icoaf2015-1103
Giami SY, Masisi AT, Ekiyor G. Comparison of bread making properties of composite Hour from Kernel of roasted and boiled African fruit, (Treculia africana Decne) seeds J. Raw Mat. Res. 2004;1:16-25.
Niba LL, Bokonga MM, Jackson EL, Schlimme DS, Li BW. Physicochemical properties and starch granular characteristics of flour from various Manihot esculenta (cassava) genotype. J. Food Sci. 2002;67(5):1701-1701.
Butt MS, Batool R. Nutritional and functional properties of some promising legumes proteins isolates. Pakistan J. Nutr. 2010;9(4):373-379.
Ubbor SC, Akobundu ENT. Quality characteristics of cookies from composite flour of watermelon seeds, cassava and wheat. Pakistan J. Nutr. 2009;8:1097-1102.
Kinsella JE, Melachouris N. Functional properties of protein in foods A survey. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 1976;7: 219-280.
Chandra S, Singh S, Kumari D. Evaluation of functional properties of composite flours and sensorial attributes of composite flour biscuits. J. Food sci. and Technol. 2015; 52(6):3681-3688.
Giwa O, Babalola RO, Atanlogun K. Microbial, physical and sensory attributes of cookies produced from wheat flour fortified with Termitomyces robustus and spiced with curry leaves (Xylopia aethiopica). Inter. J. Appl. Biol. Pharm. Technol. 2012;3(2):301-307.
Yusuf PA, Netala J, Opega JL.. Chemical, sensory and microbial properties of cookies produced from maize, African yam bean and plantain composite flour. Indian J. Nutr. 2016; 3(1):122.