Dietary Practices of Health Professionals during Working Hours in a Tertiary Referral Teaching Hospital In Ghana: A Neglected Vulnerable Group
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety,
Aim: Generally, it is assumed that health professionals are knowledgeable about healthy eating and as such studies aimed at assessing their dietary practices and the factors that influence these practices have been largely neglected. These studies are important because the dietary habits of healthcare professionals (HCPs) can have an impact on their well-being, health status and even their work output. Largely, there is a dearth of information about the dietary practices of HCPs during working hours. This study was aimed at assessing the dietary practices of HCPs during working hours at a referral teaching hospital in Ghana.
Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study in which a questionnaire was administered to 320 HCPs.
Methodology: A questionnaire was administered to the HCPs in the hospital after obtaining informed consent (written) from the HCPs. The questionnaire solicited information about their socio-demographics, dietary practices and nutritional knowledge. Descriptive statistics were summarized as frequencies and proportions.
Results: Approximately 13.1%, 47.5% and 39.4% were underweight, normal weight and overweight respectively. Carbonated beverages, baked foods and fried foods were consumed four (4) or more times in a week by more than half of the HCPs because they were regarded as convenience foods which could be eaten while working. About 76.9%, 52.8% and 58.4% skipped their breakfast, lunch and supper meal respectively at least once in the past one (1) week before the study.
Conclusions: The findings reveal concerns about the unhealthy dietary habits and basic nutrition knowledge gaps among the surveyed HCPs. Most HCPs skipped breakfast and ate a lot of unhealthy foods such as carbonated beverages, baked foods and fried foods frequently during working hours. Recommendations made include the need for hospital management to provide canteens that serve healthy meals for HCPs at their job sites. There is also the need for management to organize the work-schedules of HCPs in order to manage their workloads in a manner that enables them have adequate breaktimes to access and eat healthy foods while at work.
- Dietary practices
- nutritional knowledge
- healthcare professionals
- working hours
How to Cite
Gupta CC, Coates AM, Dorrian J, Banks S. The factors influencing the eating behaviour of shiftworkers: What, when, where and why. Industrial Health. 2019;57(4):419-453.
Hamidi MS, Boggild MK, Cheung AM. Running on empty: a review of nutrition and physicians' well-being. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2016;92(1090):478-481.
Monaghan T, Dinour L, Liou D, Shefchik M. Factors influencing the eating practices of hospital nurses during their shifts. Workplace Health & Safety. 2018;66(7):331-342.
Witkoski A, Dickson VV. Hospital staff nurses' work hours, meal periods, and rest breaks: A review from an occupational health nurse perspective. Aaohn Journal. 2010;58(11):489-497.
Malik S, Blake H, Batt M. How healthy are our nurses? New and registered nurses compared. British Journal of Nursing. 2011;20:489- 496.
Al Hazmi TM, Alghamdi A, Abdulmajeed I. Eating habits among healthcare providers during working hours at National Guard health affairs-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences. 2018;7(9):1-14.
Duodu C, Awuni TK, Attito P, Zotor FB. Assessment of overweight and obesity prevalence among practicing nurses and midwives in the Hohoe Municipality of the Volta Region, Ghana. Science Journal of Public Health. 2015;3(6):842-851.
Hurtado DA, Nelson CC, Hashimoto D, Sorensen G. Supervisors’ support for nurses’ meal breaks and mental health. Workplace Health & Safety. 2015;63(3):107-115.
Lemaire JB, Wallace JE, Dinsmore K, Roberts D. Food for thought: an exploratory study of how physicians experience poor workplace nutrition. Nutrition Journal. 2011;10(1):1-8.
Chung HC, Chen YC, Chang SC, Hsu WL, Hsieh TC. Nurses’ well-being, health-promoting lifestyle and work environment satisfaction correlation: A Psychometric Study for Development of Nursing Health and Job Satisfaction Model and Scale. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020;17(10):3582.
Betancourt-Nuñez A, Márquez-Sandoval F, González-Zapata LI, Babio N, Vizmanos B. Unhealthy dietary patterns among healthcare professionals and students in Mexico. BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):1246.
Joseph B, Joseph M. The health of the healthcare workers. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2016;20(2):71.
Von Delft A, Dramowski A, Khosa C, Kotze K, Lederer P, Mosidi T, Willems B. Why healthcare workers are sick of TB. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2015;32:147-151.
