European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>European Journal of Nutrition and Food Safety (ISSN: 2347-5641)</strong> publishes 1. Research papers; 2. Review papers; 3. Case studies; 4. Short communications as well as 5. (extended) abstracts of Grey literature government reports in all areas of nutrition and food safety. EJNFS considers the following areas out of scope: food science, food technology, food composition, food analysis, food palatability, animal nutrition. EJNFS is a quality controlled, double blind peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal in the area of human nutrition and food safety and toxicology.</p> en-US (European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety) (European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety) Fri, 28 Aug 2020 10:51:21 +0000 OJS 60 Comparative Study and Analysis of Proximate Compositions and Some Mineral Contents in Natural and Artificial Honey from Ogun State, Nigeria <p>Use of honey is gaining ground worldwide as people are getting aware of the high nutritional values and beneficial health promoting effects of honey. This study was carried out in order to compare the proximate compositions and the mineral contents available in both natural honey and artificial honey obtained from some selected towns in Ijebu and Remo zones of Ogun State, Nigeria. The parameters were analyzed using standard methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC, 2005). From the results obtained, the proximate compositions (%) of the natural honey were - moisture content (17.85±0.74), carbohydrate (78.56±2.92), protein (2.43±0.23), fat (0.68±0.04), crude fiber (0.19±0.02), ash (0.29±0.05) while that of the artificial honey were moisture content (21.65±0.94), carbohydrate (76.25±2.67), protein (1.53±0.12), fat (0.30±0.07), crude fiber (0.12±0.01), ash (0.15±0.09). The natural honey compositions were generally better than those of the artificial honey compositions. This trend was also observed for the mineral contents – Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and other parameters such as pH, titratable acidity, electrical conductivity and total acidity analyzed.</p> Samuel Adeolu Olugbemi, Oluwasegun Amos Amoniyan, Omolola Myriam Balogun ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 28 Aug 2020 10:52:23 +0000 Cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa) Leaf Powder Modulates Metabolism of Maize Weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Maize grains are severely damaged by maize weevil <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em>. Exploiting botanicals against synthetic insecticides as a control strategy has gained prominence in recent decades. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of cypress (<em>Cupressus macrocarpa</em>) to exert some control on <em>S</em>. <em>zeamais</em>.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Maize and <em>S</em>. <em>zeamais</em> were collected from Muea market in Buea, Cameroon. The maize was heat sterilized and all debris removed. <em>Sitophilus zeamais</em> was reared for three generations before use. Ten <em>S</em>. <em>zeamais</em> were stored with 100 g of maize and 0 g, 2 g, 5 g, and 10 g of shade-dried cypress leaf powder was added in three replicates. Data was collected weekly for 5 weeks and analysis of variance was done. The study was conducted in a laboratory of the Teaching and Research farm in the University of Buea, Cameroon, in a randomized complete design.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Mortality of <em>S</em>. <em>zeamais</em> was significantly affected (F = 126.67, df = 3, 8, <em>p</em> &lt; .001) by different doses of cypress leaf powder. The mean mortality was 0%, 40.47%, 50.6% and 70.67% for control, 2 g, 5 g and 10 g of cypress leaf powder, respectively. Grain damaged (%) and holed grain were also influenced by cypress leaf powder. The highest grain damaged and holed grain were from the control treatment. A strong positive correlation (r = 0.814, <em>p</em> &lt; .001) was observed between grain damaged and holed grain while a strong negative correlation was observed between mortality and holed grain (r = -0.926, <em>p </em>&lt; .001), and grain damaged (r = -0.913, <em>p</em> &lt; .001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is revealed that cypress leaf powder can alter some metabolic activities of <em>S</em>. <em>zeamais</em>, thus it can play a role in an integrated pest management program (IPM) of <em>S</em>. <em>zeamais</em> in maize storage.