European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>European Journal of Nutrition and Food Safety (ISSN: 2347-5641)</strong> publishes 1. Research papers; 2. Review papers; 3. Case studies; 4. Short communications as well as 5. (extended) abstracts of Grey literature government reports in all areas of nutrition and food safety. EJNFS considers the following areas out of scope: food science, food technology, food composition, food analysis, food palatability, animal nutrition. EJNFS is a quality controlled, double blind peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal in the area of human nutrition and food safety and toxicology.</p> European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety en-US European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety 2347-5641 Final Health and Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Carnation Moonlite 123.2.38 https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30345 <p>Genetically modified carnation (<em>Dianthus caryophyllus</em> L.) line 123.2.38 with product name Moonlite™, expresses three introduced traits. The dfr and f3′5′h (Hf1) genes from Petunia x hybrida coding for dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H), respectively, lead to the biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments, which confer the desired violet colour to the flowers. A mutated als gene from <em>Nicotiana tabacum</em> has also been inserted, coding for an acetolactate synthase (ALS) variant protein and thereby conferring tolerance to the active, ALS-inhibiting, herbicidal substances chlorimuron, thifensulfuron and sulfonylureas, used to facilitate the selection of GM shoots during genetic transformation. Bioinformatics analyses of the inserted DNA and flanking sequences in carnation 123.2.38 have not indicated a potential production of putative harmful proteins or polypeptides caused by the genetic modification. Genomic stability of the functional insert and consistent expression of the dfr and f3′5′h (Hf1) genes, have been shown over several generations of carnation 123.2.38. Data reported from several field trials show that carnation 123.2.38 petals contain higher levels of the anthocyanins delphinidin and cyanidin compared to the non-GM (conventional) carnation counterpart 123. Other morphological traits were reported and along with differing petal colour, carnation Moonlite 123.2.38 differed significantly in one trait compared to conventional carnation counterpart 123. An acute toxicity study in mice and two in vitro studies, both employing aqueous extracts from leaves or petals, showed no adverse effects. DFR, F3’5’H and ALS proteins do not show sequence resemblance to known toxins or IgE-dependent allergens, nor have they been reported to cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. The anthocyanins delphinidin and cyanidin are present in numerous foods and are also approved food additives. Carnations are cultivated in Norway, but since 1) the intended uses includes import of cut flowers for ornamental use only, 2) the spread and viability of pollen from the cut flowers is low, 3) seed formation in cut flowers is unlikely to occur, and 4) spread of inserted genes to target or non-target organisms is either unlikely to occur or is not of biological relevance, the VKM GMO Panel does not consider that carnation 123.2.38 represents an environmental risk in Norway.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Considering that carnation Moonlite 123.2.38 is not intended for cultivation or use as food or feed, the VKM GMO Panel considers that comparative analysis of the newly synthesised anthocyanin pigments delphinidin, cyanidin and petunidin in its petals is sufficient for the risk assessment. The reported morphological differences between Moonlite 123.2.38 and its conventional carnation counterpart 123 do not raise safety concerns. It is unlikely that the DFR, F3’5’H or ALS proteins, or the delphinidin or cyanidin pigments, will introduce a toxic or allergenic potential in Moonlite 123.2.38.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Based on current knowledge and information supplied by the applicant, and considering the intended uses, which exclude cultivation and use as food and feed, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that Moonlite 123.2.38 is as safe as its conventional counterpart 123.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Based on the current knowledge and considering its import, distribution and intended use as cut ornamental flowers, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that it is unlikely that carnation Moonlite 123.2.38 will have any adverse effects on the biotic or abiotic environment in Norway.