European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>European Journal of Nutrition and Food Safety (ISSN: 2347-5641)</strong> publishes 1. Research papers; 2. Review papers; 3. Case studies; 4. Short communications as well as 5. (extended) abstracts of Grey literature government reports in all areas of nutrition and food safety. EJNFS considers the following areas out of scope: food science, food technology, food composition, food analysis, food palatability, animal nutrition. EJNFS is a quality controlled, double blind peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal in the area of human nutrition and food safety and toxicology.</p> European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety en-US European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety 2347-5641 Risk Assessment of "Other Substances" – L-Glutamine and L-glutamic Acid https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30261 <p>The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses given by the NFSA. These risk assessments will provide the NFSA with the scientific basis for regulating the addition of “other substances” to food supplements and other foods.</p> <p>"Other substances" are described in the food supplement directive 2002/46/EC as substances other than vitamins or minerals that have a nutritional or physiological effect. They are added mainly to food supplements, but also to energy drinks and other foods. VKM has not in this series of risk assessments of "other substances" evaluated any claimed beneficial effects from these substances, only possible adverse effects.</p> <p>The present report is limited to the use of L-glutamine and L-glutamic acid in food supplements. Risks related to glutamine and glutamic acid added to food and drinks, protein hydrolysates or high dietary protein intake are outside the scope of the opinion. The report is based on previous risk assessments of glutamine and glutamic acid and scientific papers retrieved from a comprehensive literature search.</p> <p>L-glutamine is considered a non-essential amino acid in humans. In addition to its role in protein synthesis and the handling by the body of ammonia (via urea cycle), L-glutamine participates in other complex metabolic pathways e.g. in the central nervous system, immune system, and insulin secretion. L-glutamine is deaminated by glutaminase to form glutamic acid. L-glutamine is available from all protein-containing foods. High-protein foods contain the most (e.g. meat, fish, eggs and dairy products).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>L-glutamic acid is a non-essential amino acid. At physiological conditions its side chain is fully ionised, i.e. it exists in the form of glutamate. In addition to its role as substrate in protein synthesis, glutamic acid has important metabolic roles as a source of α-ketoglutarate in the citric acid cycle and in the handling by the body of ammonia (via urea cycle). Glutamic acid is also a major neurotransmitter. In the unbound form only, glutamic acid is responsible for umami, one of the five basic tastes sensed by humans. Glutamic acid is used as a flavour enhancer in the form of its salt monosodium glutamate. All meats, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products are excellent sources of glutamic acid. Some protein-rich plant foods also serve as sources, e.g. wheat protein contains 30% to 35% glutamic acid.&nbsp;</p> <p>According to information from the NFSA, L-glutamine and glutamic acid are ingredients in food supplements sold in Norway. The NFSA has requested a risk assessment of the following doses of L-glutamine in food supplements: 3500 mg/day, 5000 mg/day, 8000 mg/day, 10000 mg/day, 12000 mg/day, 15000 mg/day, and 16500 mg/day, and the following doses of glutamic acid: 1000 mg/day, 2000 mg/day, 3000 mg/day, 4000 mg/day, 5000 mg/day, and 5500 mg/day. Dietary intake in Norway is not known, but data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) 1988-1994 in the USA suggest a mean dietary intake of about 15 g glutamic acid per day.</p> <p>In phase 1 of the present evaluation of "other substances", previous reports that assessed the safety of L-glutamine or L-glutamic acid supplementation in humans were identified. For the present report, a systematic literature search was performed to retrieve human studies published in the period 2011-2015, and in addition separate literature searches were performed for animal studies and studies in children and adolescents. The main search retrieved no publications reporting results from trials with L-glutamine or L-glutamic acid in healthy humans, nor did the search for studies in children and adolescents identify any relevant publications. Three human studies on glutamates were included as part of the risk assessment of glutamic acid. The search for animal studies retrieved four relevant reports.</p> <p>No major specific issues related to safety of L-glutamine and L-glutamic acid used as food supplements were identified in previous reports. However, a lack of studies in healthy adult individuals as well as in children was pointed out, and in particular the absence of long-term studies in healthy individuals.&nbsp;</p> <p>According to previous reports, short-term intake of doses of L-glutamine up to 0.5 g/kg bw per day has not been found to cause significant adverse effects. Up to 1.5 g per day of Lglutamic acid has been reported not to be associated with adverse effects. Conclusions in previous reports have indicated maximum supplemental levels of 3.5 and 5 g per day of Lglutamine and 1 g per day of L-glutamic acid.&nbsp;</p> <p>For the risk characterisation of L-glutamine, in the absence of long-term human studies in healthy individuals, VKM will base the value of comparison on the highest dose tested (no observed adverse effect level; NOAEL) in two 90-day studies in rodents, 3832 mg/kg bw per day. Employing an uncertainty factor of 10 for the extrapolation between species, the value of comparison is set to 383 mg/kg bw per day, corresponding to 26.8 g per day in a 70 kg adult. Data from studies in various patient groups support the data from the two animal studies indicating the absence of significant adverse effects with this dose.&nbsp;</p> <p>In the risk characterisation of L-glutamic acid, in the absence of any unequivocally demonstrated reproducible adverse effect in short-term human studies and an absence of long-term studies in healthy individuals, VKM will base the value of comparison on the highest dose tested (NOAEL) in a 28-day study in rodents, 953 mg/kg bw per day. Employing an uncertainty factor of 10 for the extrapolation between species, the value of comparison is set to 95 mg/kg bw, corresponding to 6.7 g per day in a 70 kg adult. Data from early long-term studies in humans (doses up to 45 g per day) and in animals as well as short-term studies on glutamates support the data from the animal study indicating the absence of significant adverse effects with this dose.&nbsp;</p> <p>Based on these data, the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) concludes that:</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;L-glutamine:</strong></p> <ul> <li>In adults (≥18 years), the specified doses of 3500, 5000, 8000, 10000, 12000, 15000 and 16500 mg/day L-glutamine in food supplements are considered unlikely to cause adverse health effects.</li> <li>In adolescents (14 to &lt;18 years), the specified doses of 3500, 5000, 8000, 10000, 12000, 15000 and 16500 mg/day mg/day L-glutamine in food supplements are considered unlikely to cause adverse health effects.