Effect of Soybean, Sorghum and African Breadfruit Flours on the Proximate Composition and Sensory Properties of Chin-Chin
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety,
This work investigated the proximate and sensory properties of chin-chin from the flour blends of wheat, African breadfruit, soybean, and sorghum. Chin-chin was produced from the blends of wheat: African breadfruit (BWF), wheat: soybean (SWF) and wheat: sorghum (SGW) in the ratios of 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40 for each blend and coded as BWF1, BWF2, BWF3 and SWF1, SWF2, SWF3 and SGW1, SGW2, SGW3 respectively. The control was 100% wheat flour (100:0) coded as WF. The proximate composition and sensory properties were determined. The results obtained show that partial substitution of wheat flour with breadfruit, soybean and sorghum flours caused a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the proximate composition of the samples. The crude protein content of samples BWF, SWF and SGW ranged from 15.73 to 19.34%, 19.2 to 24.62% and 9.11 to 10.73% respectively. The ash content of the samples ranged from 0.68 to 1.27%, 0.95 to 2.16% and 1.06 to 1.26% respectively and the crude fiber content ranged from 0.42 to 0.91%, 0.25 to 0.91% and 0.43 to 3.73% respectively. While the control sample (WF) had 13.08% of protein, 1.96% of ash and 0.80% of crude fiber. In terms of the overall acceptability, the control sample (WF) had the highest score (8.10) when compared with fortified samples followed by BWF3 (7.00). Although the control sample (WF) had the least nutrient contents compared to the fortified samples, yet, it was the most preferred by the panelists.
- African breadfruit
- sensory properties
How to Cite
Da Silva MC, De Carvalho CWP and Andrade CT. The effects of water and sucrose contents on the physicochemical properties of non-directly expanded rice flour extrudates. Cienc Tecnol. Aliment. 2009;29:3.
Lasekan OO and Akintola AM. Production and nutritional evaluation of puffed soy maize snacks. J. Cereal Sci. 2002;24:79-85.
Akubor PI. Protein content, physical and sensory properties of soybean/maize flour blends for food preparation. Proceeding of the 28th Annual Conference/AGM Nigeria Institute of Food Science and Technology, Ibadan, October, 2004;21–14:46–47.
Mepba HD, Ebon L, Nwaojigwa SU. Chemical composition, functional and baking properties of wheat plantain composite flours. African J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2007;7(1):1-22.
Opara CC, Edem UB, Anierobi BU. Deep fat frying properties of malted sorghum buns with cassava and rice flour as binders. Greener J. Agric. Sci. 2013;3(2): 185-192.
USDA. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, Gain Report, Global Agricultural Information Network; 2012.
Gomez MI, House LR, Rooney L, Dendy D. Proceedings of International Sym-posium on Utilization of Sorghum and Millets. ICRISAT. 1992;4:1-22.
Nath A, Chattopadhyay KP. Effect of process parameters and soil flow concentration in quality attribute and microstructure changes in ready-to-eat potato soy snacks using high temperature short time air puffing. Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology; KharangPur, India. 2007;721-302. Liu K.S. Chemistry and Nutritional Value of Soybean Components. In: Soybean: Chemistry, Technology, and Utilization. New York: Chapman & Hall. 1997;25-113.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Oilseeds. Washington D.C; 2007.
Riaz MN. Soy Applications in Food. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 2006;39.
Liu L, Herald TJ, Wang D, Wilson JD, Bean SP, Aramuni FM. Characterization of Sorghum grain and evaluation of sorghum flour in a Chinese egg noodle system. J. Cereal Sci. 2012;55:31-36.
Aba DA, Idem, NUA, Marley, PS, Maigida DA. Sorghum. In Cereal Crops in Nigeria: Principles of Production and Utilization, 38-73. Idem, N. U. A. and Showemimo, F. A. (Eds). Ade Commercial Press, Zaria; 2004.
Onabanjo OO, Akinyemi CO, Agbon CA. Characteristics of complementary foods produced from sorghum, sesame, carrot, and crayfish. J. Natural Sci. Engineering, and Technol. 2009;8(1):71–83.
FAO. Maize, Rice, and Wheat: Area Harvested, Production Quality and Yield. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 2009;105–112.
Agu HO, Ayo JA, Paul AM, Folorunsho F. Quality characteristics of biscuits made from wheat and African breadfruit (Treculia africana). Nig. Food J. 2007;25(2):19-27.
Osuji JO, Owei SO. Miotic index studies on Treculia Africana Decne in Nigeria. Australian J. Agric. Engineering. 2010;1(1): 25-28.