</p> Åshild Kristin Andreassen Nana Yaa Ohene Asare Anne Marie Bakke Anne Marthe Jevnaker Olavi Junttila Ville Erling Sipinen Rose Vikse Per Brandtzæg Knut Kelkås Dahl Knut Thomas Dalen Richard Meadow Kåre Magnus Nielsen Monica Sanden Hilde-Gunn Opsahl Sorteberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-02-24 2021-02-24 40 42 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i130345 Final Health and Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Soybean 356043 https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30346 <p>Soybean 356043 expresses both the gat gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus licheniformis and the gm - hra gene, an optimised form of the endogenous acetolactate synthase (als) coding sequence from soybean (<em>Glycine max</em>; gm). The encoded GAT4601 protein, glyphosate acetyltransferase, confers the ability to inactivate the active herbicidal substances glyphosate and glyphosate-ammonium to N-acetyl glyphosate, which does not have herbicidal activity. The encoded GM-HRA protein confers increased tolerance to the active, ALS-inhibiting, herbicidal substances chlorimuron, thifensulfuron and sulfonylureas. Bioinformatics analyses of the inserted DNA and flanking sequences in soybean 356043 have not indicated a potential production of putative harmful proteins or polypeptides caused by the genetic modification. Genomic stability of the functional insert and consistent expression of the gat gene, have been shown over several generations of soybean 356043. Data from several field trials performed in USA, Canada, Chile and Argentina during 2005-2006 show that soybean 356043 contains higher levels of especially the acetylated amino acid N-acetyl aspartate, but also N-acetyl glutamate and the odd-chain fatty acids heptadecanoic, heptadecenoic and heptadecadienoic acids, in addition to expression of the newly expressed proteins. Otherwise the soybean 356043 is compositionally, morphologically and agronomically equivalent to its conventional counterpart and other commercial soybean cultivars. The acetylated amino acids and odd-chain fatty acids are normal constituents of plant and animal-derived foods and feeds, and an in-depth toxicity and intake assessment did not reveal safety concerns regarding consumer intake at the levels present in soybean 356043. Sub-chronic feeding studies with rats, repeated-dose toxicity studies with mice, as well as nutritional assessment trials with broilers and laying hens have not revealed adverse effects of soybean 356043. These studies indicate that soybean 356043 is nutritionally equivalent to and as safe as conventional soybean cultivars. The GAT4601 and GM-HRA proteins produced in soybean 356043 do not show sequence resemblance to known toxins or IgE-dependent allergens, nor has the whole GM plant been reported to cause changes in IgE-mediated allergic reactions in patients reactive to soybean or in non-ectopic control individuals. Soybean is not cultivated in Norway, and there are no cross-compatible wild or weedy relatives of soybean in Europe.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Based on current knowledge and considering the intended uses, which exclude cultivation,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; the VKM GMO Panel concludes that soybean 356043 with the GAT4601 and GM-HRA&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; proteins:</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>-&nbsp;&nbsp; Is – with the exception of the novel traits and resulting increased content of the acetylated amino acids NAA and NAG, and the odd-chain fatty acids heptadecanoic, heptadecenoic and heptadecadienoic acids – compositionally, morphologically and agronomically equivalent to its conventional counterpart and other commercial soybean cultivars</p> <p>&nbsp;-&nbsp;&nbsp; Are unlikely to introduce toxic or allergenic potentials in food or feed compared to conventional soybean cultivars</p> <p>&nbsp;-&nbsp;&nbsp; Is nutritionally equivalent to and as safe as its conventional counterpart and other conventional soybean cultivars</p> <p>&nbsp;-&nbsp;&nbsp; Does not represent an environmental risk in Norway.</p> Åshild Kristin Andreassen Nana Yaa Ohene Asare Anne Marie Bakke Knut Kelkås Dahl Knut Thomas Dalen Kåre Magnus Nielsen Monica Sanden Ville Erling Sipinen Rose Vikse Per Brandtzæg Olavi Junttila Richard Meadow Hilde-Gunn Opsahl Sorteberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-02-24 2021-02-24 43 45 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i130346 Final Health and Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Carnation Moonvelvet IFD26407-2 https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30353 <p>Genetically modified carnation (<em>Dianthus caryophyllus</em> L.) line IFD-26407-2 with product name Moonvelvet™, expresses three introduced traits. The cytb5 gene and the f3′5′h (Hf1) gene from Petunia x hybrida, coding for cytochrome b5 (CYTB5) and flavonoid 3′,5′hydroxylase (F3′5′H), respectively, lead to the biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments, which confer the desired violet/blue colour to the flowers. A mutated als gene (SuRB) from <em>Nicotiana tabacum</em> has also been inserted, coding for an acetolactate synthase (ALS) variant