</p> Tange Denis Achiri, Eta Carine Agbor, Ateh Marie Anye, Assan N. Abdulai, Divine Nsobinenyui, Mamudou Jallow ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Development and Quality Evaluation of Ready to Serve (RTS) Beverage from Banana Pseudo Stem <p>Vegetable beverage was part of a balanced diet that make sure the vigor and healthy body. Vegetable juices were rich in fiber content which was quickly inducing the feeling of satiety and also improve digestion. The objective of this study was to formulate and prepare ready to serve (RTS) banana pseudo stem beverage. Two banana varieties were selected viz., ottu vazhai (syn Mupaddai) (V<sub>1</sub>), vayal vazhai (V<sub>2</sub>). Banana pseudo stem beverage was developed from banana tender core, natural flavorings (lemon, mint)extracts, 2% citric acid as a anti-browning agent, KMS (70ppm) as preservative and CMC (0.1%) as a stabilizer. The proximate composition, physico- chemical analysis, sensory evaluation and microbial study of the pseudo stem beverage was evaluated using standard procedures. The beverages were evaluated at 15 days interval period. During storage conditions the quality of juice with minimum significant changes in chemical properties was observed with the addition of KMS. Based on the sensory evaluation, lemon juice flavored pseudo stem beverage was highly accepted by consumer than mint flavored beverage. Storage study for the pseudo stem beverage was also carried out and significant difference was noticed in beverage. Compare to vayal vazhai (V<sub>2</sub>), the yield of juice (87.0%) content was higher in ottu vazhai (syn Mupaddai) (V<sub>1</sub>).The maximum desirable results were obtained from (V<sub>1</sub>) lemon flavored beverage stored at refrigeration condition. The results were showed that pH (3.28 to 4.75), TSS (12 to 14.0° brix), Acidity (0.35 to 0.26) and vitamin C (0.77 to 0.59). From the storage studies, the lemon flavored pseudo stem beverage (Mupaddai variety V<sub>1</sub>) was found to be the best in nutrient retention and sensory evaluation than mint flavour beverage and it was accepted up to 45 days.</p> K. Buvaneshwari, G. Sashidevi, G. Hemalatha, R. Arunkumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 03 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Fungal and Aflatoxin Contamination of Smoke Dried Catfish and African Bush Mango Seeds (Ogbono) Sold in Markets in Selected Processing Zones in Benue State, Nigeria <p>The aim of this research was to evaluate the fungal and aflatoxin content of smoke dried catfish and African bush mango seeds obtained from selected processing zones in Benue State, Nigeria. Thirty two smoke dried catfish samples and forty eight African bush mango seed samples were collected from different markets in Makurdi, Katsina-Ala, Ogbadibo, Kwande and Vandeikya. These were analyzed for fungal load, fungi species and aflatoxin contamination using standard microbiological methods and ELISA technique for aflatoxin determination. The results revealed the presence of <em>Aspergillus flavus</em>, <em>Aspergillus niger, Clasdosporium spp, Penicillium spp, Mucorspp </em>and <em>Fusarium spp</em> isolated from both smoke dried catfish and African bush mango seeds; also <em>Rhizopus spp</em> and <em>Saccharomyces spp</em> from bush mango seeds. Fungal count of smoke dried catfish from Makurdi ranged from 3.28 to 4.61 logCFU/ml while that of Katsina-Ala ranged from 4.26 to 4.98 log CFU/ml. The fungal count of African bush mango seeds ranged from 3.62 to 3.94 log CFU/ml (Kwande), 3.61 to 4.93 log CFU/ml (Makurdi), 3.61 to 4.85 log CFU/ml (Ogbadibo) and 4.08 to 4.89 logCFU/ml (Vandeikya). The aflatoxin concentration in the smoke dried catfish samples ranged from 4.10 to 15.00 ppb for samples from Makurdi and 2.05 to 7.45 ppb for samples from Katsina-Ala, while that of African bush mango seeds ranged from 1.75 to 3.25 ppb (Kwande), 0.00 to 1.50 ppb (Makurdi), 1.08 to 8.10 ppb (Ogbadibo) and 0.00 to 1.65 ppb (Vandeikya). Both the smoke dried catfish and African bush mango seeds had aflatoxin levels below the maximum acceptable limit of 20ppb by National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control which can be considered safe, but hygienic measures must be maintained in handling such foods and better drying and preservation techniques applied in order to lower the incidence of fungi growth and aflatoxin contamination.</p> Tersoo-Abiem, Evelyn Mnguchivir, Idoko, Blessing Onyejeche, Gwadza, Patience Msendoo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 03 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Sensory Evaluation of Ugali Prepared from Blends of Cereal Flours and High Quality Cassava Flour in Mwanza Region, Tanzania <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Ugali is an important meal in many parts of Eastern and Southern Africa and is typically prepared from a single staple food like maize, cassava, millet and sorghum or their composite. The objective of this study was to understand the perception of sensory parameters when varying ratios of maize (refined and unrefined) and sorghum flour when substituted with high quality cassava flour (HQCF) 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% in the preparation of ugali.