European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>European Journal of Nutrition and Food Safety (ISSN: 2347-5641)</strong> publishes 1. Research papers; 2. Review papers; 3. Case studies; 4. Short communications as well as 5. (extended) abstracts of Grey literature government reports in all areas of nutrition and food safety. EJNFS considers the following areas out of scope: food science, food technology, food composition, food analysis, food palatability, animal nutrition. EJNFS is a quality controlled, double blind peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal in the area of human nutrition and food safety and toxicology.</p> en-US (European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety) (European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety) Mon, 30 Dec 2019 12:15:52 +0000 OJS 60 Proximate Compositions and Bioactive Compounds of Cultivated and Wild Auricularia auricular from Northeastern China <p><em>Auricularia auricular</em> is a traditional Chinese edible and medicinal fungus containing several bioactive compounds that have been proven to possess various healing effects. Around 98% of the global yield is provided by China and Heilongjiang province produces more than 52% of the total yield for the country. Meanwhile, <em>Auricularia auricular</em> harvested in this province is very famous for its superior quality. However, chemical compositions and bioactive compounds of <em>Auricularia auricular</em> grown in this region have not yet been investigated.</p> <p>Proximate compositions and bioactive compounds in 36 cultivated and wild <em>Auricularia auricular </em>samples collected from Northeastern China were compared and analyzed. The average contents of protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture, polysaccharide, total saccharide, and total flavonoid were determined to be 11.42%, 1.46%, 5.45%, 3.85%, 13.30%, 38.91%, 47.37%, and 2.18 mg 100 g<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. Amino acid compositions and nutritive element contents were also detected. Results showed that no significant difference exists for protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture, polysaccharide, and total saccharide contents between wild and cultivated <em>A. auricular</em> samples. While wild <em>A. auricular </em>samples contained over three times more content than cultivated samples. Some varieties with high calcium and iron contents were found in this study. White <em>A. auricular</em> was determined to have a very high fiber content of 16.39%.</p> <p>This study reveals proximate compositions and bioactive compounds of cultivated and wild <em>Auricularia auricular</em> from Northeastern China and people will benefit from our results due to the special nutrition and bioactive compounds of <em>Auricularia auricular </em>harvested in this region.</p> Hong Shan, Xiang dong Sun, Huan Chun Yang, Fang Yuan Liu, Bing Wang, Li Chai, Jun Luan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Volatile Compounds, Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Centaurea albonitens and Centaurea balsamita Seeds Growing in Van, Turkey <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of this study was to determine and compare the potential of <em>Centaurea albonitens </em>and <em>Centaurea balsamita</em> seeds as alternative raw materials for edible oil production and natural antioxidant sources.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> <em>C. balsamita</em> and <em>C. albonitens</em> were harvested from the district of Van province during harvest-maturity period in August-September 2017. The plants were identified by a biologist, Prof. Dr. Murat ÜNAL. The Voucher specimens (B5495, MÜ68611) were deposited at the Virtual Herbarium of Lake Van Basin, Van Yüzüncü Yil University, Faculty of Education.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was carried out between June 2017 - January 2019 in Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Engineering, Food Engineering Department laboratory.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study consists of two parts. In the first part, crude oil, moisture, ash, protein content, total phenolic content (TPC), volatile components and antioxidant activities of <em>Centaurea albonitens </em>and <em>Centaurea balsamita</em> seeds were determined. In the second part, fatty acid compositions, tocopherol contents, peroxide values (PV), free fatty acidity (FFA) and color values of seed oils obtained by cold extraction were determined.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The antioxidant capacities were determined by the 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. Results were 26.60 and 27.12%, and 80.61 and 95.99 mmol Trolox eq/g for <em>C. balsamita </em>and <em>C. albonitens </em>seeds, respectively. The total phenolic content of the seeds were determined to be 9019 and 11501 mg GAE/kg, respectively. The average α-tocopherol content were found to be 1186 and 1689 mg/kg oil. Oil yields of the seeds were found to be 19.36 and 17.65 %, for <em>C. balsamita </em>and <em>C. albonitens </em>seeds, respectively. In fatty acid profiles; linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids were determined as the most dominant fatty acids. 22 volatile compounds were detected in <em>C. balsamita</em> seed while this was 26 volatile compounds in <em>C. albonitens</em> seed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In this study, it was concluded that <em>C. albonitens</em> and <em>C. balsamita</em> seeds may be considered as alternative raw materials for edible oil production, and these seeds can be used in the formulation of functional foods due to their high level of α-tocopherol, natural antioxidants and polyunsaturated fatty acids.