protein and thereby conferring tolerance to the active, ALS-inhibiting, herbicidal substances chlorimuron, thifensulfuron and sulfonylureas, used to facilitate the selection of GM shoots during genetic transformation. Bioinformatic analyses of the inserted DNA and flanking sequences in carnation Moonvelvet IFD-26407-2 have not indicated a potential production of putative harmful proteins or polypeptides caused by the genetic modification. Genomic stability of the functional insert and consistent expression of the cytb5 and f3′5′h (Hf1) genes, have been shown over several generations of carnation Moonvelvet IFD-26407-2. Data reported from several field trials show that carnation Moonvelvet IFD-26407-2 petals contain higher levels of the anthocyanins delphinidin and cyanidin, and lower levels of pelargonidin compared to the non-GM (conventional) carnation counterpart Cerise Westpearl (CW). Other morphological traits were reported and along with differing petal colour, carnation Moonvelvet IFD-26407-2 differed significantly in 10 traits compared to conventional carnation counterpart CW. Aqueous extracts from leaves or petals showed no mutagenic activity <em>in vitro</em>. ALS, CYTB5, and F3’5’H proteins do not show sequence resemblance to known toxins or IgE-dependent allergens, nor have they been reported to be toxic to animals or cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. The anthocyanins delphinidin and cyanidin are present in numerous foods and are also approved food additives. Carnations are cultivated in Norway, but since 1) the intended uses includes import of cut flowers for ornamental use only, 2) the spread and viability of pollen from the cut flowers is low, 3) seed formation in cut flowers is unlikely to occur, and 4) spread of inserted genes to target or non-target organisms is either unlikely to occur or is not of biological relevance, the VKM GMO Panel does not consider that carnation Moonvelvet IFD-26407-2 represents an environmental risk in Norway.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Considering that carnation Moonvelvet IFD-26407-2 is not intended for cultivation or use as food or feed, the VKM GMO Panel considers that comparative analysis of the newly synthesised anthocyanin pigments delphinidin, cyanidin and pelargonidin in its petals is sufficient for the risk assessment. The reported morphological differences between Moonvelvet IFD-26407-2 and its conventional carnation counterpart Cerise Westpearl (CW) do not raise safety concerns. It is unlikely that either the CYTB5, F3’5’H or ALS proteins, or the delphinidin or cyanidin pigments, will introduce a toxic or allergenic potential in Moonvelvet IFD-26407-2.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Based on current knowledge and information supplied by the applicant, and considering the intended uses, which exclude cultivation and use as food and feed, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that Moonvelvet IFD-26407-2 is as safe as its conventional counterpart CW.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Based on the current knowledge and considering its import, distribution and intended use as cut ornamental flowers, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that it is unlikely that carnation Moonvelvet IFD-26407-2 will have any adverse effects on the biotic or abiotic environment in Norway.</p> Åshild Andreassen Nana Yaa Ohene Asare Anne Marie Bakke Merethe Aasmo Finne Anne Marthe Jevnaker Olavi Junttila Ville Erling Sipinen Rose Vikse Per Brandtzæg Knut Helkås Dalen Knut Tomas Dalen Richard Meadow Kåre M. Nielsen Monica Sanden Hilde-Gunn Opsahl-Sorteberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-03 2021-03-03 101 103 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i130353 Final Health and Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Carnation Moonaqua 123.8.12 https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30355 <p>Genetically modified carnation (<em>Dianthus caryophyllus</em> L.) line 123.8.12 with product name Moonaqua™, expresses three introduced traits. The dfr gene from Petunia x hybrida and the f3′5′h (Hf1) gene from Viola sp., coding for dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H), respectively, lead to the biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments, which confer the desired mauve colour to the flowers. A mutated als gene (SuRB) from <em>Nicotiana tabacum</em> has also been inserted, coding for an acetolactate synthase (ALS) variant protein and thereby conferring tolerance to the active, ALS-inhibiting, herbicidal substances chlorimuron, thifensulfuron and sulfonylureas, used to facilitate the selection of GM shoots during genetic transformation. Bioinformatics analyses of the inserted DNA and flanking sequences in carnation 123.8.12 have not indicated a potential production of putative harmful proteins or polypeptides caused by the genetic modification. Genomic stability of the functional insert and consistent expression of the dfr