European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>European Journal of Nutrition and Food Safety (ISSN: 2347-5641)</strong> publishes 1. Research papers; 2. Review papers; 3. Case studies; 4. Short communications as well as 5. (extended) abstracts of Grey literature government reports in all areas of nutrition and food safety. EJNFS considers the following areas out of scope: food science, food technology, food composition, food analysis, food palatability, animal nutrition. EJNFS is a quality controlled, double blind peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal in the area of human nutrition and food safety and toxicology.</p> European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety en-US European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety 2347-5641 Effect of the Ripening Stages on Some Biochemical and Nutritional Properties in Carica papaya L. (cv. Solo 8) Pulp, Skin, and Seeds <p>The present study was aimed at investigating some biochemical properties and mineral contents in pulp, skin, and seeds of <em>Carica</em> <em>papaya</em> cv. solo 8 as a function of ripening stage. C. papaya cv. solo 8 fruits were obtained from a village plantation in Azaguié area’s (5° 38′ 00″ N and 4° 05′ 00″ W) in Côte d’Ivoire. Papaya fruits were harvested at four ripening stages especially unripe, 1/8 advanced, ¼ advanced and advanced. Skin, pulp and seeds were separated, and they were oven dried and ground to obtain the crude flour. Proximate composition and mineral contents were investigated using standard methods. Results showed significant differences in moisture dry matter, protein, carbohydrate, ash, crude fibre, and total sugar contents as a function of the ripening stage, and from a fruit part to another. Pulps exhibited the highest contents of moisture (93.67 %), carbohydrate (96.62 g / 100 g DW), total and reducing sugars (4.28 and 1.10 %, respectively) which increase during ripening. The better ash (0.86 %) and protein (21.52 %) contents were obtained in skin at the advanced stage. The highest crude fibre content was found in seeds at unripe stage (1.86 %) and the pulps recorded the lowest values (between 0.19 and 0.28 %). As concerned mineral elements, there were increase in potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium contents in skin during ripening, while these mineral contents decrease in seeds and pulp. Skin recorded highest content in potassium (2344.80 to 6865.50 mg /100 DW), phosphorus (691.51 to 1958.34 mg /100 DW), calcium (306.32 to 632.27 mg /100 DW), and magnesium (173.86 to 569.82 mg /100 DW) especially at ¼ advanced and advanced stages. Iron and zinc contents (respectively, 15.57 and 14.01 mg/ 100 g DW) were also greater in skin at advanced stages. All the parts of <em>C. papaya</em> cv. solo 8 fruit at different ripening stages, especially the skin would provide significant portion of the Recommended Daily Allowances of several nutrients.</p> Edwige Larissa Koffi Djary Michel Koffi Hubert Kouassi Konan Eugène Jean Parfait N’guessan Kouadio ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-08 2020-10-08 1 9 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030297 Proximate and Microbiological Quality of Roasted Plantain, Its Sauce, Fish and Side Vegetable Sold in Rivers State University and Its Environment <p>The proximate composition and microbiological quality of roasted plantain, its sauce, fish and side vegetable sold in River State University and its environment were investigated. The samples were purchased from four different locations namely staff club (SCL), shopping complex (SHC), back-gate (BGT) and maingate (MGT). Using standard methods, the samples were analyzed for proximate and microbiological quality. The values for moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fibre, fat and carbohydrate were 53.30 - 57.22 %, 2.94 - 3.73 %, 9.26 - 10.13 %, 2.34 - 3.67 %, 11.62 - 13.41 %, and 15.42-20.07 % respectively. The energy varied from 206.76-229.93 kcal/100g. For all the samples from all locations, aerobic count varied from 5.31 - 7.98 Log<sub>10</sub>CFU/g for plantain and fish. <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Salmonella</em> and <em>Staphylococcus</em> ranged from 4.06 - 7.42, 5.48 - 7.41 and 5.31 -7.90 Log<sub>10</sub>CFU/g respectively, while Coliform and fungi count varied respectively from 5.01 - 7.57 and 5.01 - 7.33 Log<sub>10</sub>CFU/g. The leave had significantly (P ≤ 0.05) the highest microbial load. The microbial load exceeded the acceptable limits for ready to eat foods and can be attributed to poor hygiene practices. Some samples except the leave had no detectable levels of the pathogens and fungi. The presence of pathogens indicates potential hazard to the health of consumers, &nbsp;hence the need awareness on proper handling and hygiene practices among street food vendors.