</li> <li>In children (10 to &lt;14 years), the specified doses of 3500, 5000, 8000, 10000, 12000, 15000 and 16500 mg/day mg/day L-glutamine in food supplements are considered unlikely to cause adverse health effects.</li> </ul> <p><strong>L-glutamic acid:</strong></p> <ul> <li>In adults (≥18 years), the specified doses of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000 and 5500 mg/day L-glutamic acid in food supplements are considered unlikely to cause adverse health effects.</li> <li>In adolescents (14 to &lt;18 years), the specified doses of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000 and 5500 mg/day L-glutamic acid in food supplements are considered unlikely to cause adverse health effects.</li> <li>In children (10 to &lt;14 years), the specified doses 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 mg/day Lglutamic acid in food supplements are considered unlikely to cause adverse health effects. The specified doses of 5000 and 5500 mg/day may represent a risk of adverse health effects.</li> <li>Children below 10 years were not included in the terms of reference.</li> <li>Short summary:</li> <li>The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority, assessed the risk of specified doses of L-glutamine and Lglutamic acid in food supplements. VKM concludes that:</li> <li>L-glutamine</li> <li>In adults (≥18 years), the specified doses of 3500, 5000, 8000, 10000, 12000, 15000 and 16500 mg/day L-glutamine in food supplements are considered unlikely to cause adverse health effects.</li> <li>In adolescents (14 to &lt;18 years), the specified doses of 3500, 5000, 8000, 10000, 12000, 15000 and 16500 mg/day L-glutamine in food supplements are considered unlikely to cause adverse health effects.</li> <li>In children (10 to &lt;14 years), the specified doses of 3500, 5000, 8000, 10000, 12000, 15000 and 16500 mg/day L-glutamine in food supplements are considered unlikely to cause adverse health effects.</li> </ul> <p><strong>L-glutamic acid:</strong></p> <ul> <li>In adults (≥18 years), the specified doses of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000 and 5500 mg/day L-glutamic acid in food supplements are considered unlikely to cause adverse health effects.</li> <li>In adolescents (14 to &lt;18 years), the specified doses of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000 and 5500 mg/day L-glutamic acid in food supplements are considered unlikely to cause adverse health effects.</li> <li>In children (10 to &lt;14 years), the specified doses 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 mg/day Lglutamic acid in food supplements are considered unlikely to cause adverse health effects. The specified doses of 5000 and 5500 mg/day may represent a risk of adverse health effects.</li> </ul> <p>Children below 10 years were not included in the terms of reference.</p> Martinus Løvik Livar Frøyland Margaretha Haugen Kristin Holvik Bjørn Steen Skålhegg Tonje Holte Stea Tor A. Strand Grethe S. Tell Per Ole Iversen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-05 2020-08-05 54 57 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i830261 Risk Assessment of "Other Substances" – L-lysine https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30262 <p>The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses given by NFSA. These risk assessments will provide NFSA with the scientific basis while regulating "other substances" in food supplements.</p> <p>"Other substances" are described in the food supplement directive 2002/46/EC as <em>substances other than vitamins or minerals that have a nutritional and/ or physiological effect</em>. It is added mainly to food supplements, but also to energy drinks and other foods. In this series of risk assessments of "other substances" the VKM has not evaluated any claimed beneficial effects from these substances, only possible adverse effects.</p> <p>The present report is limited to the use of L-lysine in food supplements. Risks related to lysine added to food and drinks, protein hydrolysates or high dietary protein intake are outside the scope of the opinion. The report is based on previous risk assessments of lysine and scientific papers retrieved from a comprehensive literature search.</p> <p>According to information from the NFSA, L-lysine is an ingredient in food supplements sold in Norway. NSFA has requested a risk assessment of 1000, 2000, 2500, 2750 and 3000 mg/day of L-lysine from food supplements. Foods rich in L-lysine are generally protein rich foods such as meat, dairy products, eggs, legumes, and some fish. Based on NHANES III (19881994), the overall mean intake of L-lysine from food and food supplements in the United States was 5.3 g/day (IOM, 2005).</p> <p>L-Lysine, an indispensable amino acid, is present in all proteins in the human body. Its catabolisation takes place mainly in the liver. The two nitrogen groups are transferred to alpha-ketoglutarate to form glutamate. The remaining carbon skeleton is broken down to acetoacetyl-CoA. Lysine is exclusively ketogenic i.e. does not enter gluconeogenesis for the production of glucose.</p> <p>In the first phase of the present evaluation of L-lysine, previous reports evaluating the safety of L-lysine supplementation in humans were identified. In the second phase, two systematic literature searches have been performed to retrieve scientific papers published before 11 May 2016 (human studies literature search) and before 28 September 2016 (animal studies literature search). Based on these searches, we identified two human studies and one study in rats that could be used for risk assessment of L-lysine in food supplement.</p> <p>According to a report from the Institute of Medicine in the USA (IOM, 2005), several clinical trials of lysine with intakes ranging from 0.6 to 3.0 g/day for 3 to 6 months have not reported any adverse effects. The same was the case for the two human randomised controlled trials (RCTs) included in this report providing 6 g/day L-lysine orally for 8 weeks to schizophrenic patients. One 90-days subchronic toxicity study with rats was identified, showing a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 3357 mg/kg bw per day (the highest dose tested), with no functional, biochemical or histological changes in renal function. In the present report, the value of comparison is set to 86 mg/kg bw per day, corresponding to 6000 mg per day in a 70 kg adult; the daily dose provided in the two human RCTs. The calculated margins of exposures (MOE-values) range from 1.2 to 6.0 for the specified supplement doses with 1000-3000 mg/day of L-lysine. MOE-values below 10 (for interindividual differences in humans) is regarded as acceptable since L-lysine is a nutrient that does not cause any known adverse effects. In addition, the overall mean lysine intake according to NHANES III (5.3 g/day) is close to the the doses considered in the present risk assessment. The requirement for lysine, 30 mg/kg bw per day, corresponding to 2.1 g/day in a 70 kg adult, is close to the doses considered in the present risk assessment. The NOAEL suggested in the 90 days subchronic rat study supports the suggestion that these doses are well tolerated in humans even with somewhat low MOE-values.</p> <p>VKM concludes that:</p> <ul> <li>In adults (≥18 years), the specified doses 1000, 2000, 2500, 2750 and 3000 mg/day L-lysine in food supplements are unlikely to cause adverse health effects.</li> <li>In adolescents (14 to &lt;18 years), the specified doses 1000, 2000, 2500, 2750 and 3000 mg/day L-lysine in food supplements are unlikely to cause adverse health effects.