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The samples of ugali prepared were randomly subjected to panelists to evaluate sensory attributes preferred most by panelists. Thirty semi trained panelists who were females and males aged above 18 years participated and gave information on sensory signals. The panelists evaluated the samples independently and recorded the rating of the samples in the sensory evaluation questionnaire. The sensory parameters of ugali assessed were color, cookerbility, taste, texture, aroma and general acceptability using a five point hedonic scale.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Ugali made from the blends of unrefined maize flour (Dona) and HQCF as well as sorghum flour and HQCF at the ratio of 20:80 and 20:80 respectively were highly acceptable by panelists (mean score &lt; 3). Ugali made from refined maize flour (Sembe) blended with HQCF at ratio of 80:20 was also preferred by panelists (mean score &lt; 3) as compared to ugali made from other ratios. The highly acceptability (mean score &lt; 3) of the ugali was influenced by color, cookerbility, taste, texture, aroma. At these flour ratios the blends of flours resulted in increment of protein, fats and slightly decrease in starch content.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Blending HQCF and cereals (sorghum and maize) flours improved the organoleptic and nutritional properties of ugali.</p> E. M. Kitunda, M. L. Kasankala, C. M. Cyprian, E. E. Towo, D. G. Mushumbusi, P. W. Meghji ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 09 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical and Cytotoxic Screening of Selected Medicinal Plants (Byrsocarpus coccineus, Terminalia avicennioides and Anogeissus leiocarpus) Using Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina) Lethality Assay <p>Three medicinal plants, were investigated based on their ethno-medicinal uses. <em>Byrsocarpus </em>coccineus (<em>B.C</em>)<em>, Terminalia avicennioides </em>(<em>T.A</em>) and <em>Anogeissus leiocarpus</em> (<em>A.L</em>) are used traditionally in the treatment of various ailments in Nigeria. Proximate and mineral analyses were carried out on the leaf, stem and root of the three plants. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant activities of the aqueous, ethanol and pet ether (leaf, stem and root) extracts, of the three plants were determined and the extracts were subjected to cytotoxic screening using the in vivo brine shrimp lethality tests. The proximate and mineral analyses show appreciable dietary nutrients in the three plants. Phytochemical analyses of <em>B.C</em>,<em> T.A</em> and <em>A.L </em>(leaf, stem and root) extracts, showed the presence of bioactive compounds, such as alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroid and phenol. Antioxidant activities (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation and reducing power), increase in all the plant extracts in a dose dependent manner. The results of brine shrimp lethality tests indicate that plant extracts of <em>B.C</em>,<em> T.A</em> and <em>A.L </em>except <em>A.L </em>stem aqueous extract (130.72 µg/ml), <em>T.A </em>leaf aqueous (130.15 µg/ml) and root aqueous extracts were moderately cytotoxic, while the others were highly cytotoxic.<em> B. coccineus </em>leaf ethanol extract (17.31 µg/ml) was the most cytotoxic. The result shows that <em>B. coccineus </em>leaf ethanol extract has significant antioxidant activity and is cytotoxic to brine shrimp even at low concentration giving credence to its ethno-medicinal uses.</p> C. E. Ukwade, O. A. T. Ebuehi, R. A. Adisa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 16 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Processing Methods on the Proximate and Mineral Compositions in Groundnuts for Consumption <p>The proximate and some essential mineral compositions of groundnuts processed by different methods for consumption were determined. The parameters were analyzed using standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC, 2005) and Greenfield and Southgate, 2003. From the results obtained, it was found that the proximate compositions (%) of the groundnuts boiled with the pods were – moisture content (18.77 &nbsp;0.02), crude protein (22.93 &nbsp;0.06), crude fat (38.94 &nbsp;0.03), crude fiber (1.75 &nbsp;0.02), ash (3.90 &nbsp;0.04) and carbohydrate (13.73 &nbsp;0.04). Groundnuts roasted with the pods had– moisture content (2.91 &nbsp;0.04), crude protein (29.73 0.08), crude fat (50.11 &nbsp;0.04), crude fiber (4.36 &nbsp;0.03), ash (5.14 &nbsp;0.03) and carbohydrate (7.76 &nbsp;0.05) while those of the groundnuts roasted without pods were – moisture content (2.88 &nbsp;0.04), crude protein (26.64 &nbsp;0.06), crude fat ss(49.04 &nbsp;0.02), crude fiber (4.26 &nbsp;0.03), ash (4.73 &nbsp;0.02) and the carbohydrate (11.50 &nbsp;0.04). The mineral compositions (in (mg/kg) of the groundnut sample boiled with pods were Na (0.23), K (0.67), Ca (0.11), P (0.38), Mg (0.16) and Fe (41.5). Groundnut samples roasted with the pods were Na (0.38), K (0.98), Ca (0.17), P (0.47), Mg (0.27) and Fe (61.2), while the mineral compositions (in (mg/kg) of the groundnut samples roasted without the pods were Na (0.27), K (0.82), Ca (0.16), P (0.42), Mg (0.25) and Fe (53.6). This study revealed that the proximate and the mineral contents in the roasted samples were generally higher than those of the boiled sample except for the moisture and the carbohydrate contents.</p> Oluwasegun Amos Amoniyan, Samuel Adeolu Olugbemi, Omolola Myriam Balogun, Basirat Omotayo Salako ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 17 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of Nutrient Content, in vitro Digestibilities, Anti-Nutrients, Β-Carotene and Total Antioxidant Activity of Sesame (Sesamum indicum) <p>Sesame (<em>Sesamum indicum</em>) is one of the valuable vegetarian sources of dietary protein with good quality amino acids that are very essential for growth. It possesses phytonutrients such as omega-6 fatty acids, flavonoids, antioxidants, and certain vitamins with potential anti-cancerous as well as health-promoting properties. Sesame seeds were analyzed for various nutritional parameters. The amount of moisture, protein, fat, ash, and fibre were found to be 4.17, 21.18, 46.64, 4.62, and 3.06 percent, respectively whereas calcium, iron, and zinc were 1294, 15.37, and 7.74 mg/100g, respectively.&nbsp; <em>In vitro</em> protein digestibility was estimated to be 79.50% whereas phytic acid was 247.37 mg/100g, and polyphenols 189.30 mg/100g.The values for β<em>-</em>Carotene and total antioxidant activity (TAA) was found to be 12.75 μg/100g and 0.94 mg/g, respectively. Looking at the good nutritional profile of sesame, it can be utilized in various supplementary food products to enhance the product quality by improving its taste and increasing its energy, protein, calcium, and mineral content. Incorporation of sesame seeds into daily food items can make them both micro and macro nutrient-dense, which can be used for feeding people from all the age-groups. And also, the information provided may help plant breeders to develop improved varieties of sesame in the future.</p> Tanvi Bansal, Asha Kawatra ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 17 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge, Practice and Problems of Exclusive Breastfeeding among Mothers Attending the Outpatient Clinic of a Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative Designated Hospital in Port Harcourt, Nigeria <p><strong>Background: </strong>Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) provides all an infant requires for optimal growth and development in the first six months of life. Although most babies are breastfed in Nigeria, only 23% are exclusively breastfed. This study was carried out to ascertain the knowledge, practice and problems associated with EBF amongst mothers attending the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital (RSUTH).</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A 5-month cross sectional study was carried out in the Paediatric outpatient clinic (POPC) of RSUTH. A total of 343 mothers were randomly recruited and a pre-tested structured questionnaire administered after obtaining informed consent.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Ninety eight percent of the mothers had heard of EBF, 88% knew of its content and 80.2% knew that the duration of EBF was for 6 months. Only 46.4% exclusively breastfed their babies for 6 months and about 66% of participants knew of its benefits to both mother and child. Breastfeeding was commenced within 1 hour of delivery by 40.8% of mothers and pre-lacteal feeds given by 34.1% of mothers. Tertiary education, attending antenatal clinic and hospital delivery were significantly associated with good knowledge of EBF, while hospital delivery and multiparous women with at least 4 pregnancies were significantly associated with good EBF practice. Common challenges to EBF were perception that breast milk was insufficient for the babies (17.5%) and the need for mothers to return to work (9.3%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Knowledge of EBF was high among mothers attending the POPC in RSUTH but the EBF rate was suboptimal. Increased health education on the importance of EBF, the provision of creches at work places and the extension of maternity leave is advocated.