Protein Quality Evaluation of Raw and Processed Seeds of Cadaba farinosa Forssk and Growth Performance of Albino Rats Fed with the Products

Main Article Content

I. M. Inuwa
M. K. Atiku
J. A. Mashi


Cadaba farinosa Forssk is a wild shrub whose seeds are eaten as a famine food in North Eastern Nigeria when there is poor harvest of conventional crops. This research was carried out in order to evaluate the protein quality of the seeds and to carry out the growth performance of experimental animals fed on seeds processed by different methods. The processed methods include cooking, cooking with the addition of potash, fermentation and sprouting. PTH-Amino acid analyzer was used to determine the amino acid profile and milk reference protein was used for scoring the essential amino acids. The products were fed to weaning albino rats for 28 days growth performance studies. The determination of nitrogen content of the feed, faeces, urine and the carcass of the animals were carried out by Kjeldahl method. Protein quality evaluation of the processed products was carried out by calculating the Biological Value (BV), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), Net Protein Utilization (NPU) and The Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acids Score (PDCAAS). Results of Amino acid analysis showed that the sample cooked with addition of potash contain higher levels of amino acids. Glutamic acid was found to the most abundant amino acid with a value of 11.96 g/ 100 g and 13.96 g/ 100 g in the sprouted and raw seeds respectively. Chemical score of amino acids revealed higher score for protein of seeds cooked with addition of potash except tryptophan which was 219.29% for seeds cooked without potash. The highest PDCAAS (49.84%) was found in the diet cooked with potash, however, it showed lower biological value (95%) and protein efficiency ratio (0.32). The group fed with sprouted diet showed significant increase (P=.05) in body weight (52.13%). Though cooking with addition of potash showed higher distribution of amino acids, but sprouting and fermentation were more promising in terms of promoting the growth of the experimental animals.

Cadaba farinosa, processed seeds, protein quality, growth performance.

Article Details

How to Cite
Inuwa, I. M., Atiku, M. K., & Mashi, J. A. (2020). Protein Quality Evaluation of Raw and Processed Seeds of Cadaba farinosa Forssk and Growth Performance of Albino Rats Fed with the Products. European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 12(10), 103-111.
Original Research Article


Action Against Hunger Nigeria. People Helped in 2017. Available:

Food and Agriculture Organization. Post-Harvest Losses. FAO Corporate Document Repository, Rome; 2017.

World Food Programme. WFP Nigeria Emergency; 2018

Center for Strategic and International Studies. Conflict, Environmental Degradation and Food Security in North East Nigeria. 2020.

Support The Guardian. Wild Foods: A Food Security Strategy that’s Hard to Swallow?; 2013. Available:

Bharucha Z, Pretty JN. The roles and values of wild foods in agricultural systems. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 2010; 365(1554):2913-26.

Blench R. Hausa Names of Plants and Trees (2nd Ed.). 2007. Available:

Fern K, Morris R. Useful Tropical Plants database. Index of Botanical Names; 2014. admin@thefern.infor.

Atiku MK, Inuwa IM. Effect of processing method on the nutrients and antinutrients contents of Cadaba farinosa Forssk seeds. Nigeria Food Journal. 2017;35(2):1-8.

Ubesie AC, Ibeziakor NS. High burden of protein-energy malnutrition in Nigeria: beyond the healthcare setting. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2002;2(1):66-69.

Orazulike RE. Human Nutrition in the Tropics; A Case Focused Approach, 1st ed. Alpha Graphics Publications, Bauchi, Nigeria. 2003;22-26.

Food and Agriculture organization. Dietary protein quality evaluation in human nutrition. Report of an FAO Expert Consultation, Rome. 2013.

Stage 5-Proposal Global Document. Amino Acid Analysis. 2002. Available:

Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. Energy and protein requirements: Reports of Joint FAO/WHO ad-hoc Committee, Rome; 1973.

Ihekoronye AI, Ngoddy PO. Integrated Food Science and Technology for the Tropics, 1st ed., London: Macmillan Education Limited. 1985; 32-35.

Alagbaoso SO, Nwosu JN, Njoku, NE, Njoku M, Okafor DC, Eluchie CN. Growth performance and haematology of albino rats fed with varying inclusions of autoclaved Canavalia plagiosperma piper seed meal based diet. American Journal of Food Nutrtion. 2015;5(2):35-48.

Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Official Methods of Analysis, Washington D.C., USA; 2002.

Pellet NN, Young VR. Nutritional Evaluation of Proteins in Foods. Tokyo, United Nations University Press. 1980; 100-120.

Gilani GS, Sepehr E. Protein digestibility and quality in products containing antinutritional factors are adversely affected by old age in rats. The Journal of Nutrition.b. 2003;133(1):220-225.

Ogunbusola EM, Fagbemi TN, Osundahunsi OF. Amino acid composition and protein quality of white melon (Cucumeropsis mannii) flour. Nigerian Food Journal. 2010;28(1):7-15.

Frota KMG, Lopes LAR, Silva ICV, Areas JAG. Nutritional quality of of the protein of Vigna unguiculata L. walp and its protein isolate. Revista Ciencia Agronomica. 2017; 5(4):69-74.

Adu OB, Ogundeko TO, Ogunrinola OO, Saibu GM, Elema BO. The effect of thermal processing on protein quality and free amino acid profile of Terminalia catappa seed. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2015; 52(7):4637-4631.

Nwosu JN, Ubbaonu CN, Banigo EOI, Uzomah A. The effects of processing on the amino acid profile of oze (Bosqueia anagolensis) seed flour. Life Science Journal. 2008;5(4):69-74.

Kayode RMO, Olakulehin FT, Adedeji BS, Ahmed O, Aliyu TH, Badmos AHA. Evaluation of amino acid and fatty acid profiles of commercially cultivated oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju) grown on gmelina wood waste. Nigerian Food Journal. 2015;33(1): 18-21.

Nkama I, Malleshi NG. Production and nutritional quality of traditional Nigerian masa from mixtures of rice, pearl millet, cowpea and groundnut. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 1998;19(4):45-49.

Juvera GC, Ortiz FAV, Haro MIG. Amino acid composition, score and in vitro protein digestibility of foods commonly consumed in Northwest Mexico. Nutr Hosp. 2013; 28(2):365-371.

Evbu I, Precious O, Iriagbonse E. Haematological indices and blood lipid profile of rats administered trona; A natural food additive. The Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2016; 34(1-2):15-22.

Zailani HA, Umaru HA, Samuel G. Effects of instant noodles formulated diet on weanling albino rats. Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Science. 2016; 4(7):161-168.

Vadivel V, Pugalenthi M. Biological value and protein quality of raw and processed seeds of Mucuna pruriens Var. Utilis. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2007; 19(7):61-68.

Ibironke S, Fashakin JB, Badmus AO. Nutritional evaluation of complementary food developed from plant and anumal protein sources. Nutrition and Food Science. 2012; 42(2):111-120.

Sawar G. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method overestimates quality of proteins containing antinutritional factors of poorly digestible proteins supplemented with limiting amino acids in rats. The Journal of Nutrition. 1997; 127(5):758-764.

Nosworthy MG, Neufeld J, Frohlich P, Young G, Malcolmson L, House JD. Determination of protein quality of cooked Canadian pulses. Food Nutri. 2008; 5(4): 896-903.