</li> <li>In children (10 to &lt;14 years), the specified doses 1000, 2000, 2500, 2750 and 3000 mg/day L-lysine in food supplements are unlikely to cause adverse health effects.</li> </ul> <p>Children younger than 10 years were not within the scope of the present risk assessment.</p> Sigrun Henjum Livar Frøyland Margaretha Haugen Kristin Holvik Martinus Løvik Bjørn Steen Skålhegg Tonje Holte Stea Tor A. Strand Grethe S. Tell Per Ole Iversen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-05 2020-08-05 58 60 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i830262 Risk Assessment of Other Substances in Food Supplements - L-methionine https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30263 <p>"Other substances" are described in the food supplement directive 2002/46/EC as <em>substances other than vitamins or minerals that have a nutritional and/or physiological effect</em>, and may be added to food supplements or e.g. energy drinks. In the series of risk assessments of "other substances" the VKM has not evaluated any claimed beneficial effects from these substances, but merely possible adverse effects at specified doses used in Norway.&nbsp;</p> <p>This statement regards the substance L-methionine per se, and no specific products.</p> <p>According to information from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA), L-methionine is an ingredient in food supplements sold in Norway. NFSA has requested a risk assessment of the intake of 200, 300, 500, 600 and 700 mg L-methionine per day from food supplements. The total L-methionine exposure from other sources than food supplements is not included in the risk assessment.</p> <p>This statement is based on a previous risk assessment from VKM of L-methionine, as well as scientific papers retrieved from a systematic search in literature published from 2012 up till 19 February 2016. The literature search aimed at retrieving human studies on adverse effects caused by L-methionine.</p> <p>VKM concludes that:</p> <p>VKM maintains the guidance level from 2013 at 210 mg methione per day.</p> Tor A. Strand Livar Frøyland Margaretha Haugen Sigrun Henjum Kristin Holvik Martinus Løvik Bjørn Steen Skålhegg Tonje Holte Stea Grethe S. Tell Per Ole Iversen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-05 2020-08-05 61 62 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i830263 Risk Assessment of "Other Substances" – L-threonine https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30264 <p>The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses given by NFSA. These risk assessments will provide NFSA with the scientific basis while regulating "other substances" in food supplements.</p> <p>"Other substances" are described in the food supplement directive 2002/46/EC as substances other than vitamins or minerals that have a nutritional and/ or physiological e ffect. It is added mainly to food supplements, but also to energy drinks and other foods. In this series of risk assessments of "other substances" the VKM has not evaluated any claimed beneficial effects from these substances, only possible adverse effects.</p> <p>The present report is a risk assessment of specified doses of L-threonine in food supplements, and it is based on previous risk assessments and articles retrieved from literature searches.</p> <p>According to information from NFSA, L-threonine is an ingredient in food supplements sold in Norway. NSFA has requested a risk assessment of 1000, 1200, 1500, 2000 and 2400 mg/day of L-threonine from food supplements.&nbsp;</p> <p>L-threonine is an essential amino acid not known to cause any adverse health effects. Previous reports do not indicate a tolerable upper intake level, apart from an approval of a dose of 1150 mg/day by the Scientific Committee of the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition (AESAN). Long-term studies in humans were not found. The only available human studies were: a small uncontrolled one-year pilot study with doses ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 g/day, one eight-week randomised controlled trial (RCT) using a dose of 7.5 g/day, and two 2-week RCTs using doses of 6 and 4.5 g/day. No adverse effects (diary method of registration of adverse effects) were reported in the eight-week clinical trial, and the only adverse effects observed in the two-week trials were one case of indigestion and one case of diarrhoea. A four-week rodent toxicity study indicated a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 854.3 mg/kg bw per day (only dose tested, no adverse effects observed).&nbsp;</p> <p>The value used for comparison with the estimated exposure in the risk characterisation is the NOAEL defined in an 8-week randomised placebo controlled study in humans, 7500 mg/day. For a 70-kg individual, this corresponds to 107 mg/kg bw per day. Two human two-week studies and a small one-year pilot study support the notion that this dose will be well tolerated. The overall mean threonine intake according to NHANES III (3 g/day) is slightly larger than the doses requested for evaluation in the present risk assessment.</p> <p>No studies in children (10 to &lt;14 years) and adolescents (14 to &lt;18 years) were identified. Based on the included literature there was no evidence indicating that age affects the tolerance for relevant doses of threonine. Therefore, in this risk characterisation a tolerance as for adults, based on body weight, was assumed for these age groups.</p> <p>VKM concludes that:</p> <ul> <li>In adults (≥18 years), the specified doses 1000, 1200, 1500, 2000 and 2400 mg/day L-threonine in food supplements are unlikely to cause adverse health effects.</li> <li>In adolescents (14 to &lt;18 years), the specified doses 1000, 1200, 1500, 2000 and 2400 mg/day L-threonine in food supplements are unlikely to cause adverse health effects.</li> <li>In children (10 to &lt;14 years), the specified doses 1000, 1200, 1500, 2000 and 2400 mg/day L-threonine in food supplements are unlikely to cause adverse health effects.</li> </ul> <p>Children younger than 10 years were not within the scope of the present risk assessment.</p> Martinus Løvik Livar Frøyland Margaretha Haugen Sigrun Henjum Kristin Holvik Bjørn Steen Skålhegg Tonje Holte Stea Tor A. Strand Per Ole Iversen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-05 2020-08-05 63 65 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i830264 Risk Assessments of Aspartame, Acesulfame K, Sucralose and Benzoic Acid from Soft Drinks, “Saft”, Nectar and Flavoured Water https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30265 <p>The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM), Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids, Materials in Contact with Food and Cosmetics, has at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet) conducted a risk assessment of the intense sweeteners aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose and the preservative benzoic acid from soft drinks, “saft”, nectar and flavoured water.&nbsp; The risk assessment includes exposure assessments and the calculated exposures are compared to the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for the respective sweeteners and benzoic acid. VKM was also requested to compare the current calculated intake of aspartame, acesulfame K and benzoic acid to the calculated intake reported by VKM in 2007 (from the VKM report «Impact on health when sugar is replaced with intense sweeteners in soft drinks, «saft» and nectar») (VKM, 2007).