Correlation of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Spectrophotometric Methods to Assess the Post Harvest Storage and Processing Changes in Total β-carotene Contents in Selected Nigeria Vegetables

Main Article Content

Emeka Felix Okpalanma

Abstract

The aim of this study was to correlate analytical methods (HPLC and spectrophotometric) in assessing the changes in total β-carotene contents in leafy vegetables during ambient temperature storage (29+2°C) and domestic processing (5 min,100°C.) The vegetables analyzed were: Telfairia occidentalis, Amaranethus hybridus, Talinum triangulare,Pterocarpus mildbraedli and Gnetum africanum. Total–carotene was determined spectrophometrically, while HPLC was used for detailed analysis of carotenoides. Lutein, β -cryptoxanthin and β-carotene isomers were identified and quantified. Results indicated that the raw vegetables were rich in lutein (124.03-655.95 µg/gdwt) and total β -carotene (45.42 – 246.93 µg/gdwt). Beta–cryptoxanthin was detected in small quantity (5.05-11 µg/gdwt). However, spectrophotometric result indicated a total–carotene content range (186.10 – 953.78 µg/gdwt). Cooking increased significantly (P< 0.05), the lutein (382. 92 – 1158.83 µg/gdwt), total β -carotene (738.53 – 1756.51 µg/gdwt) contents of the samples, however, it decreased the % trans–β-carotene contents. Storage conditions in the study increased significantly (P< 0.05) the contents of total β -carotene and total–carotene except in the case of Gnetum africanum leaf. A regression model for the two methods of analysis of β -carotene with a coefficient of correlation r = 0.925 and coefficient of determination r2 = 0.856, which allows for the calculation of total β - carotene from total-carotene content was obtained.

Keywords:
Correlation, leafy vegetables, beta-carotene, HPLC, regression.

Article Details

How to Cite
Okpalanma, E. F. (2020). Correlation of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Spectrophotometric Methods to Assess the Post Harvest Storage and Processing Changes in Total β-carotene Contents in Selected Nigeria Vegetables. European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 12(2), 22-39. https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i230190
Section
Original Research Article

References

Bhasikarachary K, Sanker Rao DS, Deosothale YG, Reddy V. Carotene content of some common less familiar foods of plant origin. Food chemistry. 1995;54:189-193.

Osion JA. Carotenoids: Absorption, transport and metabolism of carotenoids in humans. Pure and Applied chemistry.1994;66:1011-1016.

Wisniewska A, Subczynski WK. Accumulation of macular xanthophylls in unsaturated membrane domains. Free Radical Biology & medicin. 2006;40:1820 – 1826.

A.O.A.C. Carotenes in fresh plant materials and silages (3) official final action. Official methods of Analysis 13th ed. Washington, D.C. USA; Assonation of official Analytical Chemists. 1980; 738-9.

Hart DJ, Scott KJ. Development and evaluation of an HPLC method for the analysis of carotenoids in foods, and the measurement of the carotenoid content of vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in the U.K. Food Chemistry. 1995;54:101–111.

Kimura M, Rodriguez-Amaya DB. A Scheme for obtaining standards and HPLC qualification of leafy vegetable carotenoids. Food Chemistry. 2002;78: 389–398.

Adewusi SR, Bradbury JH .Carotenoids in cassava composition of Open- Column and HPLC methods of analysis. J. Scs. Food Agric. 1993;62: 375-383.

Nyambaka H, Ryley J. An Isocratic reversed-phase HPLC separation of the steroisomers of the provitamin A carotenoids (α- and β-carotene) in dark-green vegetables. Food Chemistry. 1996;55(1):63–72.

Sander L C, Sharpless K E, Craft N E, Wise S A. Development of engineered stationary phases for the separation of carotenoid isomers. Analytical Chemistry. 1994;66:1667–1674.

Allen LH. Interventions for micronutrient deficiency control in developing countries: past, present and future. Journal of Nutrition. 2003;133:38755 –38785.

Niizu PY, Rodriguex-Amaya DB. New Data on the carotenoid composition of raw salad vegetables. J. Food Comp. Anal. 2005a;18:739–749.

Chweya JA, Eyzaquirre PB. The Biodiversity of Traditional Leafy Vegetables. IPGRI Publication; 1999.

Steyn NP, Oilver J, wirter, Burger S, Nesamvuni C. A survey of wild, green, leafy vegetables and their potential populations. South African Journal of Science. 2001;97:276-278.

Jansen Van Rensburg W S, Venter SL, Netshiluuhi TR, Van der Heever E, Voster N J, De Rorde JA. Role of Indigenous leafy vegetables in combating hunger and malnutrition. South African Journal of Botany. 2004; 70:116-123.

Guarino L. Traditional African vegetables. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. In: Guarino, L. (Ed.) Proceedings of the IPGRI International Workshop on Genetic Resources of Traditional Vegetables in Africa. Rome, Italy: IPGRI; 1999.

