European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>European Journal of Nutrition and Food Safety (ISSN: 2347-5641)</strong> publishes 1. Research papers; 2. Review papers; 3. Case studies; 4. Short communications as well as 5. (extended) abstracts of Grey literature government reports in all areas of nutrition and food safety. EJNFS considers the following areas out of scope: food science, food technology, food composition, food analysis, food palatability, animal nutrition. EJNFS is a quality controlled, double blind peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal in the area of human nutrition and food safety and toxicology.</p> en-US (European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety) (European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety) Mon, 04 Jan 2021 10:00:51 +0000 OJS 60 Protectant Effect of Vegetable Oils against Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) on Stored Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] <p>Cowpea is one of the common edible annual herbaceous legume. <em>Callosobruchus maculatus</em> is one of the common post-harvest pest of cowpea.This work was aimed at determining the protectant effect of five vegetable oils; coconut oil, cotton seed oil, groundnut oil, palm oil and sesame oil for the protection of stored cowpea against cowpea weevil (<em>Callosobruchus maculatus</em>).The study was conducted in Gombe State University between October, 2018 and April, 2019. Black eye seeds were used for the experiment. A completely randomized design with five replicates per treatment was used<strong>.</strong>Black eyed seeds (susceptible variety) used for the experiment were subjected to different oil treatments namely: coconut, cotton, groundnut, palm and sesame oils applied at 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 ml/100 g of cowpea equivalent to 4, 8 and 12 kg. Effect of the oils on weight lost and seed germination was also tested.Percentage adult mortality at 12 ml/Kg revealed that all the five oils killed 100% of the insects. Among the different edible oils evaluated, cotton seed oil was more effective killing 95% of the insect at 4 ml/kg and 100% at 8 ml/kg. The lowest mortality was recorded in the treatment with palm oil with 60 and 91.67% mortality at 4 and 8 ml/kg dose treatment respectively. Minimum percentage weight loss after 90 days of storage was observed in grains treated with cotton seed oil (1.95%) followed by sesame oil (2.00%) and groundnut oil (2.38%) at 12 ml/kg grains. Cotton seed oil, groundnut oil and sesame oil at doses between 8 and 12 ml/kg could be effective for protecting cowpea in storage against cowpea weevil for 90 days of storage.All the treatments indicated minimal effect on the germination of cowpea. The 8 ml/kg of cotton seed, groundnut and sesameoils investigated are promising bio friendly preservatives that could serve as an alternative formulations to synthetic chemical based insecticides for storage of cowpea.</p> Kennedy Poloma Yoriyo, Garba Usman, Ezra Abba, Michael Mamman Degri ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Physico-chemical Characterization of Solutions from Cooked Beans and Their Comparison with Human Urine: Fertilizer and Food? <p>The present paper aims to highlight the chemical characteristics of solutions from cooked beans and to compare them with human urine. Solutions of cooked beans were produced by cooking variety of <em>Phaseolus vulgaris L. </em>known as “Meringue” without salts. After this stage, samples of those solutions and samples of the water used for the cooking process were collected for laboratory analysis. A solution from cooked beans is rich in mineral salts, particularly major macro elements (N and K) and minor macro elements (Ca, S, Mg). Concerning the third major macro element, notably the phosphorous, it is present in low amounts. The advantage of this fluid consists in its low amounts of sodium and chlorides, coupled to its low electric conductivity. This fluid has a pH of 6.31. It is made of about 90% of water. A deep parallelism can be established between the human urine and solutions from cooked beans. In fact, these two fluids are rich in nitrogen and potassium, and mainly made of water. But, in the detail, some particularities are present. Human urine has high amounts of sodium and chlorides, this coupled with a high electric conductivity. Concerning solutions from cooked beans, it has high amounts of calcium and magnesium, and a quite nil electric conductivity. The solutions from cooked beans do not require a dilution, but a ridging directly after its application in other to avoid the loose of sulfur and nitrogen through gas emanation. Moreover, the numerous nutrients contained in solutions from cooked beans can be gainfully recycled as soup after flavoring.