Aggarwal M, Singh Ospina N, Kazory A, Joseph I, Zaidi Z, Ataya A, Sattari M. The mismatch of nutrition and lifestyle beliefs and actions among physicians: A wake-up call. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. 2020;14(3):304-315.
Ahmad W, Taggart F, Shafique MS, Muzafar Y, Abidi S, Ghani N, Ghaffar N. Diet, exercise and mental-wellbeing of healthcare professionals (doctors, dentists and nurses) in Pakistan. Peer J. 2015;3:e1250.
Shai I, Erlich D, Cohen AD, Urbach M, Yosef N, Levy O, Shahar DR. The effect of personal lifestyle intervention among health care providers on their patients and clinics; the Promoting Health by Self Experience (PHASE) randomized controlled intervention trial. Preventive Medicine. 2012;55(4):285-291.
Jonsdottir IH, Börjesson M, Ahlborg G. Healthcare workers' participation in a healthy-lifestyle-promotion project in western Sweden. BMC Public Health. 2011;11(1):448.
Blake H, Harrison C. Health behaviours and attitudes towards being role models. British Journal of Nursing. 2013;22(2):86-94.
Kemppainen V, Tossavainen K, Turunen H. Nurses' roles in health promotion practice: an integrative review. Health Promotion International. 2013;28(4):490-501.
Reed D. Healthy eating for healthy nurses: nutrition basics to promote health for nurses and patients. Online J Issues Nurs [Internet]. 2014;29(3).
Alduraywish SA, Altamimi LA, Aldhuwayhi RA, AlZamil LR, Alzeghayer LY, Alsaleh FS, Tharkar S. Sources of health information and their impacts on medical knowledge perception among the Saudi Arabian Population: Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2020;22(3):e14414.
Kunene SH, Taukobong NP. Dietary habits among health professionals working in a district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine. 2017;9(1):1-5.
Heale R, Twycross A. Validity and reliability in quantitative studies. Evidence-based Nursing. 2015;18(3):66-67.
World Health Organization. A healthy diet sustainably produced: information sheet (No. WHO/NMH/NHD/18.12). World Health Organization; 2018.
Snow R, Herbst CH, Haddad D, Kwansah J, Antwi J, Ekey VF. The distribution of health workers. Toward Interventions in Human Resources for Health in Ghana. 2012;49.
Kasu ES, Ayim A, Tampouri J. Prevalence of obesity among health workers in Kadjebi District of Ghana. Biology Agriculture and Healthcare. 2015;5.
Osei-Yeboah J, Kye-Amoah KK, Owiredu WK, Lokpo SY, Esson J, Bella Johnson B, Asumbasiya Aduko R. Cardiometabolic risk factors among healthcare workers: A cross-sectional study at the Sefwi-Wiawso Municipal Hospital, Ghana. BioMed Research International; 2018.
Ma X, Chen Q, Pu Y, Guo M, Jiang Z, Huang W, Xu Y. Skipping breakfast is associated with overweight and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice. 2020;14(1):1-8.
Rouhani MH, Haghighatdoost F, Surkan PJ, Azadbakht L. Associations between dietary energy density and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Nutrition. 2016;32(10):1037-1047.
Zeballos E, Todd JE. The effects of skipping a meal on daily energy intake and diet quality. Public Health Nutrition. 2020;23(18):3346-3355.
Yalcin N, Cihan A, Gundogdu H, Ocakci AF. Nutrition knowledge level of nurses; 2014.
Abdollahi M, Houshiarrad A, Abtahi M, Esmaeli M, Pouraram H, Khoshfetrat MR, Keshel SH. The nutrition knowledge level of physicians, nurses and nutritionists in some educational hospitals. Archives of Advances in Biosciences. 2013;4.
Fletcher A, Carey E. Knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care. British Journal of Nursing. 2011;20(10):615-620.
Håkonsen SJ, Pedersen PU, Bygholm A, Thisted CN, Bjerrum M. Lack of focus on nutrition and documentation in nursing homes, home care-and home nursing: the self-perceived views of the primary care workforce. BMC Health Services Research. 2019;19(1):1-15.