and f3′5′h (Hf1) genes, have been shown over several generations of carnation 123.8.12. Data reported from several field trials show that carnation 123.8.12 petals contain higher levels of the anthocyanins delphinidin and cyanidin compared to the non-GM (conventional) carnation counterpart FE123. Other morphological traits were reported and along with differing petal colour, carnation Moonaqua 123.8.12 differed significantly in one trait compared to conventional carnation counterpart FE123. An acute toxicity study in mice and an in vitro mutagenicity study employing aqueous extracts from leaves or petals showed no adverse effects. DFR, F3’5’H and ALS proteins do not show sequence resemblance to known toxins or IgE-dependent allergens, nor have they been reported to cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. The anthocyanins delphinidin and cyanidin are present in numerous foods and are also approved food additives. Carnations are cultivated in Norway, but since 1) the intended uses includes import of cut flowers for ornamental use only, 2) the spread and viability of pollen from the cut flowers is low, 3) seed formation in cut flowers is unlikely to occur, and 4) spread of inserted genes to target or non-target organisms is either unlikely to occur or is not of biological relevance, the VKM GMO Panel does not consider that carnation 123.8.12 represents an environmental risk in Norway.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Considering that carnation Moonaqua 123.8.12 is not intended for cultivation or use as food or feed, the VKM GMO Panel considers that comparative analysis of the newly synthesised anthocyanin pigments delphinidin, cyanidin and petunidin in its petals is sufficient for the risk assessment. The reported morphological differences between Moonaqua 123.8.12 and the conventional carnation counterpart FE123 do not raise safety concerns. It is unlikely that the DFR, F3’5’H or ALS proteins, or the delphinidin or cyanidin pigments, will introduce a toxic or allergenic potential in Moonaqua 123.8.12.&nbsp;</p> <p>Based on current knowledge and information supplied by the applicant, and considering the intended use, which excludes cultivation and use as food and feed, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that Moonaqua 123.8.12 is as safe as its conventional counterpart FE123.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Based on the current knowledge and considering its import, distribution and intended use as cut ornamental flowers, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that it is unlikely that carnation Moonaqua 123.8.12 will have any adverse effects on the biotic or abiotic environment in Norway.</p> Åshild Andreassen Nana Yaa Ohene Asare Anne Marie Bakke Merethe Aasmo Finne Anne Marthe Jevnaker Olavi Junttila Ville Erling Sipinen Rose Vikse Per Brandtzæg Knut Helkås Dalen Knut Tomas Dalen Richard Meadow Kåre M. Nielsen Monica Sanden Hilde-Gunn Opsahl-Sorteberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-03 2021-03-03 112 114 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i130355 Final Health and Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Soybean A2704-12 https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30357 <p>Soybean A2704-12 expresses the phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase (pat) gene, from the soil bacterium <em>Streptomyces viridochromogenes</em>. The encoded PAT protein confers tolerance to the active herbicidal substance glufosinate-ammonium. Bioinformatics analyses of the inserted DNA and flanking sequences in soybean A2704-12 have not indicated a potential production of putative harmful proteins or polypeptides caused by the genetic modification. Genomic stability of the functional insert and consistent expression of the pat gene have been shown over several generations of soybean A2704-12. With the exception of the intended changes caused by the transgenetically introduced trait, data from field trials performed in the USA and Canada show that soybean A2704-12 is compositionally, morphologically and agronomically equivalent to its conventional counterpart and to other commercial soybean varieties. A repeated dose toxicity study in with rats and a nutritional assessment trial with broilers indicate that soybean A2704-12 is nutritionally equivalent to and as safe as conventional soybean varieties. The PAT protein produced in soybean A270412 does not show sequence resemblance to known toxins or IgE-dependent allergens, nor has it been reported to cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Soybean is not cultivated in Norway, and there are no cross-compatible wild or weedy relatives of soybean in Europe.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Based on current knowledge, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that with the intended usage, there are no discernible safety concerns associated with soybean A2704-12 regarding human or animal health or to the environment in Norway.