</p> <p>Exposure calculations were made for four different scenarios with varying concentrations of added sweeteners (either the average concentration or the highest reported concentration for the respective sweetener) and varying consumption of beverages with sweeteners (either the actual reported consumption of beverages added sweetener or the assumption that all reported beverages were added sweeteners). Scenario 1 gives the best estimate of the current situation in the population (average content&nbsp; of sweeteners/benzoic acid, actual reported consumption), scenarios 2-4 is based on one or both of the following assumptions: only beverages added sweeteners are consumed, the beverages consumed are added the highest reported value of the sweeteners (scenario 2: average content of sweeteners/benzoic acid, all consumed beverages contain sweeteners; scenario 3: highest reported content of sweeteners/benzoic acid, actual reported consumption; scenario 4: highest reported content of sweeteners/benzoic acid, all consumed beverages contain sweeteners).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>In the current risk assessment, the intake of sweeteners and benzoic acid for two-year-old children and 18-70 year old men and women were calculated. Due to lack of new dietary surveys, the other age groups of children and adolescents were excluded. The estimated intake of aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose was below the ADI for all age groups, both for mean and high consumers in all scenarios. When it comes to benzoic acid, the calculated mean and high intake for adults was below the ADI in all scenarios. The mean intake for 2year-olds was below ADI in all scenarios, as was the intake for high consumers among the 2year-olds in scenarios 1 and 2. However, high consumers among the two-year-old children in scenario 3 and 4 reached the ADI.</p> <p>Due to differences in the way the calculations were done in the current opinion and in 2007, it was not possible to compare the current calculated intake of aspartame, acesulfame K and benzoic acid to the calculated intakes reported by VKM in 2007.</p> <p>VKM concludes that for all age groups in all scenarios the intake of sweeteners is well below the established ADI values, thus, there is no concern related to the intake of the sweeteners aspartame, acesulfame K or sucralose.</p> <p>VKM further concludes that the benzoic acid intake in 2-year-old-children, in scenarios 3 and 4, is of concern as it reaches ADI for high consumers of soft drinks, “saft” and flavoured water, although the ADI is not a threshold for toxicity. For the other age groups, there is no concern related to the intake of benzoic acid from beverages. However, it should be noted that a considerable intake of benzoic acid also is expected from other sources such as food and cosmetics. High consumers of soft drinks, “saft” or flavoured water in all age groups could be at risk for approaching or exceeding ADI if the exposures from foods are taken into account.</p> <p>This is especially of concern for 2-year-old children, since high consumers of soft drinks and “saft” already have reached the ADI.&nbsp;</p> Inger-Lise Steffensen Jan Alexander Mona-Lise Binderup Ellen Merete Bruzell Knut Helkås Dahl Berit Granum Bente Brokstad Herlofsen Ragna Bogen Hetland Trine Husøy Jan Erik Paulsen Jens Rohloff Vibeke Thrane Trude Wicklund ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-05 2020-08-05 66 68 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i830265 Risk Assessment of "Other Substances" – L-Histidine https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30266 <p>The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses given by NFSA. These risk assessments will provide NFSA with the scientific basis for regulating "other substances" in food supplements.</p> <p>"Other substances" are described in the food supplement directive 2002/46/EC as <em>substances other than vitamins or minerals that have a nutritional and / or physiological effect</em>. It is added mainly to food supplements, but also to energy drinks and other foods. In this series of risk assessments of "other substances" VKM has not evaluated any claimed beneficial effects from these substances, only possible adverse effects.</p> <p>The present report is a risk assessment of specified doses of L-histidine in food supplements, and it is based on previous risk assessments and articles retrieved from a literature search.<em>Histidine; food supplement</em></p> <p>According to information from NFSA, L-histidine is an ingredient in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. NSFA has requested a risk assessment of 550 and 600 mg/day of L-histidine from food supplements. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for adults of L-histidine is 14 mg/kg body weight/day (IOM, 2005), which corresponds to 980 mg/day for a 70 kg person. Oral doses has a bioavailiability of 80% or higher. Foods rich in histidine are generally protein rich foods such as meat, dairy products, legumes, fish, nuts, seeds, eggs and whole grains. Based on NHANES III (1988-1994), the overall mean intake of Lhistidine from food and food supplements in the United States was 2.2 g/day.</p> <p>L-histidine is a conditionally essential amino acid which is a normal constituent of most body proteins. L-histidine is also a part of many plasma proteins. It has anti-oxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Moreover, L-histidine is also a precursor of histamine and is necessary for the regulation and metabolism of trace elements such as metal ions. The human body has a large pool of L-histidine in plasma proteins, but also as carnosine in skeletal muscles and in haemoglobin.</p> <p>Due to the lack of adequate scientific information, a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) or lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) have not been identified, and a tolerable upper intake level for histidine has not been established. Effects of histidin supplementation have been studied in trials with duration of up to 3-4 months. Previous risk assessments concluded that supplementation with 4.0 to 4.5 g/day of L-histidine above the dietary content does not have adverse effects in human beings, and new data retrieved in the present literature search were in accordance with these conclusions. No particular population groups have been identified as particularly susceptible to adverse effects of consuming histidine supplements. We have not identified any studies in children or adolescents.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;VKM concludes that:</p> <ul> <li>In adults (≥18 years), the specified doses 550 and 600 mg/day L-histidine in food supplements are unlikely to cause adverse health effects.</li> <li>In adolescents (14 to &lt;18 years), the specified doses 550 and 600 mg/day L-histidine in food supplements are unlikely to cause adverse health effects.</li> <li>In children (10 to &lt;14 years), the specified doses 550 and 600 mg/day L-histidine in food supplements are unlikely to cause adverse health effects.</li> </ul> <p>Children younger than 10 years were not within the scope of the present risk assessment.</p> Kristin Holvik Per Ole Iversen Arild Vaktskjold Livar Frøyland Margaretha Haugen Martinus Løvik Bjørn Steen Skålhegg Tonje Holte Stea Tor A. Strand Grethe S. Tell ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-05 2020-08-05 69 71 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i830266 Risk Assessment of "Other Substances" – L-serine https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30267 <p>The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses given by NFSA. These risk assessments will provide NFSA with the scientific basis while regulating "other substances" in food supplements.