Mogre V, Stevens FC, Aryee PA, Matorwmasen-Akkermans FL, Abubakari B, Scherpbier AJ. Nutrition care practices, barriers, competencies and education in nutrition: a survey among Ghanaian medical doctors. Medical Science Educator. 2018;28(4):815-824.
Dumic A, Miskulin M, Pavlovic N, Orkic Z, Bilic-Kirin V, Miskulin I. The nutrition knowledge of Croatian general practitioners. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2018;7(7):178.
Daradkeh GA, Al Bader K, Singh R. The nutrition knowledge of primary care physicians in the state of Qatar. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2012;11(8):683.
Chen H, Zhang B, Ge Y, Shi H, Song S, Xue W, Tian L. Association between skipping breakfast and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: A meta-analysis. Clinical Nutrition. 2020;39(10):2982-2988.
Santos HO, Genario R, Macedo RC, Pareek M, Tinsley GM. Association of breakfast skipping with cardiovascular outcomes and cardiometabolic risk factors: an updated review of clinical evidence. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2020;1-9.
Tang Z, Zhang N, Liu A, Luan D, Zhao Y, Song C, Ma G. The effects of breakfast on short-term cognitive function among Chinese white-collar workers: protocol for a three-phase crossover study. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):1-8.
Ferrer-Cascales R, Sánchez-SanSegundo M, Ruiz-Robledillo N, Albaladejo-Blázquez N, Laguna-Pérez A, Zaragoza-Martí A. Eat or skip breakfast? The important role of breakfast quality for health-related quality of life, stress and depression in Spanish adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018;15(8):1781.
Pendergast FJ, Livingstone KM, Worsley A, McNaughton SA. Examining the correlates of meal skipping in Australian young adults. Nutrition Journal. 2019;18(1):1-10.
Shin WY, Kim JH. Use of workplace foodservices is associated with reduced meal skipping in Korean adult workers: A nationwide cross-sectional study. Plos One. 2020;15(12):e0243160.
Haugaard P, Stancu CM, Brockhoff PB, Thorsdottir I, Lähteenmäki L. Determinants of meal satisfaction in a workplace environment. Appetite. 2016;105:195-203.
Dorrian J, Paterson J, Dawson D, Pincombe J, Grech C, Rogers AE. Sleep, stress and compensatory behaviors in Australian nurses and midwives. Revista de Saude Publica. 2011; 45(5):922-930.
Higbee MR, Chilton JM, El-Saidi M, Duke G, Haas BK. Nurses consuming energy drinks report poorer sleep and higher stress. Western Journal of Nursing Research. 2020;42(1):24-31.
Di Muzio M, Diella G, Di Simone E, Novelli L, Alfonsi V, Scarpelli S, De Gennaro L. Nurses and Night Shifts: Poor sleep quality exacerbates psychomotor performance. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2020;14:1050.
Pilcher JJ, Morris DM. Sleep and organizational behavior: implications for workplace productivity and safety. Frontiers in Psychology. 2020;11:45.
Trockel MT, Menon NK, Rowe SG, Stewart MT, Smith R, Lu M, Shanafelt TD. Assessment of physician sleep and wellness, burnout, and clinically significant medical errors. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(12):e2028111-e2028111.
Parry DA, Oeppen RS, Amin MSA, Brennan PA. Sleep: its importance and the effects of deprivation on surgeons and other healthcare professionals. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 2018;56(8):663-666.
Rajiah K. A cross sectional survey on knowledge, attitude and practice of staff members towards daily water intake during working hours in International Medical University, Malaysia. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2012;5:143-145.
Alomar MZ, Akkam A, Alashqar S, Eldali A. Decreased hydration status of emergency department physicians and nurses by the end of their shift. International joUrnal of Emergency Medicine. 2013;6(1):1-7.
El-Sharkawy AM, Bragg D, Watson P, Neal K, Sahota O, Maughan RJ, Lobo DN. Hydration amongst nurses and doctors on-call (the HANDS on prospective cohort study). Clinical Nutrition. 2016;35(4):935-942.
Katz B, Airaghi K, Davy B. Does hydration status influence executive function? a systematic review. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics; 2021.
Banwat ME, Haruna SA, Vongdip NG, Duru AK, Afolaranmi TO. Assessment of the nutritional knowledge, eating habits and nutritional statuses of healthcare workers in Jos, North-central Nigeria; 2018.
Abstract View: 79 times
PDF Download: 23 times