Nutritional and Sensory Qualities of Cookies from Wheat, Trifoliate Yam and Moringa Seed Flours

Fayomi, O. I. *

Department of Food Science and Technology, Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

Anadi, V. N.

Department of Home Economics, Federal College of Education Odugbo, Benue State, Nigeria.

Faasema, J. J.

Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication, Joseph Sarwuan Takar University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Nutritional and sensory qualities of cookies from wheat, trifoliate yam and moringa seed flour were investigated. The formulated blends (%) were 100:0:0, 85:10:5, 75:20:5, 65:30:5, 55:40:5 and 45: 50:5 % wheat, trifoliate yam and moringa seed flour, with 100 % wheat flour serving as control. The cookies samples were subjected to proximate, physical, vitamin, mineral and sensory analysis using standard methods. The study revealed that addition of trifoliate yam and Moringa seed flour to wheat in cookies formulation significantly (P<0.05) increased the moisture, ash, crude fibre, crude fat and protein contents of wheat-based cookies. The result of the physical properties showed no significant (P>0.05) difference for diameter (cm) of the cookies. However, a significant (P<0.05) difference was observed for thickness, weight and spread ratio. The minerals and vitamins contents such as magnesium, calcium, potassium and iron, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and β-carotene (pro-vitamin A) increased while the niacin (vitamin B3) and pyrodixine (B6) decreased as the level of trifoliate yam flour addition increased. Sensory attributes of this study showed that the trifoliate yam flour could be incorporated up to the levels of 10 and 20 % in the wheat and moringa flour without greatly influencing the organoleptic characteristics of the cookies. Trifoliate yam flour and moringa seed flour can be used in the Addition of wheat flour in cookies and confectionery production due to its high nutritional contents. Trifoliate yam flour addition in wheat flour be encouraged in cookies production as this compared favourable with the wheat-based cookies and that shelf-life study should be carried out to ascertain the cookies storage stability.

Keywords: Nutrition, sensory, cookies, trifoliate yam, proximate, mineral, vitamin properties

How to Cite

Fayomi, O. I., Anadi, V. N., & Faasema, J. J. (2023). Nutritional and Sensory Qualities of Cookies from Wheat, Trifoliate Yam and Moringa Seed Flours. European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 15(11), 125–140.


Download data is not yet available.


Makinde FM, Adeyemi AT. Quality Characteristics of Biscuits Produced from Composite Flours of Wheat, Corn, Almond and Coconut. Annals of Food Science and Technology,.2018;19(2): 216-225.

Okafor GI, Ugwu FC. Production and evaluation of cold extruded and baked ready-to-eat snacks from blends of breadfruit (Treculia africana), cashewnut (Anacardium occidentale) and coconut (Cocos nucifera). Food Science and Quality Management. 2014;23:65-77.

Farheena I, Avanish K, Uzma A. Development and Quality Evaluation of Cookies Fortified with Date Paste (Phoenix dactylifera L). International Journal of Science and Technology 2015;3(4).

Ajibola FC, Oyerinde OV, Adeniyan SO. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of whole wheat biscuits incorporated with Moringa oleifera leaves and cocoa powder. Journal of scientific research and report. 2015;7(3):195 – 206.

Chinma CE, Gernah DI. Physiochemical and Sensory Properties of Cookies From Cassava, Soybean, and Mango Composite Flour. Journal of Food Technology. 2007;5(3):256-260.

Uthumporn U, Woo WL, Tajul AY, Fazilah A. Physico-chemical and nutritional evaluation of cookies with different levels of eggplant flour substitution. Journal of Food. 2014;13(2):220–226.

Amandikwa C. Proximate and Functional Properties of Open Air, Solar and Oven Dried Cocoyam Flour. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. 2012;15(2): 988-994.

Jideani IA, VA Jideani. Developments on the cereal grains Digitaria exilis (acha) and Digitaria iburua (iburu). J. Food Sci. Technol. 2011;48:251-259.

Ihekoronye AI, Ngoddy PO. Integrated Food Science and Technology for the Tropics. London: Macmillan Publ. Ltd. 1985;265.