</p> <p>"Other substances" are described in the food supplement directive 2002/46/EC as <em>substances other than vitamins or minerals that have a nutritional and / or physiological effect</em>. It is added mainly to food supplements, but also to energy drinks and other foods. In this series of risk assessments of "other substances" the VKM has not evaluated any claimed beneficial effects from these substances, only possible adverse effects.</p> <p>The present report is a risk assessment of specified doses of L-serine in food supplements, and it is based on previously published risk assessments and scientific papers retrieved from a comprehensive literature search.&nbsp;</p> <p>L-serine is a non-essential amino acid which is produced endogenously and is supplied from the diet. In addition to its role in protein synthesis, L-serine has an important role as a major contributor to the one-carbon pool and is involved in the metabolism of several key compounds, including glycine, cysteine, taurine, and phospholipids and of D-serine.</p> <p>According to information from NFSA, L-serine is an ingredient in food supplements sold in Norway. NSFA has requested a risk assessment of 50, 500, 1000, 1250, 1500 and 1750 mg/day of L-serine from food supplements. Most dietary proteins contain about 4-5% L-serine. Rich sources of proteins are meat, dairy products, legumes, fish, nuts, seeds, eggs and whole grains. Dietary intake of L-serine in Norway is not known, but results show an overall mean intake of L-serine from food and food supplements of 3.5 g/day in the United States (NHANES III, USA).</p> <p>In the first phase of the present evaluation of "other substances", previous reports that have assessed the safety of L-serine supplementation in humans were identified. In the second phase, a systematic literature search was performed to retrieve scientific papers published before 11 May 2016 (human studies literature search) and before 28 July 2016 (animal studies literature search). Based on this search, we did not identify any long-term studies in healthy individuals that could be used for safety evaluations. On the other hand, three relevant animal studies were included in this report.</p> <p>The animal studies revealed no adverse health effects as a result of the tested doses of Lserine (840-3000 mg/kg bw per day). For the risk characterisation of L-serine, in the absence of long-term studies in healthy individuals, VKM based the value of comparison on the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL), 3000 mg/kg bw per day which was the highest dose tested in a 90-days toxicological study in rats. This value was used to calculate the Margin of Exposure (MOE) values for daily intake of 50, 500, 1000, 1250, 1500 and 1750 mg L-serine in children (10 to &lt;14 years), adolescents (14 to &lt;18 years) and adults (≥18 years). The MOE-values ranged from 74 to 4200, which were considered acceptable since L-serine is a nutrient that does not cause any well documented adverse effects and because studies indicate a high endogenous production (Snell, 1986) and a high dietary intake of L-serine (NHANES III, USA) compared to the doses considered in the present risk assessment.</p> <p>Thus, VKM concludes that:</p> <ul> <li>In adults (≥18 years), the specified doses 50, 500, 1000, 1250, 1500 and 1750 mg/day L-serine in food supplements are unlikely to cause adverse health effects.&nbsp;</li> <li>In adolescents (14 to &lt;18 years), the specified doses 50, 500, 1000, 1250, 1500 and 1750 mg/day L-serine in food supplements are unlikely to cause adverse health effects.</li> <li>In children (10 to &lt;14 years), the specified doses 50, 500, 1000, 1500 and 1800 mg/day L-serine in food supplements are unlikely to cause adverse health effects.</li> </ul> <p>Children younger than 10 years were not within the scope of the present risk assessment.</p> Tonje Holte Stea Livar Frøyland Margaretha Haugen Sigrun Henjum Kristin Holvik Martinus Løvik Bjørn Steen Skålhegg Tor A. Strand Grethe S. Tell Per Ole Iversen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-05 2020-08-05 72 74 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i830267 Risk Assessment of "Other Substances" – L- tryptophan https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30268 <p>The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses given by NFSA. These risk assessments will provide NFSA with the scientific basis for regulating the addition of "other substances" to food supplements.</p> <p>"Other substances" are described in the food supplement directive 2002/46/EC as <em>substances other than vitamins or minerals that have a nutritional or physiological effect</em>. "Other substances" are added mainly to food supplements, but also to energy drinks and other foods. VKM has not in this series of risk assessments of "other substances" evaluated any claimed beneficial effects from these substances, only possible adverse effects.</p> <p>The present report is a risk assessment of L-tryptophan and is based on previous risk assessments of L-tryptophan and scientific papers retrieved from systematic literature searches.</p> <p>L-tryptophan is an indispensable amino acid in humans, which in addition to its role in protein synthesis, also participates in complex metabolic pathways where it acts as a precursor to the potent neurotransmitter serotonin, the hormone melatonin, and the vitamin niacin (vitamin B3).&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; L-tryptophan is available from a wide variety of protein-rich foods in the normal diet, including meat, fish, milk and dairy products, egg, beans, lentils and also bread and grains, pasta, rice, fruit and vegetables.</p> <p>According to information from NFSA, L-tryptophan is an ingredient in food supplements sold in Norway. NFSA has requested a risk assessment of the following doses of L-tryptophan in food supplements: 250 mg/day, 300 mg/day, and 450 mg/day for adults, adolescents and children 10 years and above. Usual dietary intake of L-tryptophan in Norway is not known, but data from the USA and the UK suggest an average dietary intake of about 900 mg/day of which the main part is bound in food protein.</p> <p>In phase 1 we have identified seven previous reports that have aimed to assess the safety of L-tryptophan supplementation in humans; the most recent was published by VKM in 2013. To complement the existing reports, a literature search was performed in MEDLINE and EMBASE to retrieve studies published in the period 2012-2015. This search retrieved two recent randomised trials with L-tryptophan. In addition, we performed a literature search concerning safety of L-tryptophan in children and adolescents with no time restriction. This search retrieved no relevant results that met the inclusion criteria.</p> <p>Four aspects related to safety of L-tryptophan were identified in previous reports: 1) adverse effects reported at high doses, including appetite suppression, nausea and vomiting, faintness, dizziness, drowsiness, tremor, fatigue, and headache; 2) a suggested, but not established, increased risk of cataract; 3) the eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS), which is thought to be caused by contaminants produced in the manufacturing of L-tryptophan supplements, however this is still unresolved; 4) the risk of adverse drug reactions caused by excessive serotonergic action by concomitant use of antidepressants, including monoamine oxidase inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants and other drugs, known as the <em>serotonin syndrome.