Sensory Evaluation of Ugali Prepared from Blends of Cereal Flours and High Quality Cassava Flour in Mwanza Region, Tanzania

Main Article Content

E. M. Kitunda
M. L. Kasankala
C. M. Cyprian
E. E. Towo
D. G. Mushumbusi
P. W. Meghji


Objective: Ugali is an important meal in many parts of Eastern and Southern Africa and is typically prepared from a single staple food like maize, cassava, millet and sorghum or their composite. The objective of this study was to understand the perception of sensory parameters when varying ratios of maize (refined and unrefined) and sorghum flour when substituted with high quality cassava flour (HQCF) 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% in the preparation of ugali.

Methodology: The samples of ugali prepared were randomly subjected to panelists to evaluate sensory attributes preferred most by panelists. Thirty semi trained panelists who were females and males aged above 18 years participated and gave information on sensory signals. The panelists evaluated the samples independently and recorded the rating of the samples in the sensory evaluation questionnaire. The sensory parameters of ugali assessed were color, cookerbility, taste, texture, aroma and general acceptability using a five point hedonic scale.

Results: Ugali made from the blends of unrefined maize flour (Dona) and HQCF as well as sorghum flour and HQCF at the ratio of 20:80 and 20:80 respectively were highly acceptable by panelists (mean score < 3). Ugali made from refined maize flour (Sembe) blended with HQCF at ratio of 80:20 was also preferred by panelists (mean score < 3) as compared to ugali made from other ratios. The highly acceptability (mean score < 3) of the ugali was influenced by color, cookerbility, taste, texture, aroma. At these flour ratios the blends of flours resulted in increment of protein, fats and slightly decrease in starch content.

Conclusion: Blending HQCF and cereals (sorghum and maize) flours improved the organoleptic and nutritional properties of ugali.

Sensory evaluation, ugali, cassava flour, Mwanza.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kitunda, E. M., Kasankala, M. L., Cyprian, C. M., Towo, E. E., Mushumbusi, D. G., & Meghji, P. W. (2020). Sensory Evaluation of Ugali Prepared from Blends of Cereal Flours and High Quality Cassava Flour in Mwanza Region, Tanzania. European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 12(9), 52-59.
Original Research Article


Ohna I, Kaarhus R, Kinabo J. No Meal without Ugali? Social Significance of Food and Consumption in a Tanzanian Village. Cult Agric Food Environ. 2012;34(1):3–14.

Anyango JO, Kock HL De, Taylor JRN. Evaluation of the functional quality of cowpea-forti fi ed traditional African sorghum foods using instrumental and descriptive sensory analysis. LWT - Food Sci Technol [Internet]. 2011;44(10):2126–33. Available:

Wanjala WG, Onyango A, Makayoto M, Onyango C. Indigenous technical knowledge and formulations of thick (ugali) and thin (uji) porridges consumed in Kenya. African J Food Sci [Internet]. 2016; 10(12):385–96. Available:

Malimi KE, Ladislaus KM, Grace MN, Elifatio T, Cypriana C. Acceptability Assessment of Ugali Made from Blends of High Quality Cassava Flour and Cereal Flours in the Lake Zone, Tanzania. 2018; 2(1):1–11.

Ogunjobi MAK, Ogunwolu SO. Physicochemical and sensory properties of cassava flour biscuits suplemented with cashew apple powder. J Food Technol. 2010;8(1):24–9.

Aschemann-Witzel J, Varela P, Peschel AO. Consumers’ categorization of food ingredients: Do consumers perceive them as ‘clean label’ producers expect? An exploration with projective mapping. Food Qual Prefer [Internet]. 2019;71(June 2018):117–28. Available:

Torquati B, Tempesta T, Vecchiato D. Tasty or Sustainable ? The Effect of Product Sensory Experience on a Sustainable New Food Product: An Application of Discrete Choice Experiments on Chianina Tinned Beef. 2018;1–24.

Steenkamp J. Food Consumption Behavior; 2017.

Palczak J, Blumenthal D, Rogeaux M, Delarue J. Sensory complexity and its influence on hedonic responses: A systematic review of applications in food and beverages. Food Qual Prefer. 2019; 71:66–75.

Paper C, Muinga RW. Acceptability of ugali and porridge made from blends of cassava and maize flour in coastal Kenya; 2015.

Bangu NTA, Mtebe K, Nzallawahe TS. Consumer acceptability of stiff porridge based on various composite flour proportions of sorghum, maize and cassava. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1994; 46(4):299–303.

Ditlevsen K, Sandøe P, Lassen J. Healthy food is nutritious, but organic food is healthy because it is pure: The negotiation of healthy food choices by Danish consumers of organic food. Food Qual Prefer [Internet]. 2019;71:46–53. Available:

Burns A, Gleadow R, Cliff J, Zacarias A, Cavagnaro T. Cassava: The drought, war and famine crop in a changing world. Sustainability. 2010;2(11):3572–607.