&nbsp;</p> Obinna-Echem, Patience Chisa Eze, Simeon Christian ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-10 2020-10-10 10 19 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030298 Effect of Experimental Variables on the Malting Performance of Nigerian Maize Oba Super 2 Variety <p><strong>Background:</strong> The Nigerian cultivar, Oba Super 2 (OS2) maize is inexpensive but under- utilized owing to poor development of malting technology for brewing.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To study the effects of experimental variables on the malting performance of Nigerian maize Oba Super 2 variety.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Exploratory.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria, between March, 2018 to September, 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Certified Oba Super 2 maize variety was obtained from Premier Seed Limited, Zaria. The grain sample was malted at varying steeping (S) period (S30, S36 and S42 hours), different germination (G) period (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days) and varying kilning (K) temperatures (45, 50 and 55°C) to determine the malting performance. The properties of the un-malted and malted maize were determined using standard methods. Data were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) at P &lt; 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The malting loss (ML) was significantly higher (P &lt; 0.05) at different steeping period, on the fifth day of germination (G5). The cold water extract (CWE) was significantly higher (P &lt; 0.05) on the fourth day of germination (G4) kilned at K50. The values for hot water extract (HWE) were significantly higher (P &lt; 0.05) on the G4 at K45, K55 and K50, respectively, while free alpha amino nitrogen (FAN) values were significantly higher (P &lt; 0.05) on the G4, all kilned at K50. The values for diastatic power (DP) were significantly higher (P &lt; 0.05) on the G5, kilned at K50, while the cold water soluble protein (CWS-P) was significantly higher (P &lt; 0.05) on the G3 kilned at K50.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results indicated that longer steeping and germination periods as well as moderate kilning temperature contributed maximally in improving the malting properties and high extract yields.</p> A. O. Agbo F. J. C. Odibo A. E. Mbachu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 20 31 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030299 Evaluation of the Nutritionally Valuable Mineral Composition of Moringa oleifera Leaf <p><em>Moringa</em> plant parts are edible and considered as a highly nutritive vegetable globally. In this study, the essential nutrient elements, solid organic matter content (SOM) and phenolic compound of <em>Moringa oliefera</em> leaf extract obtained from two different zones of Plateau State, Nigeria was determined using standard laboratory procedures. The results obtained revealed that samples (A and B) of leaves of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> contained various quantities of valuable nutritive mineral elements such as chloride (14.49 mg per g and 13.44 mg per g), sodium (13.07 mg per g and 11.85 mg per g), Sulphate (13.07 mg per g and 11.85 mg per g), potassium (2.57 mg per g and 2.28 mg per g), calcium (2.57 mg per g and 2.28 mg per g), magnesium (5.59 mg per g and 5.67 mg per g), respectively while others such as ammonium, phosphate and iron had varying concentrations of valuable nutritional elements. There is no significant difference in the mineral contents of both samples. It also has high percentages of SOM of 81 and 82% in samples A and B as well as phenolics contents of 701.90 µg per g and 641.34 µg per g, respectively. These minerals are vital in the development and maintenance of the human health because the human body needs both macro and micro elements for its metabolism and proper development. Therefore, the <em>Moringa oleifera</em> plant could be an important source of essential elements of the human diet and could resolve some health-related issues due to high content of phenolics which contained antioxidant, anti-bacterial as well as anti-fungal properties.</p> G. S. Dasat G. Danjuma E. S. Chundusu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-22 2020-10-22 46 53 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030300 Assessment of the Nutritional Value of Selected Wild Leafy Vegetables Growing in the Roma Valley, Lesotho <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The study aimed at determining the nutrient content of nine selected wild leafy vegetables growing in Roma Valley of Lesotho as a means to achieve food security, improve nutritional and dietary diversity and address malnutrition in rural communities.