</em></p> <p>According to previous reports, doses of 3 to 6 g/day of L-tryptophan have been associated with adverse effects. Using an uncertainty factor of 10, conclusions in previous reports have suggested a maximum level of 220 mg/day for adults. An upper tolerable intake level (UL) of 220 mg/day was first proposed in a report by the UK Committee on the Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment (COT) in 2004, and was derived from the average dose of L-tryptophan consumed as a prescription drug against depression in the UK at the time (2228 mg/day). This level has been maintained in later reports by other committees, most recently VKM in 2013 as a tentative guidance level. Additional information from the publications retrieved in the literature search did not provide evidence of sufficient weight to change the previous conclusions concerning UL.</p> <p>There is a lack of well-designed supplementation studies with L-tryptophan in humans designed to address adverse effects and dose-response relationship as primary outcome. There is also a lack of data about potential adverse health effects of L-tryptophan supplementation in children and adolescents.</p> <p>Patients using antidepressant drugs constitute a specific vulnerable subgroup of the population with regard to possible adverse effects of L-tryptophan supplements, due to the potentially life-threatening drug interaction effects that occur from excessive serotonergic action.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) concludes that:</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ul> <li>In adults (≥18 years), the specified doses 250, 300, and 450 mg/day L-tryptophan in food supplements may represent a risk of adverse health effects.</li> <li>In adolescents (14 to &lt;18 years), the specified doses 250, 300, and 450 mg/day L-tryptophan in food supplements may represent a risk of adverse health effects.</li> <li>In children (10 to &lt;14 years), the specified doses 250, 300, and 450 mg/day L-tryptophan in food supplements may represent a risk of adverse health effects.</li> <li>Children below 10 years were not included in this assessment.</li> </ul> Kristin Holvik Livar Frøyland Margaretha Haugen Martinus Løvik Tor A. Strand Grethe S. Tell Per Ole Iversen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-05 2020-08-05 75 77 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i830268 Risk Assessment of "Other Substances" – L-Tyrosine https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30269 <p>The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses given by NFSA. These risk assessments will provide NFSA with the scientific basis for regulating the addition of "other substances" to food supplements and other foods.</p> <p>"Other substances" are described in the food supplement directive 2002/46/EC as <em>substances other than vitamins or minerals that have a nutritional or physiological effect</em>. It is added mainly to food supplements, but also to energy drinks and other foods. VKM has not in this series of risk assessments of "other substances" evaluated any claimed beneficial effects from these substances, only possible adverse effects.</p> <p>The present report is limited to the use of L-tyrosine in food supplements. Risks related to tyrosine added to food and drinks, protein hydrolysates or high dietary protein intake are outside the scope of the opinion. The report is based on previous risk assessments of tyrosine and scientific papers retrieved from a comprehensive literature search.</p> <p>L-tyrosine, an aromatic amino acid, is considered a conditionally indispensable amino acid because it can be synthesised from L-phenylalanine in the liver. The magnitude of endogenous synthesis of L-tyrosine is not known, but is related to the intake of phenylalanine.</p> <p>L-tyrosine is a precursor of several biologically active substances, including catecholamine neurotransmitters, thyroid hormones and melanin skin pigments. L-tyrosine is available from all protein-containing foods such as meat, eggs, fish, dairy products, grains and pulses. According to information from the NFSA, L-tyrosine is an ingredient in food supplements sold in Norway. The NFSA has requested a risk assessment of the following doses of L-tyrosine food supplements: 1250 mg/day, 1500 mg/day, 1750 mg/day, and 2000 mg/day. Dietary intake of tyrosine in Norway is not known, but data from NHANES III (USA) suggest a mean dietary intake of about 2.8 g per day.</p> <p>In phase 1 seven previous reports that assessed the safety of L-tyrosine supplementation in humans were identified. For the present report, a literature search was performed to retrieve relevant human or animal studies on the safety of L-tyrosine. One relevant animal study assessing the toxicity of tyrosine by feeding rats different doses of tyrosine daily by oral gavage for 13 weeks was identified. No human studies have been identified.</p> <p>No major specific issues related to adverse effects from L-tyrosine used as food supplements were identified in previous reports. However, a lack of studies in healthy adult individuals as well as in children was pointed out, and in particular the absence of long-term studies in healthy individuals.&nbsp;</p> <p>A lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) and a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 2000 and 600 mg/kg bw per day, respectively, for tyrosine have been identified in a 90-day toxicological study in rats. At 2000 mg/kg bw per day, significant increases, were found in weights of livers and kidneys in addition to increased plasma lipids and hypertrophy of centrilobular hepatocytes in both sexes.</p> <p>The NOAEL at 600 mg/kg per day was used to calculate the margin of exposure (MOE), the ratio of the NOAEL to the specified doses of 1250, 1500, 1750 and 2000 mg/day of Ltyrosine in food supplements. The MOE-values range from 13 for the highest supplement dose in children to 34 for the lowest supplement dose in adults.</p> <p>Given the low MOE-values (range 13-34), and the severity of the adverse effects at the LOAEL (3.3 times the NOAEL), VKM concludes that all the specified doses may represent a risk of adverse effects. No evidence was found to assume specific tolerance levels for L-tyrosine for children or adolescents. Therefore, a similar tolerance as for adults relative to body weight was assumed for these age groups.&nbsp;</p> <p>Based on these data, the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) concludes that:</p> <ul> <li>In adults (≥18 years), the specified doses of 1250, 1500, 1750, and 2000 mg/day Ltyrosine in food supplements may represent a risk of adverse health effects.</li> <li>In adolescents (14 to &lt;18 years), the specified doses of 1250, 1500, 1750, and 2000 mg/day L-tyrosine in food supplements may represent a risk of adverse health effects.</li> <li>In children (10 to &lt;14 years), the specified doses of 1250, 1500, 1750, and 2000 mg/day L-tyrosine in food supplements may represent a risk of adverse health effects.</li> </ul> <p>Children below 10 years were not included in the terms of reference.