Howe JA, Tanumihardjo SA. Evaluation of analytical methods for carotenoid extraction from biofortified maize (Zea mays sp).J. Agric. Food Chem. 2006;54: 7992–7994.

Rodriguez-Amaya DB, Kimura M. Harvest plus handbook for carotenoid Analysis. Harvestplus: Washington, D. C., and Cali, Columbia; 2004.

Rodriguez-Amaya DB, Kimura M, Godoy HT, Amaya- Farfan J. Updated Brazilian database on food carotenoids: Factors affecting carotenoid composition: J. Food Comp. Anal. 2008;21:445–463.

Faber M, Olelofse A, Van Jaarsveld PJ, Wenhold FAM, Jansen Van Rensburg WS. African leafy vegetables consumed by households in the Limpopo and Kwaszulu-Natal Provinces in South Africa. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2010;23(1):30–38.

Dietz JM, Erdman JW. Effects of thermal processing upon vitamins and proteins in foods. Nutrition today. 1989;6–15.

Rodriguez-Amaya DB. A guide to carotenoid analysis in food. International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Press, Washington D. C; 1999a.

Miglio C, Chivaro E, Visconti A, Figliano V, Pellegrini N. Effect of different cooking methods on nutritional and physio-chemical characteristics of selected vegetables. J. Agric Food Chem. 2008; 56:13 –147

KaO F, Chiu Y S, Tsou M J, Chiang W D.. Effects of Chinese domestic cooking methods on the carotenoid composition of vegetables in Taiwan. LWT. Food Science and Technology. 2012;46:485 – 492.

Casternmiller JJM, West CE. Bioavailability and bioconversion of carotenoids. Annual Review of Nutrition. 1998;18:19–38.

Faulks RM, Southon S. Challenges to understanding and measuring carotenoid bioavailability. Biochemica et Biophysica Acta. 2005;1740(2):95–100.

Rock CL, Lovalvo JL, Emenhiser C, Ruffin MT, Flatt SW, Chwartz SI. Bioavailability of β-carotene is lower in raw than in processes carrot and spinach in women. Journal of Nutrition. 1998; 128:913–916.

Chandler LA, Schwartz SJ. HPLC separation of cis-trans carotene isomers in fresh and processed fruits and vegetables. 1987;52:669–672.

Howard LA, Wong AD, Perry AK. Klein BP. β-carotene and ascorbic acid retention in fresh and processed vegetables. Journal of Food Science. 1999;64:929–936.

Vina SZ, Chaves AR. Texture changes in fresh cut celery during refrigeration storage. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2003;83: 1308 – 1314

Kopasylane LM, Warthense JJ. Carotenoid photostability in raw spinach and carrot during cold storage. J. Food Sci. 1995;36:804 –806.

Schönfeldt HC, Pretorius B. The nutrient content of five traditional South African dark green leafy vegetables- A preliminary. J. Food Comp. Anal. 2011;24:8–13.

Ninomia L, Godoy HT. Comparison of the carotenoid composition and vitamin A value of hydroponic and conventionally produced leaf vegetables Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrition. 2008;17:123-129.(In Press)

Žnidarčič D, Dean B, Helena S. Carotenoid and chlorophyll composition of commonly consumed leafy vegetables in Mediterranean countries. Food Chemistry. 2011;129:1164-1168.

Daly T, Jiwan MA, O’Brien M. Carotenoid content of commonly consumed herbs and assessment of their bioavalability using an in vitro digestion model. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 2010; 65:1641–1649.

Khokhar S, Roe M, Swan G. Carotenoid and retinol composition of South Asian Foods consumed in the U.K. J. Food Comp. Anal. 2012;25:166 – 172.

Rao AV, Rao LG. Invited review carotenoids and human health. Pharmacological Research. 2007; 55:207–216.

Kopsell DA, Kopsell DE, Curran-celentano J, Wenzed AJ. Genetic Variability for Lutein concentrations in leafy vegetable crops can influence serum carotenoid levels and macular pigment optical density in human subjects. Acta Horticulturations. 2009; 841:113–117.

Dias MG, Filomen M, Canoes GFC, Oliveira L. Carotenoids in traditional Portuguese fruits and vegetables. Food Chemistry. 2009;113:808 – 815.

Wisniewska A, and Subczynski W K. Accumulation of macular xanthophylls in unsaturated membrane domains. Free Radical Biology & medicine. 2006; 40:1820–1826.

Van het Hof KH, de Boer BEJ, Tijburg LBM, Lucius BRHM, Zijpi West CT, Hautvast JGAJ, Weststrate JA. Carotenoid bioavailability in humans from tomatoes processed in different ways determined from the carotenoid response in the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fraction of plasma after a single consumption and in plasma after four days of consumption. J. Nutr. 2000a;130:1189– 1196.

Milton JS, Arnold JC. Introduction to Probability and Statistics (4th edn). Mc Graw Hill International edition .2004; 425.