</p> T. G. Okari, J. E. Aitafo, U. Onubogu, B. A. West ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical Characterization of Herbal Tea from Oranges Peels (Citrus sinensis var Blonde) Marketed in Abidjan <p>Sweet orange (<em>Citrus sinensis</em> L.) is the most widely consumed citrus fruit in Côte d'Ivoire. They are rich in bioactive compound. Also, their peels or flavedo rejected during consumption have a high content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and essential oils. However, in Côte D'Ivoire, studies are limited to the characterization of orange peel (<em>Citrus sinensis)</em>. Our study therefore aims to determine the phytochemical composition of herbal teas obtained from the orange peel (<em>Citrus sinensis</em>) in order to contribute to their valorisation as herbal teas. The <em>Citrus sinensis</em> zests were collected in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) in Adjamé community. An herbal tea was produced and subjected to phytochemical and physicochemical tests. The results showed that the moisture content of the different batches varies from 14.13±0.41 to 7.2%±0.2; the oven-dried batches showed the lowest value. In addition, the ash content remains statistically different between batches. The herbal teas studied had an average ash content of 6.53%.&nbsp; The pH values negatively correlated to acidity range from 3.92±0.2 to 3.21±0.15. Also, these herbal teas contain several secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and saponins. This study shows that herbal teas made from orange peel contain several phytochemicals including antioxidants. In addition, their high ash content suggests a high mineral content. Therefore, orange peels can be used in the form of herbal teas as a dietary supplement.</p> Koffi Kouame Assamoa, Assa Rebecca Rachel Epse Yao, Fofie N’Guessan Bra Yvette ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 19 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 BRRI dhan80: High Yielding Jasmine Type Aromatic Rice Variety for Wet Season of Bangladesh <p>A newly released jasmine type, aromatic, high yielding, long slender grain and exportable rice variety <em>viz</em>., BRRI dhan80, suitable for rain-fed low land ecosystem of Bangladesh is advancement over existing premium quality rice varieties. The variety has reasonably conceded the Proposed Variety Trial (PVT) conducted at the farmer’s field. As a result National Seed Board (NSB) of Bangladesh has sanctioned this variety for its commercial cultivation in the wet season (Transplanted Aman season) in 2017. It has modern plant type with 120 cm plant height and matures by 130-135 days. The salient feature of this variety is like jasmine as having good quality grain, aroma, ten days earlier maturing than check variety. The proposed variety exposed around 1.0 t/ha higher yield than check variety namely BRRI dhan37. Isolating characters of this variety are deep blackish green leaf, erect to semi erect flag leaf, long slender aromatic grain with colored tip and presence of anthocyanin pigmentation/coloration on stem nodes. Its grain yield producing range is 4.5-5.0 t/ha grain yield. It has long and erect flag leaf with deep green color, brownish root and strong stem. Thousand grain weight of the variety is 26.2 gm and it has colored grain tip and pointed awn. This variety has 23.6% amylose content and 8.5% protein content. The jasmine type, exportable, aromatic rice variety (BRRI dhan80) is a superb variety for cultivating in the wet season and therefore, farmers can be economically more benefited if they will prefer BRRI dhan80 for its cultivation at large scale.</p> Md. Abdul Kader, Tamal Lata Aditya, Ratna Rani Majumder, Tapas Kumer Hore, Md. Ehsanul Haq ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 22 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Garden Cress Seeds a Promising Alternative for the Development of Nutrient Dense Muffins <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Garden cress seeds are highly nutritious super grain, that possess galactogogue, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, hypocholesterolemic, hepatoprotective activities and also suitable for celiac patients as they do not contain gluten. This study was conducted to develop and evaluate nutrient rich muffins supplemented with GCS, so as to utilize their full potential.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Control muffins were developed using refined flour as a basic ingredients which was replaced with 10, 20 and 30% of GCS in experimental muffins.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>GCS were roasted at 150°c for five minutes to remove the peppery after taste. Roasted GCS were used to develop muffins. Control and experimental muffins were evaluated for sensory characteristics and nutritional parameters (proximate composition, dietary fiber, total and <em>in vitro</em> bio-accessible minerals, phytic acid and antioxidants).