</p> Åshild Kristin Andreassen Anne Marie Bakke Knut Kelkås Dahl Knut Thomas Dalen Merethe Aasmo Finne Arne Mikalsen Monica Sanden Ville Erling Sipinen Rose Vikse Per Brandtzæg Olavi Junttila Richard Meadow Kåre Magnus Nielsen Hilde-Gunn Opsahl Sorteberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-04 2021-03-04 115 116 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i130357 Final Health and Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Carnation Moonberry IFD25958-3 https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30358 <p>Genetically modified carnation (<em>Dianthus caryophyllus</em> L.) line IFD-25958-3 with product name Moonberry™, expresses three introduced traits. The dfr gene from Petunia x hybrida and the f3′5′h gene from Viola hortensis, coding for dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H), respectively, lead to the biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments, which confer the desired violet/blue colour to the flowers. A mutated als gene (SuRB) from Nicotiana tabacum has also been inserted, coding for an acetolactate synthase (ALS) variant protein and thereby conferring tolerance to the active, ALS-inhibiting, herbicidal substances chlorimuron, thifensulfuron and sulfonylureas, used to facilitate the selection of GM shoots during genetic transformation. Of note, carnation Moonberry IFD25958-3 contained a hairpin RNA interference (RNAi) gene, which down-regulates endogenous dfr. Bioinformatics analyses of the inserted DNA and flanking sequences in carnation Moonberry IFD-25958-3 have not indicated a potential production of putative harmful proteins or polypeptides caused by the genetic modification. Genomic stability of the functional insert and consistent expression of the dfr and f3′5′h genes, have been shown over several generations of carnation Moonberry IFD-25958-3. Data reported from several field trials show that carnation Moonberry IFD-25958-3 petals contain higher levels of the anthocyanins delphinidin and cyanidin, and lower levels of pelargonidin compared to the non-GM (conventional) carnation counterpart Cerise Westpearl (CW). Other morphological traits were reported and along with differing petal colour, carnation Moonberry IFD-25958-3 differed significantly in nine traits compared to conventional carnation counterpart CW. Aqueous extracts from leaves or petals showed no mutagenic activity <em>in vitro</em>. ALS, DFR, and F3’5’H proteins do not show sequence resemblance to known toxins or IgE-dependent allergens, nor have they been reported to be toxic to animals or cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. The anthocyanins delphinidin and cyanidin are present in numerous foods and are also approved food additives. Carnations are cultivated in Norway, but since 1) the intended uses includes import of cut flowers for ornamental use only, 2) the spread and viability of pollen from the cut flowers is low, 3) seed formation in cut flowers is unlikely to occur, and 4) spread of inserted genes to target or non-target organisms is either unlikely to occur or is not of biological relevance, the VKM GMO Panel does not consider that carnation Moonberry IFD-25958-3 represents an environmental risk in Norway.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Considering that carnation Moonberry IFD-25958-3 is not intended for cultivation or use as food or feed, the VKM GMO Panel considers that comparative analysis of the newly synthesised anthocyanin pigments delphinidin, cyanidin and pelargonidin in its petals is sufficient for the risk assessment. The reported morphological differences between Moonberry IFD-25958-3 and its conventional carnation counterpart Cerise Westpearl (CW) do not raise safety concerns. It is unlikely that the DFR, F3’5’H or ALS proteins, or the delphinidin or cyanidin pigments, will introduce a toxic or allergenic potential in Moonberry IFD-25958-3.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Based on current knowledge and information supplied by the applicant, and considering the intended use, which excludes cultivation and use as food and feed, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that Moonberry IFD-25958-3 is as safe as its conventional counterpart CW.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Based on the current knowledge and considering its import, distribution and intended use as cut ornamental flowers, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that it is unlikely that carnation Moonberry IFD-25958-3 will have any adverse effects on the biotic or abiotic environment in Norway.