</p> Livar Frøyland Margaretha Haugen Sigrun Henjum Kristin Holvik Martinus Løvik Bjørn Steen Skålhegg Tonje Holte Stea Tor A. Strand Grethe S. Tell Per Ole Iversen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-05 2020-08-05 78 80 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i830269 Preparation and Evaluation of Pan Bread Made with Wheat Flour and Psyllium Seeds for Obese Patients https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30256 <p>In this covenant of functional foods, the world seeks for new healthier food products with appropriate proportions of bioactive constituents such as fiber, mineral elements, amino acids and phenols. The psyllium seed has good nutritional and pharmaceutical properties; therefore, its incorporation in pan bread could be beneficial in improving human health. In the current study, partial substitution of wheat flour (WF) with psyllium seed flour (PSF) at levels of 5%, 10% and 15% were carried out to investigate the rheology properties of dough, baking performance, proximate compositions and physical properties of the pan bread. Partial substitution of WF with PSF increased the water absorption, arrival time and developing time of dough (P ≤ 0.05), while, the dough extensibility was reduced. Also, elasticity and energy were increased by addition of PSF. Pan bread supplemented with PSF resulted in a reduction in quality in terms of specific loaf volume, while, weight was increased. PSF up to 15% could partially replace WF in pan bread; increase its nutritional value in terms of fiber, amino acids content and minerals, with only a small depreciation in the bread quality. Sensory evaluation showed that pan bread supplemented up to 15% PSF were acceptable to the panelists and there was significant difference in terms of appearance, crumb texture, crumb grain, crust color, taste, odor and overall acceptability compared to the control. The incorporation of PSF increased the minerals contents, amino acids contents and nutritional properties compared to the control (for pan bread).</p> G. S. El- Hadidy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-29 2020-07-29 1 13 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i830256 Potentials of Defatted Mucuna sloanei (UKPO) Seed Flour as Boon for Human Nutrition and Healthy Food Alternative https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30257 <p>Functional, antinutritional, antioxidant and elemental compositions of full-fat sample (FFS) and defatted sample (DFS) <em>Mucuna sloanei </em>(Ukpo) seed were investigated using standard analytical techniques. The results of functional properties (%) in full fat and defatted seed flours were as follows; foaming capacity (6.00 ± 0.04 and 30.30 ± 0.15), foaming stability (1.10 ± 0.00 and 24.00 ± 0.20), water absorption capacity (50.00 ± 0.05 and 70.00 ± 0.05), oil absorption capacity (19.50 ± 0.50 and 21.75 ± 0.15), emulsion capacity (41.58 ± 0.14 and 44.12 ± 0.08), emulsion stability (39.61 ± 0.23 and 34.31 ± 0.11), least gelation concentration (0.03 ± 0.00 and 0.10 ± 0.00) g/cm<sup>3 </sup>and bulk density (0.77 ± 0.01 and 0.91 ± 0.00) g/cm<sup>3</sup> respectively. The antinutrient analysis of full fat and defatted seed flours in mg/g showed glycoside with the highest value to be (23.60 ± 0.13 and 41.18 ± 0.05), phytic acid (20.15 ± 0.07 and 13.15 ± 0.07), oxalate (7.11 ± 0.02 and 0.47 ± 0.12), phytin P (5.68 ± 0.38 and 3.70 ± 0.14) and tannins (0.37 ± 0.01 and 0.47 ± 0.02). Potassium was found to give higher values in the two samples with defatted sample having the highest value. The antioxidant analysis of the full fat and defatted seed flours showed DPPH to be (33.08 ± 0.06 and 35.13 ± 0.03) %, FRAP (48.93 ± 0.11 and 49.03 ± 0.08) mg/g, phenol (4.16 ± 0.07 and 5.28 ± 0.06) % and flavonoid (8.28 ± 0.00 and 3.68 ± 0.10) % respectively. From this nutritional assessment, defatted seed flour of <em>M. sloanei</em> could be described as a good food that can be used to supplement the existing food table in the fight against protein - malnutrition syndrome among the developing countries of the world.</p> Gboyega O. Oyeleke Stephen G. Olawale Olusola A. Adedayo Ajisola A. Adebisi Ibraheem A. Abdulazeez Emmanuel O. Oyetola ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 14 21 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i830257 Studies on Effect of Different Packaging Materials on Shelf-Life of Blended Guava-Papaya Fruit Leather https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30258 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To study the effect different packaging materials on shelf-life and quality of blended fruit leather.</p> <p><strong>Place of Study: </strong>The present investigation was carried out at the Department of Post-Harvest Technology and Agri. Engineering, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bengaluru.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Guava variety ‘Allahabad Safeda’ and papaya variety ‘Taiwan Red Lady’ fruit leathers were prepared by blending their pulp at different ratios of 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100 respectively. Citric acid at 0.3% and KMS (Potassium meta-bisulphite) at 600 ppm was added to the blended pulp and TSS was adjusted to 20°B. The pulp according to treatments were then dried in a cabinet drier at 55 to 60°C till the desired moisture content (approx. 15%) was achieved.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Blended guava-papaya (40:60) leather was found best among the treatments in terms of better nutritional and sensory characteristics at initial and also during the subsequent storage periods. The prepared fruit leathers that were packed in biaxially oriented polypropylene showed better results with better nutrient retention (ascorbic acid 90.1 mg/100 g and carotenoids 947.2 µg/100 g) and higher organoleptic score (70.03 overall acceptability out of 100) to those packed in punnets (ascorbic acid 73.2 mg/100 g, and carotenoids 893.0 µg/100 g) during the storage period of 4 months. The microbial examination also revealed that all the samples were found to be safe from the consumption point of view till the end of four months of storage.<strong>&nbsp; </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The blended fruit leather can be a good source of various heath promoting phytochemical nutrients with a unique taste and acceptability having a storage stability for safe consumption till 4 months.</p> L. Jeebit Singh R. B. Tiwari K. Ranjitha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 22 32 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i830258 Protein Intake of Vegetarians and Non-vegetarians in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30259 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The purpose of this study was to investigate the protein intake of vegetarians and non-vegetarians in Port Harcourt, Rivers State.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Four objectives and four research questions guided the study. A survey research design was adopted for the study. A sample size of 400 respondents was selected using Taro Yamene formula and purposive sampling techniques. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire tagged: Protein Intake of Vegetarians and Non-Vegetarians in Port Harcourt Questionnaire (CPIBVNVQ). The instrument was validated by three experts with a reliability coefficient of 0.56. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage) and findings were presented on tables.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Prevalence of vegetarianism was high in females (53%) than in males (47%). Protein intake by the vegetarians was high (97%) when compared with vegetarians who do not eat proteinous foods (3%). Among the non-vegetarians, 94% eat proteinous foods while 6% do not eat. The study also showed that protein intake is better in non-vegetarians than vegetarians. Higher percentages of non-vegetarians (84.3%) fell sick and got diagnosed of ailments as compared with 17.4% for vegetarians suggesting that the vegetarians experience enhanced immune function. Reduced saturated fat and blood cholesterol was a tool that influenced the respondents in choosing the vegetarian lifestyle with 82.5% for vegetarian and 13.8% for non-vegetarian.