Golden Rice to Eradicate the Vitamin A Deficiency in the Developing Countries

Main Article Content

Umar Shahbaz
Xiao-Bin Yu
Wasim Akhtar
Regis Ndagijimana
Husnain Rauf


The development of Golden Rice recently has taken longer than foreseen. Vitamin deficiency is a major medical issue that influences millions of people worldwide. UN Cartagena protocol for biosafety delayed particularly by deferring the determination of phenotypes developed in the open field. In this way, Golden Rice has not possessed the capacity to help with combatting vitamin an insufficiency as golden rice demonstrates fighting hidden hunger, as rice is the dominant crop in most of the Asian countries also staple food so people mostly rely on rice as energy source. Iron, zinc and vitamin A dearth are more dominant in rice consuming countries its named hidden hunger and it affects two billion people worldwide. VAD affect 190 million children and 19 million pregnant women worldwide, 100 grams of uncooked Golden Rice are able to supply up to 57 percent of the estimated average requirement (EAR) for vitamin A of pre-school children and from 38-47 percent of the EAR for pregnant and lactating women so far so good Golden rice passed rigorous biosafety assessment in Philippine. To get a working pro-vitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway in rice endosperm, we presented in a solitary, joined change exertion the cDNA coding for phytoene synthase (psy) and lycopene b-cyclase (b-lcy) both from Narcissus pseudonarcissus and both under the control of the endosperm-particular glutelin promoter together with a bacterial phytoene desaturase (crtI, from Erwinia uredovora under constitutive 35S promoter control). This blend covers the necessities for beta-carotene union and, as trusted, yellow beta-carotene-bearing rice endosperm was acquired in the T0-age.

Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD), genetic engineering, golden rice, Average Estimated Value (AEV).

Article Details

How to Cite
Shahbaz, U., Yu, X.-B., Akhtar, W., Ndagijimana, R., & Rauf, H. (2020). Golden Rice to Eradicate the Vitamin A Deficiency in the Developing Countries. European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 12(1), 53-63.
Review Article


Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Murray CJ. Comparative quantification of health risks: Global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors. World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland; 2004.

West H. 6 health benefits of Vitamin A, backed by science; 2018.
(Retrieved 23 August 2018)

WHO Micronutrient deficiencies; 2020.
(Retrieved 1 January 2020)

Dary O, Mora JO. Food fortification to reduce vitamin a deficiency: International Vitamin A consultative group recommendations. J. Nutr. 2002;132: 2927S–2933S. [PubMed]

Fairfield KM, Fletcher RH. Vitamins for chronic disease prevention in adults: Scientific review. JAMA. 2002;287:3116–3126. [CrossRef] [PubMed].

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; World Health Organization. Vitamin and Mineral Requirements in Human Nutrition; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland; 2005.

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Estimated Average Requirements; 2020.

(Retrieved 25 October 2019)

Song P, Wang J, Wei W, Chang X, Wang M, An L. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in Chinese children: A systematic review and bayesian meta-analysis. Nutrients. 2017;9(12): 1285.
DOI: 10.3390/nu9121285

World Health Organization. Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk 1995-2005: WHO global database on Vitamin A deficiency. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2009;55.

United Nations Children's Fund. UNICEF statistics: malnutrition. New York, NY: United Nations Children's Fund.
(Accessed on 25 November 2013)

Ejaz MS, Latif N. Stunting and micronutrient deficiencies in malnourished children. J Pak Med Assoc. 2010;60(7): 543-7.
[PMID: 20578603]

Ellur RK, Singh AK, Gupta HS. Enhancing rice productivity in India: Aspects and prospects In: Shetty PK, Ayyappan S, Swaminathan MS (eds) Climate change and sustainable food security. National Institute of Advanced Studies, IISC, Bangalore and Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi. 2013; 99–132.

Sommers A. New imperatives for an old Vitamin (A). Journal of Nutrition. 1988;119: 96–100. [PubMed].

Gillespie S, Haddad L. Attacking the double burden of malnutrition in Asia and the Pacific. ADB Nutrition and Development Series; No. 4; 2001.

Wesseler J. The economic power of the Golden Rice opposition; 2014.
(Retrieved 22 January 2014)

Xe X, Al-Babili S, Klöti A, Zhang J, Lucca P, Beyer P, Potrykus I. Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm". Science. 2000;287 (5451): 303–5.
DOI: 10.1126/science.287.5451.303
[PMID: 10634784]

LSU AgCenter Communications. Golden rice' could help reduce malnutrition; 2007.

Ahmad, Reaz. Bangladeshi scientists ready for trial of world's first 'Golden Rice'. The Daily Star; 2015.
(Retrieved 15 December 2015)

Paine Jacqueline A, Shipton, Catherine A, Chaggar, Sunandha, Howells, Rhian M, Kennedy, Mike J, Vernon, Gareth, Wright, Susan Y, Hinchliffe, Edward; Adams, Jessica L. Improving the nutritional value of Golden Rice through increased pro-Vitamin A content. Nature Biotechnology. 2005;23(4):482–7.
DOI: 10.1038/nbt1082
[PMID: 15793573]

Tang G, Qin J, Dolnikowski GG, Russell RM, Grusak MA. Golden rice is an effective source of vitamin A. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2009;89(6):1776-1783.