Badifu GIO, Akubor PI. Influence of pH and sodium chloride on selected functional and physical properties of African breadfruit (Treculia africanadecne) kernel flour. Plant Foods for Human Nutri. 2001;56:105-115.
Ijeh II, Ejike CE, Nkwonta OM, Njoku BC. Effect of traditional processing techniques on the nutritional and phytochemical composition of African breadfruit (Treculia africana) seeds. J. Appl. Sci. Env. Management, 2010;14(4):169-173.
Akubor PI, Isolukwu PC, Ugbabe O, Onimawo IA. Proximate composition and functional properties of African breadfruit kernel and wheat flour blends. Food Res. Int. J. 2000;33:707-712.
Ndife J, Abdulraheem OL, Zakari MU. Evaluation of the nutritional and sensory quality of functional bread produced from whole wheat and soya bean flour blends. African J. Food Sci. 2011;8:466-472.
Okoye JI, Nkwocha AC, Ogbonnaya AE. Production, proximate composition and consumer acceptability of biscuits from wheat/soybean flour blends. Continental J. Food Sci. Technol., 2008;2:6-13.
Ojoko AO, Fayemi OE, Ocloo FCK, Alakija O. Proximate composition, antinutritional and physiochemical properties of breadfruit (Treculia Africana) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum. African J. Microbiol. Res., 2014;8(12):1352-1359.
AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 18th edition. Gaithersburg, Maryland, U.S.A; 2010.
Ihekoronye AI, Ngoddy PO. Integrated food science and technology for the tropics. London: Macmillian Education Ltd. 1985;272-273.
Fasasi OS, Eleyinmi AR, Fasasi AR, Karim OR. Chemical properties of raw and processed breadfruit (Treculia africana) seed flour. Food, Agric. and Env. 2004; 2(1):65-68.
Sheorain V, Banka R, Chavan M. Ethanol production from sorghum. Technical and institutional options for sorghum grain MOLD management: Proceedings of an International Consultation, ICRISAT, Patancheru, India. 2000;228–239.
Adegbola AJ, Awagu EF, Kamaldeen, OS, Kashetu RQ. Sorghum: Most under-utilized grain of the semi-arid Africa. Scholarly J. Agric. Sci. 2003;3(4):147-153.
Oluwamukomi MO, Oluwalana IB, Akinbowale OF. Physiochemical and sensory properties of wheat-cassava composite biscuit enriched with soy flour. African J. Food Sci. 2011;5(2):50-56.
Endres JG. Definitions and methods of preparation. In: Endres JG (ed) Soy Protein Products: Characteristics, Nutritional Aspects, and Utilization. AOCS Press, Champaign, IL. 2001;4-8.
Appiah F, Oduro I, Ellis WO. Pasting properties of Treculia africana seed flour in Ghana and the production of a breakfast meal. Agric. Biol. J. North Am. 2011;2(2): 325-329.
Okoye EC, Onyekwelu CN. Production and quality valuation of enriched cookies from wheat, african yam bean, and carrot composite flours. Annals. Food Sci. Technol. 2018;19(1):1-6.
Okoye EC, Okoyeuzu CF, Eze CM, Asogwa IS, Njoku EU. Proximate composition of composite flour from the blends of water yam (Dioscorea alata) and rice bean (Vigna umbellata). Book of Abstracts of the 4th Regional Food Science and Technology Summit (ReFoSTS) of NIFST East Central Chapter, Awka. 2018a;175-176.
Ojinaka MC, Emeh TC, Okorie SU. Evaluation of the quality of composite maize-wheat chinchin enriched with Rhynchophorous phoenicis. J. Food Res. 2016;5(4):19-27.
Okoye EC, Eze CM, Njoku EU. Effect of rice bran flour on the proximate and sensory properties of ‘‘Ojojo’’- water yam fried ball (Poster presentation). At the 3rd African Conference/ Workshop on the Application of Nanotechnology to Energy, Environment, Agriculture, and Health. Theme- Nanotechnology: Key to National and Industrial Development at Princess Alexandra Auditorium (PAA), University of Nigeria, Nsukka; 2018b.
Enwere NJ. Foods of Plant Origin. Nsukka: Afro-orbis Publications Limited; 1998.
Opara MN, Sanyigha FT, Ogbuewu IP, Okoli IC. Studies on the production trend and quality characteristics of palm grubs in the tropical rainforest zone of Nigeria. J. Agric. Technol. 2012;8(3):851-86.
Food and Agricultural Organization. The standard for Wheat Flour. 1985;2.
Abstract View: 957 times
PDF Download: 537 times