Kasankala LM, Kitunda ME, Towo EE, Ngwasy GM, Kaitira L, Cyprian C, et al. Antinutritional factors reduction from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Roots by grating or chipping processing technique in Mtwara Tanzania. Eur J Nutr Food Saf [Internet]. 2019;9(2):163–71. Available:

Young VR, Pellett PL. Plant proteins in relation to human protein and amino acid nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59(5).

Anglani C. Sorghum for human food- A review. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1998;52: 85–95.

Pardhi SD, Singh B, Nayik GA, Dar BN. Evaluation of functional properties of extruded snacks developed from brown rice grits by using response surface methodology. J Saudi Soc Agric Sci [Internet]. 2019;18(1):7–16. Available:

Choi Y, Lee J. The effect of extrinsic cues on consumer perception: A study using milk tea products. Food Qual Prefer. 2019; 71:343–53.

Mccrickerd K, Forde CG. Sensory influences on food intake control : moving beyond palatability*; 2015.

Kasankala LM, Xiong YL, Chen J. The Influence of Douchi Starter Cultures on the Composition of Extractive Components, Microbiological Activity, and Sensory Properties of Fermented Fish Pastes. 2011;76(1).

Helrich K. AOAC: Official Methods of Analysis. 1990;1(1):552.49.

Mlingi LV, Nicholas. Reduction of cyanides level during drying of cassava in Tanzania. Acta Hortic Int Work Cassava Safety, Ibadan Niger. 1994;375:233–9,48.

Julie A Montagnac, Christopher R Davis, and Sherry A. Tanumihardjo. Nutritional value of cassava for use as a staple food and recent advances for improvement. Comprehensive Reviews In Food Science and Food Safety. 2009;8:181-194.

Chad Bontrager BS. Flour moisture control for maximum water addition. A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Agribusiness Department of Agricultural Economics College of Agriculture Kansas State University Manhattan, Kansas; 2003.

Iwe MO, Michael N, Madu NE, Obasi NE, Onwuka GI, et al. Production and evaluation of bread made from high quality cassava flour (HQCF) and Wheat Flour Blends. Agrotechnology. 2017;6:166. DOI: 10.4172/2168-9881.1000166

Nwosu JN, Owuamanam CI, Omeire GC, Eke CC Quality parameters of bread produced from substitution of wheat flour with cassava flour using soybean as an improver. Am J Res Comm. 2014;2:99-118.

Jimoh, WLO, Abdullahi MS. Proximate analysis of selected sorghum cultivars. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2017;10(1):285-288.

Aamir Hamid Khan, Nasir Mehmood Minhas, Muhammad Javaid Asad, Azhar Iqbal, Muhammad Ilyas, Raja Tahir Mahmood- estimation of protein, carbohydrate, starch and oil contents of indigenous maize (Zea mays L.) Germplasm. European Academic Research. 2014;2(4):5230-5240.

Watson SA. Description, development, structure, and composition of the corn kernel. In: White PJ, Johnson LA, editors. Corn: chemistry and technology. 2nd Ed. St. Paul, MN: American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. 2003;69– 106.

Morteza Oghbaei & Jamuna Prakash | Fatih Yildiz (Reviewing Editor). Effect of primary processing of cereals and legumes on its nutritional quality: A comprehensive review, Cogent Food & Agriculture. 2016; 2:1. DOI: 10.1080/23311932.2015.1136015

Onyango C. Physical properties of dry-milled maize meals and their relationship with the texture of stiff and thin porridge. African journal of food science. 2014; 8(8):435-443. DOI: 10.5897/AJFS 2014.1185

Masresha Minuye Tasie and Belay Gezahegn Gebreyes. Characterization of Nutritional, Antinutritional, and Mineral Contents of Thirty-Five Sorghum Varieties Grown in Ethiopia International Journal of Food Science. 2020;11, Article ID 8243617. Available:

East African Community. Draft East African Standard (DEAS 779:2012). High quality cassava flour — Specification. First Edition; 2012.

Karuri PEE, Mbugua PSK, Karugia J. Marketing Opportunities for cassava based products : An Assessment of the Industrial Potential in Kenya. Development; 2001.

Muhihi AJ, Shemaghembe E, Njelekela MA, Gimbi D, Mwambene K, Malik VS, et al. Perceptions, facilitators, and barriers to consumption of whole grain staple foods among overweight and obese Tanzanian Adults: A Focus Group Study. ISRN Public Health [Internet]. 2012;2012:1–7. Available:

Bolarinwa IF, Olaniyan SA, Adebayo LO, Ademola AA. Malted sorghum-soy composite flour: Preparation, chemical and physico-chemical properties. J Food Process Technol. 2015;6:467. DOI: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000467