Comparative Study of the Safety and Chemical Composition of Commercially Available Fruit Juices and Soft Drinks in Southwest Nigeria
European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety,
Aims: Fruits juices and soft drinks are among the most important and convenient foods which are commonly consumed to quench thirst, and as sources of micronutrients. However, most fruit juices commercially sold in Nigeria are not pure juice but contain additives which may affect the safety and quality attributes of the product. This study therefore, evaluated the chemical composition and microbiological safety of some commercially sold fruit juices and drinks and compared their quality with pure fruit juices.
Methodology: Twenty commercially sold fruit juices and soft drinks were analyzed for physicochemical properties, vitamins and minerals composition, and microbiological quality using standard analytical procedures.
Results: Pure fruit juices contain similar pH, total titratable acidity, and specific gravity as the commercial fruit juices and soft drinks, but significantly higher total solid contents. The total soluble solid recorded for the pure pineapple (22 g/100ml) and watermelon juice (25.9 g/100ml) were significantly higher than the values (11.1 – 15.5g/100ml) recorded for the commercial fruit juices. The vitamin C content of the commercial soft drink ranged from 22.94 to 26.14 μg/100g, and that of commercial fruit juices and pure fruit juices ranged from 14.89 to 22.81μg/100g with pure fruit juice having the lowest value.
Conclusion: The physicochemical properties of the pure fruit juices and commercial fruit and soft drinks were similar except for total solids and Brix level. Commercial fruit juices and soft drinks contain higher vitamins and minerals than pure fruit juices due to addition of synthetic vitamins and minerals. All the commercial fruit juice samples and soft drinks were free of microbial loads and would not cause any health problems if properly handled after purchase. The study however, recommends the consumption of hygienically prepared pure fruit juices because they are free from synthetic additives.
- Fruit juice
- soft drinks
- physicochemical properties
- vitamin contents
- mineral composition
- microbiological safety
How to Cite
Augustine CO, Abuajah CI, Ekpe, GE. A comparative study of the nutritive factors and sensory acceptance of juices from selected Nigerian fruits. Croatian Journal of Food Technology, Biotechnology and Nutrition. 2013;8 (1-2):47-51.
Costescu C, Parvu D, Rivis A. (2006). The determination of some physio-chemical characteristics for orange, grapefruit and tomato juices. Journal of Agro Alimentary Processes and Technologies. 2006;12(2);429-432.
Bolarinwa IF, Aruna TE, Adejuyitan JA, Akintayo OA, Lawal OK. Development and quality evaluation of soy-walnut milk drinks. International Food Research Journal. 2018;25(5):2033-2041.
Bolarinwa IF, Aruna TE, Ajetunmobi RI, Adejuyitan JA, Alawode OW. Pawpaw enriched soymilk beverage. Bangladesh J. Scientific and. Industrial. Research. 2021;56(2):105-114.
Kregiel D. Health Safety of Soft Drinks:Contents, Containers, and Microorganisms. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology. BioMedical Research International. 2015;1-15.
Adams SO, Akano RO, Rauf RI. An evaluation of the chemical composition of soft drinks in nigeria:a principal component analysis approach. Advances in Modelling and Analysis. 2020;57(1-4):14-21.
Phillip BB, Shittu AM, Ashaolu OF. (2013). Demand for non-alcoholic beverages among urban households in southwest, Nigeria. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2013;13(3):7853-7869.
AOAC. Official methods of analysis of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (18th ed.). Gaithersburg, USA:Gaithersburg Publishing. 2011.
Bolarinwa IF, Aruna TE, Abioye AO, Adelakun OE. Influence of cashew steaming on the quality attributes of cashew-pawpaw mixed fruit juice. Agrosearch. 2020;20(1):34-44.
Adedeye A, Adewoke K. Chemical composition and fatty acidprofiles of cereals Nigerian. Food Chemistry. 1992;44:41-44
Bolarinwa IF, Aruna TE, Adejuyitan JA, Adeyemo GA, Alabi OD. 2020b. Chemical, Physical and Sensory Properties of Pawpaw Fortified Pan Bread. Journal of Food Chemistry and Nanotechnology. 2020;6(2):65-71.
Okwu DE. Phytochemicals and vitamin contents of indigenous spices of southeastern Nigeria. Journal Sustainable Agriculture Environment. 2004;6(1):30-37.
Okwu DE, Josiah C. Evaluation of the chemical composition of two Nigerian medicinal plants. African Journal Biotechnology. 2006;5(4):357 – 361.