</p> Sümeye Peker, Ayhan Baştürk ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between Dose and Duration of Administration of Potassium Bromate on Selected Electrolytes and Hepatorenal Parameters in Male Albino Wistar Rats <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To monitor the effects of dosage and duration of administering KBrO<sub>3 </sub>on some electrolytes and hepatorenal parameters in male albino Wistar rats.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> 24 rats, mean weight of 181.3 g were grouped into 4 with 6 rats of each. Experiment spanned over 12 days. In the control group, animals were fed standard diet. Animals in the test groups were fed diet containing 67, 100 and 167 mg/kg dose of KBrO<sub>3 </sub>according to body weight. 2 rats from each group were sacrificed on the 4<sup>th</sup>, 8<sup>th</sup> and 12<sup>th</sup> days.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> University of Jos; 1 month including writing the report.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Spectrophotometric and titrimetric techniques were applied. InStat3 statistical software was used to analyse the data obtained. P≤.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> on the 4<sup>th</sup> day at 67mg/kg dose, showed raised serum activities (IU) of ALT, 41.0±9.6, and AST, 130.2±31.53, (P=.05). At 100 mg/kg dose, serum activities of ALT, 52.12±1.12, AST, 180.0±0.41, and level (g/L) of Total Proteins, TP, 67.77±0.35, were elevated (P=.05).On the 8<sup>th</sup> day at 67mg/kg dose, there were no significant increases (P&gt;.05). At 100 mg/kg dose, only AST activity, 98.0±43.86, increased (P=.05). Levels of urea (UR) and creatinine (CR) were lower than the control at both 60 and 100 mg/kg dose. At 167mg/kg dose, level of TP and activities of ALT, and AST increased (P=.05) relative control. On the 12<sup>th</sup>day, treatments at 67 mg/kg dose raised the activities of ALT and AST (P=.05).At 100 mg/kg dose, level of creatinine, 106±19.2 µmol/L, was significantly (P=.05) elevated. For urea, mmol/L, test groups results (4.26±1.39; 6.70±2.01; 21.07±2.21) were higher (P=.05) relative control group. Activities of AST and ALP were raised (P=.05). On the 12<sup>th</sup> day at 167 mg/kg dose, TP, ALT, AST and ALP significantly (P=.05) elevated implying toxicity of KBrO<sub>3 </sub>is both dose and duration of exposure-depended. On 4<sup>th</sup> and 8<sup>th</sup> day of treatment, mean level of Cl<sup>-</sup> was significantly (P=.05) raised whereas HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>- </sup>was not significantly (P&gt;.05) increased. 12<sup>th</sup> day of experimentation resulted in dose, and duration of exposure dependent increase concentration of Cl<sup>-</sup> (P=.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This compound could potentially cause injury to, especially hepatocytes and nephrons. It can also perturb the redox status of the cell with its attendant metabolic consequences; hence, moderate use is imperative.</p> Samuel Y. Gazuwa, Jonathan D. Dabak, Kiri H. Jaryum, Ige Oluwa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 15 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Bio-preservation of Foods: A Review <p>Biopreservatives are commonly used in food products to satisfy the increasing demand of consumers with increasing advancement in food and technology. The foods with chemical preservatives are now being neglected by the people and they prefer products which are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Thus, as a result food industry is using naturally produced preservatives to increase the shelf life of product without any new technology. The most commonly used bio-preservatives are bacteriocins, essential oils, herbs and spices, vinegar, fermentation and sugar and salt. They exhibit growth inhibition of various microorganisms when added at different concentrations so as to preserve food products. These preservatives have been tested under laboratory conditions to know their apt use. This review provides an overview of the importance of bio-preservatives as per the increasing demand of consumers.</p> Vaishali ., Punit Jhandai, Vijay J. Jadhav, Renu Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Potential Health Benefits of Conjugated Linoleic Acid: An Important Functional Dairy Ingredient <p>Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a class of positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid (cis-9, cis-12 octadecadienoic acid) having conjugate double bond system. CLA are synthesized in rumen of the ruminants by biohydrogenation of dietary fatty acids; and thus, can be obtained from dairy products as well as from the meat of sheep, lamb and other ruminants. Among the several isomers, c9, t11-CLA isomer is the most biologically active form and accounts approximately 80% of total isomers. A number of clinical and epidemiological studies have demonstrated the role of CLA as anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-carcinogenic, etc. Several researchers have suggested the positive association of CLA in weight management, hypercholesterolemia, immunomodulatory functions, and improved bone metabolism.</p> Chaudhari Kalpeshkumar Virsangbhai, Ankit Goyal, Beenu Tanwar, Manvesh Kumar Sihag ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 11 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000