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Based on the findings, it was recommended that vegetarians should be encouraged to consume more plant proteins especially soy based foods since they are high biological value protein food comparable to animal products.</p> C. A. Orisa C. I. Usoroh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-04 2020-08-04 33 44 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i830259 Proximate Composition, Sensory Properties and Microbial Quality of Chin-chin Developed from Wheat and African Walnut Flour Blends for Household Food Security https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30260 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The objective of this study was to investigate the proximate composition, sensory properties and microbial quality of chin-chin developed from wheat and African walnut flour blends as a means of achieving household food security.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> African walnut was processed into flour. Chin-chin was prepared from blends of wheat and African walnut flours using 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 of wheat flour to African walnut flour (AWF), and 100% wheat flour as control. Samples were subjected to sensory evaluation within 30 min of production. Proximate analysis was carried out using standard methods. The samples were also stored for 3 weeks and evaluated at weekly intervals for total bacterial and fungal counts.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>&nbsp;composition of the chin-chin revealed a significant (p&lt;0.05) increase in ash (0.42-1.38%), fat (34.39-40.03%), crude protein (5.53-7.95% protein), crude fibre (0.98-1.86%), and energy contents (402.65-414.08kcal) with a decrease in moisture (3.31-4.85%) and carbohydrate (45.59-53.84%)&nbsp;. Sensory analysis of the chin-chin showed that the control chin-chin was more preferred than all other samples. This was followed closely by chin-chin substituted with 10% African walnut flour having mean scores above 6 for all sensory attributes. Total bacterial counts (TBCs) and fungal counts (TFCs) of the chin-chin samples were observed to increase during storage. TBCs and TFCs of chin-chin samples after 3 weeks of storage ranged from 6.00×10<sup>3</sup>-8.50×10<sup>3</sup>cfu/g and 6.80×10<sup>3</sup>-8.00×10<sup>3</sup>cfu/g, respectively. The samples presented adequate microbiological conditions and were within recommended safe limit of microbial guidelines.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The findings of the study showed that chin-chin of acceptable sensory attributes and improved nutritional content could be produced with up to 10% African walnut flour (AWF) level. In effect, chin-chin substituted with African walnut flour can be consumed by households thereby improving their nutritional status and eradicating food insecurity and malnutrition which is common among households.</p> N. J. Deedam M. A. China H. I. Wachukwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-05 2020-08-05 45 53 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i830260 Nutritional Composition and GC-MS Phytochemical Analysis of Thaumatococcus daniellii Leaves https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30272 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> There is a high risk associated with using artificial materials like polyethylene or foil for wrapping foods before cooking. The present study investigated the phytochemical and nutrient composition of <em>Thaumatococus daniellii</em> leaf, a local food wrapper.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Biochemistry Unit, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo, between April and May 2018.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The phytochemical compounds were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) while proximate and vitamin composition was determined using standard analytical methods.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The GC-MS phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of eight (8) bioactive compounds 1,2,3,4-Butanetetrol, d-Glycero-d-idoheptose, Cyclopentane,1-ethyl-1-methyl-, 6-Octyl-1-ol,3,7-dimethyl-, 2-Octenal, E- Octane,1-chloro-,2-Acetoxy-1,1,10-trimethyl-6,9-epidioxydecalin and Bicyclo[3.1.1]heptan-3-ol,2,6,6-trimethyl-,(1α,2β,3α,5α)- while vitamin assay results showed that <em>Thaumatococcus daniellii</em> leaf contained 3.1mg/100g of vitamin A, 1.07 mg/100 g&nbsp; vitamin B<sub>1</sub>, 1.32 mg/100 g&nbsp; vitamin B<sub>3</sub>, 1.11 mg/100 g of vitamin B<sub>5</sub>, 16.34 mg/100 g of vitamin B<sub>6</sub>, 11.86 mg/100 g of vitamin B<sub>12</sub> and 25.19 mg/100 g of vitamin C. Result of proximate analysis indicates that <em>Thaumatococcus daniellii</em> leaf contains 10.15% ash, 9.67% moisture, 20.41% protein, 11.42% lipids, 13.78% fibre and 34.57% carbohydrate.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In summary, our findings indicate that <em>Thaumatococcus daniellii</em> leaves contain bioactive compounds, an appreciable number of vitamins and high nutritional constituents. Hence <em>Thaumatococcus daniellii</em> leaves can be incorporated into animal feed, taking into cognizance the high protein, fat and vitamin contents. These suggest that it may play critical medicinal and nutritional roles and probably be a safer alternative to polyethylene paper and aluminum foil wraps; hence justifying its local usage as food wrapper. The leaves may also serve as a lead for the production of a healthier material for wrapping local foods.</p> A. V. Iwueke N. J. Ejekwumadu E. C. Chukwu J. A. Nwodu C. Akalonu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-07 2020-08-07 81 86 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i830272 Effect of Storage on in vitro Starch Digestibility of Functional Foods https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30273 <p>Functional foods such as sweet cookies, <em>masala</em> cookies and <em>khakhra</em> were prepared by incorporating modified starch extracted from selected traditional rice varieties. The products were standardized by incorporating modified rice starch served as test product group and without incorporating modified rice starch served as control product group. The developed products such as sweet cookies, <em>masala</em> cookies and <em>khakhra </em>were stored up to 90 days at room temperature (25-30ºC) and relative humidity (40-60%). The packaging material used was 300 gauge low density polyethylene (LDPE). Samples from sweet cookies and <em>masala </em>cookies were drawn in triplicates for evaluation when fresh and after 15, 30, 45, and 60 days of storage, whereas samples from <em>khakhra</em> were drawn when fresh and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage duration. The products were evaluated for their <em>In vitro</em> starch digestibility. In all the stored products, there was a significant (p&lt;0.05) decreasing trend in rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and starch digestibility index (SDI), whereas increasing trend was observed in resistant starch (RS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) as the storage period increased.</p> Gopika C. Muttagi Usha Ravindra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-10 2020-08-10 87 97 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i830273