Anonymous; 2018.

Burkhardt P, Beyer P, Wu¨ nn J, Klo¨ ti A, Armstrong GA, Schledz M, Von Lintig J, Potrykus I. Transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm expressing daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus) phytoene synthase accumulates phytoene, a key intermediate of provitamin A biosynthesis. Plant J. 1997; 11:1071–1078.

Schledz M, Al-Babili S, Von Lintig J, Rabbani S, Kleinig H, Beyer P. Phytoene synthase from Narcissus pseudonarcissus: Functional expression, galactolipid requirement, topological distribution in chromoplasts and induction during flowering. Plant J. 1996;10:781–792.

Golden Rice: Introducing the carotene biosynthesis pathway into rice endosperm by genetic engineering to defeat vitamin A deficiency1 peter Beyer,*2 Salim Al-Babili,* Xudong Ye,*† Paola Lucca,† Patrick Schaub,* Ralf Welsch* and Ingo Potrykus† *University of Freiburg, Center for Applied Biosciences, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany and the † Institute for Plant Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland.

Bonk M, Hoffmann B, Von Lintig J, Schledz M, Al-Babili S, Hobeika E, Kleinig H, Beyer P. Chloroplast import of four carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes in vitro reveals differential fates prior to membrane binding and oligomeric assembly. Eur. J. Biochem. 1997;247:942–950.

Misawa N, Yamano S, Linden H, de Felipe MR, Lucas M, Ikenaga H, Sandmann G. Functional expression of the Erwinia uredovora carotenoid biosynthesis gene crtl in transgenic plants showing an increase of carotene biosynthesis activity and resistance to the bleaching herbicide norflurazon. Plant J. 1993;4:833–840.

Al-Babili S, Hobeika E, Beyer P. A cDNA encoding Lycopene cyclase (Accession no. X98796) from Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. (PGR 96-107). Plant Physiol. 1996;112: 1398.

Landrum JT, Bone RA, Joa H, Kilburn MD, Moore LL, Sprague KE. A one-year study of the macular pigment: The effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement. Macula Exp. Eye Res. 1997;65:57–62.

Panel on micronutrients, subcommittees on upper reference levels of nutrients and of interpretation and use of dietary reference intakes and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, DC: Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press; 2001.

Tang G, Hu Y, Yin S, Wang Y, Dallal GE, Grusak MA, Russell RM. b-Carotene in Golden Rice is as good as b-carotene in oil at providing vitamin A to children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96:658-664.
[PMID: 22854406]
Available: [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Tang G, Qin J, Dolnikowski GD, Russell RM, Grusak MA. Golden rice is an effective source of vitamin A. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:1-8.
Available: [PMC free article][PubMed

Tang G, Gu X, Xu Q, Zhao X, Qin J, Fjeld C, Dolnikowski GG, Russell RM, Yin S. Green and yellow vegetables can maintain body stores of vitamin A in Chinese children. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70:1069-76.
[PMID: 19369372] [PubMed]

Graff G, Hochman G, Zilberman D. The political economy of agricultural biotechnology policies, AgBioForum. 2009; 12:34–46.

lynas M. US FDA approves Golden Rice - Alliance for Science; 2018.
(Retrieved 25 May 2018)

Laureates Letter Supporting Precision Agriculture (GMOs) | Support Precision Agriculture; 2016.
(Retrieved 29 January 2016)

Graham K. No GMO crop trials in Philippines says Supreme Court; 2015.
(Retrieved on 24 December 2015)

Philippines’ Supreme Court bans development of genetically engineered products; 2020.
(Retrieved on 26 January 2015)

Mayer C. The Golden Rice Project; 2020.
(Retrieved on 26 January 2020)

GLP Infographic: International science organizations on crop biotech safety | Genetic Literacy Project; 2019.

(Retrieved on 26 January 2020)

Hall K. Yes, GMOs Are Safe (Another Major Study Confirms); 2016.
(Retrieved on 20 May 2016)

Paine J, Shipton C, Chaggar S, et al. Improving the nutritional value of Golden Rice through increased pro-vitamin A content. Nat Biotechnol. 2005;23:482–487.

ER, Wise J. Bioinformatics analysis of proteins in Golden rice; 2006.
(Retrieved on 26 June 2006)

Wesseler J, Kaplan S, Zilberman D. The cost of delaying approval of Golden Rice. Agricultural Resource Economics. 2014, 17(3):1-3.

Dubock A. The present status of Golden Rice; 2014.
(Retrieved on 6 October 2014)

Slezak M. Militant Filipino farmers destroy Golden Rice GM crop; 2013.
(Retrieved on 9 August 2013)

Alberts B, Beachy R, Baulcombe D, et al. Standing up for GMOs. Science. 2013; 341(3152):1320.

Dubock A. The politics of Golden Rice. GM Crops & Food. 2014;5(3):210–222.
DOI: 10.4161/21645698.2014.967570

Rice Production by Country | World Agricultural Production; 2019/ 2020.
(Retrieved on 26 January 2020)

Garcia A. Golden Rice: Fighting 'hidden hunger' - Alliance for Science; 2019.
(Retrieved on 30 October 2019)