</p> J. C. Fopoussi Tuebue, I. N. Tchinda, P. D. Djiotsa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nutrient Composition and Sensory Properties of Wheat Bread Substituted with Defatted and Undefatted Cashew Kernel (Anacardium occidentale Linn.) Flours <p>This study was undertaken to investigate the nutrient composition and sensory properties of wheat flour bread substituted with defatted and undefatted cashew kernel flours. Cashew kernel was processed into flour and thereafter divided into two portions. One portion was left undefatted while the other portion was defatted using a hydraulic press. Bread was prepared from the blends of wheat and defatted/undefatted cashew kernel flours using 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, of wheat flour to defatted cashew kernel flour (DCF) and wheat flour to undefatted cashew kernel flour (UCF), and 100% wheat flour as control. Bread samples were subjected to sensory evaluation within 30 minutes of production. Proximate analysis and amino acid profile of the bread samples were carried out using standard methods. Result of the proximate analysis of the bread samples revealed a significant (p&lt;0.05) increase in ash (1.05-2.19%), protein (8.46-34.22%) and crude fibre (1.85-6.20%) with a corresponding decrease in moisture (11.05-21.28%) and carbohydrate contents (57.21-36.37%) as substitution of wheat flour with DCF and UCF increased. Amino acid analysis revealed that wheat/DCF composite breads were significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher in lysine (7.00 g/100 g), phenyl alanine (3.99 g/100 g), tryptophan (0.89 g/100 g), valine (4.33 g/100 g) and methionine (1.47g/100 g) than the wheat/UCF composite bread. Similarly, wheat/DCF composite breads were significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher in proline (3.45 g/100 g), arginine (5.68 g/100 g), tyrosine (3.78 g/100 g), alanine (4.25 g/100 g), glutamic acid (11.81 g/100 g), glycine (3.06 g/100 g), serine (4.00 g/100 g) and aspartic acid (7.32 g/100 g) indicating higher protein quality in the wheat/DCF composite breads than in wheat/UCF composite breads. Bread samples substituted with 10% UCF and 20% DCF compared favourably with the control wheat flour bread for taste, crust, colour and general acceptability. Therefore, it is recommended to use a level of substitution of 10% UCF and 20% DCF for the production of bread of adequate nutritional and sensorial qualities.</p> N. J. T. Emelike, L. I. Barber, M. D. Deebom ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Calcium Lactate and Tripotassium Citrate on the Production of Stable and Acceptable Calcium-Enriched Soymilk <p>In the current study, calcium lactate (ca-lactate) was used as a calcium source and tripotassium citrate (TPC) as chelating agents to produce calcium-enriched soymilk with calcium content equivalent to cow’s milk (120 mg/100mL). Physicochemical properties of calcium-enriched soymilk, including nutritional composition, pH, titratable acidity, particle diameter, sedimentation, viscosity, ion conductivity, and sensory evaluation were investigated. Our results showed significant differences (P&lt;.05) in moisture, ash content, titratable acidity, and ion conductivity after calcium and TPC were added. Moreover, the addition of calcium decreased the pH of soymilk from 6.69 to 6.21-6.51. The higher concentration of calcium also increased the calcium content, particle diameter, sedimentation, and viscosity, while the reverse results were shown when TPC was added. The intensities perceived of mouthfeel, visual appearance, and overall acceptability were greatly varied among calcium-enriched soymilks. The exact proportion of ca-lactate and TPC were able to produce calcium-enriched soymilk regarding higher stability during storage and great acceptability of the final product.</p> Victor Christian Kaharso, Bertrand Muhoza, Steven Suryoprabowo, Yufei Hua, Caimeng Zhang ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on the Effect of Graded Levels of Locust Beans (Parkia biglobosa) Seed Meal on the Performance of “Broiler” in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto Teaching and Research Farm Nigeria <p>The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding locust bean (Parkia Biglobosa) seed meal (LBSM) at graded levels on the performance of broilers. Two hundred and forty broilers were used which were randomly allotted to four treatment groups, each replicated four times in a completely randomized design. The diets contained 0% level of LBSM which served as the control, while other three diets contained 5, 10 and 15% levels of LBSM. The experiment lasted for 28days. Significant differences of (P&lt;0.05) were observed in feed intake (g/b/d) water intake ml/b/d, final body weight (g/b), body weight gain (g/b) averaged daily gain (g/b/d) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). While no significant effect of locust bean seed meal (LBSM) in broilers diets provide effective mechanism for better performance. But live weight was significantly influenced (P&lt;0.05) by LBSM. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine significant difference between treatment groups in term of performance parameters. Where significant difference existed, Duncan’s multiple range test was applied to separate the means. Data analysis was carried out using (SPSS (SPSS, 2013version 20.0).It is concluded that LBSM can be included in the diet of broilers at starter phase from 5-15% inclusion levels while at finisher phase, diets containing 10 and 15% level of inclusion would be used for better performance without any deleterious effect on the growth performance. It could be recommended that, diets containing 10 and 15% LBSM level of inclusion would be used for better performance and economic benefit with better feed conversion ratio.</p> Abubakar Yusuf Kakagida, Bello Abubakar Anka, Isa Musa Mabu, Audu A. Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000