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The vegetables were analysed for proximate composition, and Ca, Mg, Na, P, K, Fe, Mn, Se, Cu and Zn and vitamin C. Analyses were carried out using standard methods.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The proximate analysis revealed a high in moisture (81.15 - 92.23%) statistically similar (p&lt;0.05), some were rich in protein, vitamin C, Cu, Mn, K and Fe. <em>Chenopodium album </em>has the highest protein (31.53±8.65 mg/100 g) fresh weight (FW); and <em>Rorripa nudiscula</em> (51.4% of RDA). <em>Chenopodium album </em>and <em>Rorripa nudiscula</em> were rich in Ca, 1598.21±15.25 mg/100 g FW and 1508.50±25.40 mg/100 g FW and in Mg, 505.14±35.55 mg/100 g FW and 525.18 mg/100 g FW respectively. The vegetables were rich in K, but low in Na, with Na-to-K ratio &lt; 1.0, indicating that the vegetables could be ideal source of balanced sodium and potassium intake in diet. The vegetables were rich in Cu with ranging from 114.4% of RDA in <em>Hypochaeris radicata</em> to 342.2% of RDA in <em>Chenopodium album</em>. Fe was abundant in <em>Rorripa nudiscula </em>251.7% of RDA and <em>Chenopodium album</em> 187.8% of the RDA. Mn was abundant in <em>Amaranthus cruentus </em>557.8% of the RDA, in <em>Chenopodium album</em> or 245.7% of the RDA, in <em>Rorripa nudiuscula</em>, 205.5% of RDA,<em> Amaranthus thunbergii </em>(130.9% of RDA), moderate amounts in <em>Amaranthus caudatus </em>(1.94±0.36 mg/100 g FW or 84.4%) and<em> Amaranthus spinosus</em> (83.5% of RDA). The content of Se was moderate: <em>Rorripa nudiscula</em> (38.3% of RDA). <em>Amaranthus thunbergii</em> (20.50±0.27 µg/100 g FW, 37.3% of RDA), <em>Amaranthus spinosus</em> (34.0% of RDA) and <em>Lactuta serriola</em> (20.7% of RDA). Zn was high in <em>Chenopodium album </em>(117.3% of RDA) moderate in <em>Rorripa nudiscula</em> (35.6% of RDA) <em>Lactuta serriola</em> (23.9% of RDA), <em>Amaranthus spinosus</em> (19.6% of RDA), <em>Amaranthus caudatus</em> (15.9% of RDA). Most of the nutrient were statistically similar at p&lt;0.5.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The nutrient composition indicated that the vegetables could be good source of minerals and vitamin C and could be incorporated in rural household diets to improve nutrition, address malnutrition and food insecurity.</p> Emmanuel B. Tanor T’sooana Ntlatlapa Sibusisiwe Magama ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-22 2020-10-22 32 45 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030301 Production and Quality Evaluation of Yogurts from Composites of Powdered Cow Milk, Soy Milk and Cornstarch <p>This research was carried out to evaluate the appropriate levels of substitution of powdered cow milk with soy milk and cornstarch needed to produce yoghurt, evaluating its quality and potential for acceptance. Powdered cow milk was substituted with soymilk and cornstarch up to 30% to produce yogurt and market sample yogurt was used as control. Each composite blend milk samples was homogenized, pasteurized at 75°C for 5 min, cooled and inoculated with a mixed freeze-dried starter culture containing strains of <em>Streptococcus thermophilus </em>and <em>Lactobacillus bulgaricus </em>at 45°C, fermented for 6 h and cooled to 4˚C. The proximate, chemical, microbial, functional and sensory evaluation of the composite yogurt samples was determined. The yogurt samples were coded ACS-1 to ACS-13 where ACS-13 represent control. The result of the proximate analysis showed that moisture content ranged from 82.04 – 88.71%, protein ranged 2.05 – 6.48%,&nbsp; fat ranged from 2.14 – 3.62%,&nbsp; carbohydrate ranged from 4.30 – 9.91% and ash content ranged from 0.53 – 1.48%. The pH ranged from 3.73 – 4.82. For microbial evaluation, the total viable bacteria count ranged from 1.90x10<sup>7</sup> – 11.60x10<sup>7</sup>, total coliform count ranged from 0.50x10<sup>7</sup> – 3.90x10<sup>7</sup>. For chemical and functional evaluation, the total solids ranged from 11.28 – 16.96%, titratable acidity ranged from 0.30 – 1.80%, syneresis ranged from 0.00 – 28.33%, water absorption capacity ranged from 0.00 – 75.53% and apparent viscosity ranged from 1337- 4863 cP. For sensory evaluation, yogurt produced with 100% powdered milk (ACS-1) was the most preferred while yogurt sample produced with 50% powdered milk, 30% cornstarch and 20% soy milk (ACS-10) was the least preferred among other yogurt samples. This study revealed the mix ratios of powdered cow milk, soy milk and cornstarch that were acceptable in accordance with yogurt standard and the extent the quality of yogurt was generally accepted with the use of processing adjuncts (soymilk and cornstarch).</p> C. U. Obiora E. C. Igwe E. C. Udeagha S. N. Orjiakor C. S. Anarado ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-25 2020-10-25 54 67 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030302