</p> Åshild Andreassen Nana Yaa Ohene Asare Anne Marie Bakke Merethe Aasmo Finne Anne Marthe Jevnaker Olavi Junttila Ville Erling Sipinen Rose Vikse Per Brandtzæg Knut Helkås Dalen Knut Tomas Dalen Richard Meadow Kåre M. Nielsen Monica Sanden Hilde-Gunn Opsahl-Sorteberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-06 2021-03-06 117 119 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i130358 Final Health and Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Soybean A5547-127 https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30362 <p>Soybean A5547-127 expresses the phosphinothricin - N - acetyltransferase (pat) gene from the soil bacterium <em>Streptomyces viridochromogenes</em>. The encoded PAT protein confers tolerance to the active herbicidal substance glufosinate-ammonium. Bioinformatics analyses of the inserted DNA and flanking sequences in soybean A5547-127 have not indicated a potential production of putative harmful proteins or polypeptides caused by the genetic modification. Genomic stability of the functional insert and consistent expression of the pat gene have been shown over several generations of soybean A5547-127. With the exception of the&nbsp; intended changes caused by the trans-genetically introduced trait, data from field trials performed in the USA show that soybean A5547-127 is compositionally, morphologically and agronomically equivalent to its conventional counterpart and other commercial soybean varieties. A repeated dose toxicity study with rats and a nutritional assessment trial with broilers have not revealed adverse effects of soybean A5547-127. These studies indicate that soybean A5547-127 is nutritionally equivalent to and as safe as conventional soybean varieties. The PAT protein produced in soybean A5547-127 does not show sequence resemblance to known toxins or IgE-dependent allergens, nor has it been reported to cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Soybean is not cultivated in Norway, and there are no crosscompatible wild or weedy relatives of soybean in Europe.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Based on current knowledge the VKM GMO Panel concludes that with the intended usage, there are no discernible safety concerns associated with soybean A5547-127 regarding human or animal health or to the environment in Norway.&nbsp;</p> Åshild Kristin Andreassen Anne Marie Bakke Knut Kelkås Dahl Knut Thomas Dalen Merethe Aasmo Finne Arne Mikalsen Monica Sanden Ville Erling Sipinen Rose Vikse Per Brandtzæg Olavi Junttila Richard Meadow Kåre Magnus Nielsen Hilde-Gunn Opsahl Sorteberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-06 2021-03-06 130 131 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i130362 Final Health and Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Soybean MON 87701 https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30364 <p>Soybean MON 87701 expresses the cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis. The encoded Cry1Ac protein confers resistance against specific lepidopteran pests. Updated bioinformatics analyses of the inserted DNA and flanking sequences in soybean MON 87701 have not indicated a potential production of harmful toxins and allergens or polypeptides caused by the genetic modification. Genomic stability of the functional insert and consistent expression of the cry1Ac gene, have been shown over several generations of soybean MON 87701. Data from several field trials performed in USA, Canada, Chile and Argentina during 2005-2006 show that soybean MON 87701 is compositionally, morphologically and agronomically equivalent to its conventional counterpart and other commercial soybean cultivars. Subchronic feeding studies with rats as well as nutritional assessment with broilers have not revealed relevant adverse effects of MON 87701. These studies indicate that MON 87701 is nutritionally equivalent to and as safe as conventional soybean cultivars. The Cry1Ac protein produced in soybean MON 87701 do not show sequence resemblance to known toxins or IgE-dependent allergens, nor has the whole GM plant been reported to cause changes in IgE-mediated allergic reactions in patients reactive to soybean or in non-ectopic control individuals. Soybean is not cultivated in Norway, and there are no cross-compatible wild or weedy relatives of soybean in Europe.&nbsp; Based on current knowledge and considering the intended uses, which exclude cultivation, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that soybean MON 87701 with the Cry1Ac protein:</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;-&nbsp;&nbsp; Is compositionally, morphologically and agronomically equivalent to its conventional counterpart and other commercial soybean cultivars</p> <p>&nbsp;-&nbsp;&nbsp; Is unlikely to introduce a toxic or allergenic potential in food or feed compared to conventional soybean cultivars</p> <p>&nbsp;-&nbsp;&nbsp; Is nutritionally equivalent to and as safe as its conventional counterpart and other conventional soybean cultivars</p> <p>&nbsp;-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Does not represent an environmental risk in Norway.