Nutrient Composition and Sensory Properties of Wheat Bread Substituted with Defatted and Undefatted Cashew Kernel (Anacardium occidentale Linn.) Flours

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N. J. T. Emelike
L. I. Barber
M. D. Deebom


This study was undertaken to investigate the nutrient composition and sensory properties of wheat flour bread substituted with defatted and undefatted cashew kernel flours. Cashew kernel was processed into flour and thereafter divided into two portions. One portion was left undefatted while the other portion was defatted using a hydraulic press. Bread was prepared from the blends of wheat and defatted/undefatted cashew kernel flours using 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, of wheat flour to defatted cashew kernel flour (DCF) and wheat flour to undefatted cashew kernel flour (UCF), and 100% wheat flour as control. Bread samples were subjected to sensory evaluation within 30 minutes of production. Proximate analysis and amino acid profile of the bread samples were carried out using standard methods. Result of the proximate analysis of the bread samples revealed a significant (p<0.05) increase in ash (1.05-2.19%), protein (8.46-34.22%) and crude fibre (1.85-6.20%) with a corresponding decrease in moisture (11.05-21.28%) and carbohydrate contents (57.21-36.37%) as substitution of wheat flour with DCF and UCF increased. Amino acid analysis revealed that wheat/DCF composite breads were significantly (p<0.05) higher in lysine (7.00 g/100 g), phenyl alanine (3.99 g/100 g), tryptophan (0.89 g/100 g), valine (4.33 g/100 g) and methionine (1.47g/100 g) than the wheat/UCF composite bread. Similarly, wheat/DCF composite breads were significantly (p<0.05) higher in proline (3.45 g/100 g), arginine (5.68 g/100 g), tyrosine (3.78 g/100 g), alanine (4.25 g/100 g), glutamic acid (11.81 g/100 g), glycine (3.06 g/100 g), serine (4.00 g/100 g) and aspartic acid (7.32 g/100 g) indicating higher protein quality in the wheat/DCF composite breads than in wheat/UCF composite breads. Bread samples substituted with 10% UCF and 20% DCF compared favourably with the control wheat flour bread for taste, crust, colour and general acceptability. Therefore, it is recommended to use a level of substitution of 10% UCF and 20% DCF for the production of bread of adequate nutritional and sensorial qualities.

Bread, defatted, undefatted, cashew kernel, amino acid, nutrient

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How to Cite
Emelike, N. J. T., Barber, L. I., & Deebom, M. D. (2020). Nutrient Composition and Sensory Properties of Wheat Bread Substituted with Defatted and Undefatted Cashew Kernel (Anacardium occidentale Linn.) Flours. European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 12(12), 28-39.
Original Research Article


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