Chen WJ, Anderson JW. Hypocholesterolemic effects of soluble fibers. InDietary fiber: basic and clinical aspects 1986 (pp. 275-286). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Abiodun OA, Akinoso R, Oladapo AS, Adepeju AB. Influence of soaking method on the chemical and fuctional properties of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flours. J Root Crop 2013;39:81-87.

Akinoso R, Olatoye KK, Ogunyele OO. Potentials of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) in noodles production. J Food Process Technol. 2016;7(609):1-6.

Sharma V, Paliwal R, Pracheta and Sharma S. Phytochemical analysis and evaluation of antioxidant activities of hydro-ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Pods. J. Pharm. Res., 2011;4:554-557.

Khalafalla M, Abdellatef E. Active principle from Moringa oleifera Lam leaves ef-fective against two leukemias and a hepatocar-cinoma. African J. of Biotechnology. 2010;9(49):8467–8471.

Agbogidi OM, Ilondu EM. Moringa oleifera Lam: Its potentials as a food security and rural medicinal item; 2012.

Khalaf DJ, Annala M, Taavitsainen S, Finch DL, Oja C, Vergidis J, Chi KN. Optimal sequencing of enzalutamide and abiraterone acetate plus prednisone in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 2, crossover trial. The Lancet Oncology. 2019;20(12):1730-1739.

Chinma CE, Igbabul BD, Omotayo OO. Quality characteristics of cookies prepared from unripe plantain and deffated sesame flour blends. American Journal of Food Technology. 2012;7:398 – 408.

AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 19th edition. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA; 2012.

Ayo-Omogie HN, Odekunle OY. Substituting wheat flour with banana flour: Effects on the quality attributes of doughnut and cookies. Applied Tropical Agriculture. 2017;22(2):134-137.

AACC. Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists. 10th Edn., American Association of Cereal Chemists Press, St. Paul, MN., USA; 2000.

Okaka JC. Handling, Storage and Processing of Plant Foods. 2nd Edn., Academy Publishers Enugu, Nigeria. 2009:132.

Igbabul B, Ogunrinde MD, Amove J. Proximate, micronutrient composition, physical and sensory properties of cookies produced with wheat, sweet detar and moringa leaf flour blends. Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal. 2018;6(3):690-699.

Samia O, Hanan R, Kamal ET. Carbamazepine muco adhesive nanoemulgel (MNEG) as brain targeting delivery system via the olfactory mucosa. Drug delivery, 2012;19(1):58-67.

Oyeleke GO, Ojo A, Ajao FD, Adetoro RO. Development and analysis of blended pineapple-watermelon ready-to-drink (RTD) juice. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 2013;4(6):22-24.

Cláudia AR, Figueroa AM, Los PR, Teles JC, Simões DRS, Barana AC, Granato D. Effects of whole-wheat flour and bordeaux grape pomace (Vitis labrusca L.) on the sensory, physicochemical and functional properties of cookies. Food Science and Technology. 2014;35:750-756.

Makanjuola OM, Makanjuola JO. Proximate and selected mineral composition of ripe pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds and skin. Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research. 2018: 7(3):75-77.

Bhosale P, Udachan IS. Studies on utilization of papaya peel and seed powder for development of fiber enriched functional cookies. IJRAR-International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews (IJRAR), 2018;5(4):459-466.

Olorode OM, Akkutlu IY, Efendiev Y. Compositional reservoir-flow simulation for organic-rich gas shale. SPE Journal, 2017; 22(06):1963-1983.

Odenigbo UM. Incorporation of afzelia Africana [akparata] in dietary managements of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Nnewi, Nigeria. D Thesis; 2001.

Adesuyi AO, Ipinmoroti KO. The Nutritional and Functional Properties of the Seed Flours of three Varieties of Carica Papaya. Current Research in Chemistry. 2011;3:70-75.

Wildman SA. Prediction of physicochemical parameters by atomic contributions. Journal of chemical information and computer sciences, 1999; 39(5):868-873.