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Muffins supplemented with 10 and 20% of GCS scored higher than the control muffins for sensory parameters i.e. colour, texture, aroma, taste and overall acceptability however muffins supplemented with 30 GCS scored slightly lower than the control muffins. Both the experimental and control muffins adjudged between ‘liked moderately’ to ‘liked very much’ by the judges. The contents of protein (13.23-15.59%), fat (20.57-20.99), ash (1.77-2.64%), total dietary fiber (7.98-12.37%), total calcium (91.32-155.99 mg/100 g) and iron (4.83-8.06 mg/100 g) and antioxidants were increased significantly in all the three levels (type-I, type-II and type-III) of GCS supplemented muffins.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Nutrient dense muffins with superior nutritional quality can be developed using GCS <br> up to 20 % without compromising sensory acceptability. Consumption of nutrient dense muffins may be beneficial in combating PEM and iron deficiency anaemia in growing children and pregnant and lactating women in India.</p> Josephine John, Varsha Rani, Veenu Sangwan, . Sonia, . Reena ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 24 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Proximate Nutraceutical Study of Poor Man’s Pulse, Horsegram [Macrotyloma uniflorum] with the Other Common Legume Crops: A Review <p>Horsegram is an underutilized drought hardy crop and mainly neglected by the farmers in Northern region of India. However, the present study reveals the hidden comparative analysis of nutraceutical use with well-known legumes like <em>Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna mungo, Cicer arietinum, Vicia faba, Cajanus cajan, Vigna radiata, Pisum sativum and Lens culinaris</em>. This pulse crop is an excellent source of carbohydrate, protein and dietary fiber. This present study shows that amount of energy in horsegram falls in the range of 376.12-377.21 Kcal/100 g which is maximum than the other legumes. The ash, protein, dietary fibres, carbohydrates, fat and starch content of horse gram falls in the range (2.24% to 5.16%), (18.15% to 28.8%), (5% to 16.3%), (50% to 63.4%), (1.10 to 1.9%) and (31.86% to 47.5%) respectively. Horsegram is found to be less fat and more dietary food fibers than the most common legumes. Hence, it is an excellent source of food for diabetic patients and useful in weight management. The unique anti-uroliathiatic activity of horsegram is well known against calcium oxalate crystals, calcium phosphate crystals and uric acid crystals. Anticholelithiatic, Anti-histaminic, Hemolytic, Larvicidal, Proteinase inhibition and Anti-HIV are among other unique medicinal properties of horsegram which are not reported in any other legumes.</p> Sumeet Parkash Kaundal, Rahul Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 02 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Coronavirus and Nutrition: An Approach for Boosting Immune System-A Review <p>The global health crisis as a result of covid-19 demands fast and efficient response from global health care system. The evidence of nutrition-based interventions for viral diseases from past clinical trials, and its importance for optimizing the host immune response was reviewed in this paper. The immune system has involved in the protection of the host from pathogenic organisms, communicating molecules and functional responses. It is a known factor that nutrition plays key role in supporting the immune system as the role of nutrients feature prominently in a number of scientific literatures. Several clinical data showed that micronutrients like vitamins, including vitamins A, B<sub>6</sub>, B<sub>12</sub>, C, D, E and folic acid; trace elements including, zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, copper and the omega-3 fatty acids like EPA &amp; DHA play a major role in supporting the immune system. Inadequate intake of these nutrients is widespread resulting to a decreasing in resistance to infections and an increasing in diseases burden. Regarding the COVID-19 pandemic, the roles of nutrition for strengthening immune system for the patients to have strong resistant against the virus is also considered in this paper. It is believed that COVID-19 increases its severity or a host is susceptible to infectious disease once the immune system does not function optimally.</p> Lusamaki Mukunda François, Wabi Bajo Nagessa, Buhendwa Mirindi Victor, Mosisi Moleka, Irene Stuart Torrié De Carvalho ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 16 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000