AMPH. “Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods”. American Public Health Association, Washington DC. 1992.
Harrigan WF, McCance ME. Biochemical test for bacteria. In Harrigan WF, McCance ME (Eds.), Laboratory Methods in Food and Dairy Microbiology. Academic Press. London, UK. 1982;p. 452.
FAO. FAO/INFOODS Density Database/Version2.0. Prepared by:U. Ruth Charrondiere, David Haytowitz and Barbara Stadlmayr. Rome, Italy. 2012. Accessed 24 September 2021. Available:http://www.fao.org/3/ap815e/ap815e.pdf
Bates RP, Morris JR, Crandall PG. Principles practices of small and medium scale fruit juice processing. Food & Agriculture Org. 2001;146:1-226.
Ndife J, Awogbenja D, Zakari U. Comparative evaluation of the nutritional and sensory quality of different brands of orange juice in Nigerian market. African Journal of Food Science. 2013;7(12):479 – 484.
Stratford M, Capell CJ. Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition). (2003);Available:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B012 227055X011032.
EFSA (European Food Safety Authority). The setting of nutrient profiles for foods Bearing nutrition and health claims pursuant to Article4 of the Regulation (EC.) No 1924/2006:Scientific opinion of the panel on dietetic products, nutrition and allergies. EFSA Journal. 2011;6(2). Available:https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2008.644
Benjakul P, Chuenarrom, C. Association of dental enamel loss with the pH and titratable acidity of beverages. Journal of Dental Sciences. 2011;6(3):129-133
Godwill EA, JaneaIlo IC, Unaegbu US, Ayuk M, Osuji LE, Gloria A. Determination of some soft drink constituents and contamination by some heavy metals. Toxicology. 2015;2:384-390
Gbarakoro SL, Ilomechine AG, Gbarato BG.(2020). Analysis of the physico-chemical properties of commercial fruit juices sold in a local market in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. International Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Processes. 2020;6(1). Available:www.iiardpub.org
FAO. General Standard for Fruit Juices and nectar. 2005. CODEX Alimentanus commission. Available:www.codex alimentanus. Org/…/standards/…/CXS].247.
USDA. United State Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. 2019. Available:https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/169098/nutrients. Accessed on 24 September 2021
Dosumu O, Oluwaniyi O, Awolola GV, Okunola MO. Stability studies and mineral concentration of some Nigerian packed fruit juices, concentrate and local beverages. African Journal Food Science. 2009;3(3):082-085.
Egbekun MK, Akubor PI. Chemical composition and sensory properties of melon seed- orange juice beverage. Nigerian Food Journal. 2007;24(1):42-45.
Azad AK. Genetic diversity of jackfruit in Bangladesh and development of propagation methods. 2000. PhD Thesis, University of Southampton, UK.
Sairi M, Yih LJ, Sarmidi MR. Chemical composition and sensory analysis of fresh pineapple juice and deacidified pineapple juice using electrodialysis. Regional Symposium on Membrane Science and Technology. 2004;21–25. April 2004, Puteri Pan Pacific Hotel, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia. Accessed 24 September 2021. Available:http://eprints.utm.my/6174/.
WHO. Potassium intake for adults and children. 2012. Accessed 24 September 2021. Available:https://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/guidelines/potassium_intake_printversion.pdf.
Adams SO, Akano RO, Rauf RI. An evaluation of the chemical composition of soft drinks in nigeria:A principal component analysis approach. Advances in Modelling and Analysis. 2020;57(1-4):14-21
Maakelo PK, Rosemary GB, Kobue-Lekalake I, Gwamba J, Sonno K. Effects of watermelon pulp fortification on maize mageu physicochemical and sensory acceptability. Heliyon, 2021;7(5):e07128.
Adams SO, Akano RO, Rauf RI (2020). An evaluation of the chemical composition of soft drinks in Nigeria:A principal component analysis approach. Advances in Modelling and Analysis. 2020;57(1-4):14-21
CFS (Centre for Food Safety). (2014). Microbiological guidelines for food:For ready-to-eat food in general and specific food items. Centre for Food Safety, Food and Environmental Hygiene Department, Hong Kong. pp. 6–7.
Bolarinwa IF, Rukayat IA. Influence of Osmotic Pre-treatment and Drying on Physicochemical, Microbial, and Storage Stability of African Star Apple. FUOYE Journal of Engineering and Technology (FUOYEJET). 2020;5(1):11-16.
Abstract View: 158 times
PDF Download: 34 times