Schneeman BO. Gastrointestinal physiology and functions. British Journal of Nutrition. 2002;88(S2):S159-S163.

Ufot EI, Comfort FE, Anne PE. Physical Properties, Nutritional Composition and Sensory Evaluation of Cookies Prepared from Rice, Unripe Banana and Sprouted Soybean Flour Blends. International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology. 2018;3(2):70-76.

Ukwo S, Edima-Nyah A. Micronutrients and heavy metals content of refined and local table salts consumed in some Nigerian cities. Am. J. innov. res. appl. Sci. 2016;2(4):193-198.

Usman M, Daud WW, Abbas HF. Dry reforming of methane: Influence of process parameters—A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2015;45:710-744.

Ijeh I, Ejike CE, Nkwonta OM, Njoku BC. Effect of traditional processing techniques on the nutritional and phytochemical composition of African bread-fruit (Treculia africana) seeds. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 2010;14(4).

Opara UL. A review on the role of packaging in securing food system: Adding value to food products and reducing losses and waste. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 2013;8(22): 2621-2630.

Ahmad S, Ullah F, Sadiq A, Ayaz M, Imran M, Ali I, Shah MR. Chemical composition, antioxidant and anticholinesterase potentials of essential oil of Rumex hastatus D. Don collected from the North West of Pakistan. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 2016;16:1-11.

Chidinma WA, Jiddari WU, Hassan SC. A student handbook on food and nutrition. De-New Creation Prints Ltd Publishers, Kaduna, Nigeria. 2010:50-58.

Kadiri O. A review on the status of the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of the flour: Effects of cereal processing. International Journal of Food Properties, 2015;20(1):S798-S809.

Chukwuka KS, Iwuagwu M, Uka UN. Evaluation of nutritional components of Carica papaya L. at different stages of ripening. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2013;6(4): 13-16.

Wardlaw GM, Kessel MW. Minerals: Dietary needs, absorption, transport and excretion. Perspectives in nutrition, 5th edn. Mc Graw-Hil Companies Inc. 2002;418-464.

Inyang UE, Ekop VO. Physico-chemical properties and anti-nutrient contents of unripe banana and African yam bean flour blends. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 2015;4(5):549-554.

Dogo EM, Afolabi OJ, Nwulu NI, Twala B, Aigbavboa CO. A comparative analysis of gradient descent-based optimization algorithms on convolutional neural networks. In 2018 international conference on computational techniques, electronics and mechanical systems (CTEMS) December 2018;92-99. IEEE.

Sudha ML, Vetrimani R, Leelavathi K. Influence of fibre from different cereals on the rheological characteristics of wheat flour dough and on biscuit quality. Food chemistry. 2007;100(4):1365-1370.

Manley PW, Cowan-Jacob SW, Buchdunger E, Fabbro D, Fendrich G, Furet P, Zimmermann J. Imatinib: a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor. European journal of cancer, 2002;38:S19-S27.

Ubbor SC, Akobundu ENT. Quality characteristics of cookies from composite flours of watermelon seed, cassava and wheat. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2009;8(7):1097-1102.

Sengev AI, Abu JO, Gernah DI. Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf powder supplementation on some quality characteristics of wheat bread. Food and nutrition sciences, 2013;4(3):270.

Mian SI, Li AY, Dutta S, Musch DC, Shtein RM. Dry eyes and corneal sensation after laser in situ keratomileusis with femtosecond laser flap creation: Effect of hinge position, hinge angle, and flap thickness. Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery. 2009;35(12):2092-2098.

Mepba HD, Eboh L, Nwaojigwa SU. Chemical composition, functional and baking properties of wheat-plantain composite flours. African Journal of food, agriculture, nutrition and development. 2007;7(1).

Amandikwa C, Iwe MO, Uzomah A. Physic-chemical Properties of Wheat-yam Flour Composite Bread. Nigerian Food Journal, 2015;33(1):12–17.

Joseph RY, Casteleijn D, van der Linde J, Franzsen D. Sensory modulation dysfunction in child victims of trauma: A scoping review. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 2016;1-16.