</p> Åshild Kristin Andreassen Nana Yaa Ohene Asare Anne Marie Bakke Knut Kelkås Dahl Knut Thomas Dalen Kåre Magnus Nielsen Monica Sanden Ville Erling Sipinen Rose Vikse Per Brandtzæg Olavi Junttila Richard Meadow Hilde-Gunn Opsahl Sorteberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-06 2021-03-06 132 133 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i130364 Final Health and Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Soybean MON 89788 https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30366 <p>Soybean MON 89788 expresses the cp4 epsps gene from the plant pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens (<em>Rhizobium radiobacter</em>) sp. strain CP4. The encoded enzyme 5enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 EPSPS) protein confers tolerance to the active herbicidal substance glyphosate. Updated bioinformatics analyses of the inserted DNA and flanking sequences in soybean MON 89788 have not indicated a potential production of putative harmful proteins or polypeptides caused by the genetic modification. Genomic stability of the functional insert and consistent expression of the cp4 epsps gene, have been shown over several generations of soybean MON 89788. With the exception of the intended changes caused by the trans-genetically introduced trait, data from several field trials performed in USA and Argentina show that soybean MON 89788 is compositionally, morphologically and agronomically equivalent to its conventional counterpart and other commercial soybean varieties. A sub-chronic feeding study with rats, as well as a nutritional assessment trial with broilers has not revealed adverse effects of soybean MON 89788. These studies indicate that soybean MON 89788 is nutritionally equivalent to, and as safe as conventional soybean varieties. The CP4 EPSPS protein produced in soybean MON 89788 does not show sequence resemblance to known toxins or IgE-dependent allergens, nor has it been reported to cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Soybean is not cultivated in Norway, and there are no cross-compatible wild or weedy relatives of soybean in Europe.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Based on current knowledge, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that with the intended usage, there are no discernible safety concerns associated with soybean MON 89788 regarding human or animal health or to the environment in Norway.</p> Åshild Kristin Andreassen Anne Marie Bakke Knut Kelkås Dahl Knut Thomas Dalen Merethe Aasmo Finne Arne Mikalsen Monica Sanden Ville Erling Sipinen Rose Vikse Per Brandtzæg Olavi Junttila Richard Meadow Kåre Magnus Nielsen Hilde-Gunn Opsahl Sorteberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-06 2021-03-06 134 135 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i130366 Assessment of Heavy Metal Contents, and Probable Health Risks of Some Staple Vegetables in Enugu Metropolis https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30341 <p>Heavy metals naturally are non-biodegradable constituents of the earth’s crust that accumulate and persist indefinitely in the ecosystem as a result of both human and natural activities. Their contamination of vegetables remains an issue of public health interest due to the frequency, and quantity of consumption. The over exposure to these heavy metals continues to pose serious health threat globally. This study was aimed to assess the heavy metal contents of staple vegetables <em>[Telfairia occidentalis</em>, <em>Amaranthus hybridus</em> and <em>Ocimum gratissimum]</em> within Enugu metropolis; the leaves were screened for heavy metals [Arsenic As, Lead Pb, Cadmium Cd, Nickel Ni, Chromium Cr and Cobalt Co], by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Results (Mean±SD, &nbsp;mgkg-1 ) showed that <em>Amaranthus hybridus: </em>contained [Pb-0.109±0.350, Cr -0.161±0.004]; <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em>: [Ni-0.179±0.028, Cd-0.033±0.006, Cr-0.176±0.036], and <em>Telfairia occidentalis</em>: [Pb-0.153±0.139, Co-0.198±0.148]; of which some values were slightly above WHO/FAO standards. Although, the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were below referenced tolerable daily intakes (TDIs). The hazard quotients (HQs) were below 1 (HQ&lt;1), but As and Cd, were exceptions; while the hazard index (HI) values were all above 1 (HI&gt;1). The slightly above standard references of some of these heavy metals, and HI&gt;1 values in this study are a concern, as potential health risks may arise amidst the population over a period of time, therefore, there is need to eliminate the likely sources of the latent contamination.</p> D. Ibegbu Madu A. Eze Anthonius Atuadu Vivian C. Ejiofor Nonso E. Ezeagu Ikechukwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-10 2021-01-10 1 14 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i130341 Nutritional, Organoleptic and Phytochemical Properties of Soursop (Annona muricata) Pulp and Juice after Postharvest Ripening https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30342 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Annona comprises many species but four are known as bearers of edible fruits, namely, <em>A. reticulata</em>, <em>A. squamosal</em>, <em>A. cherimola</em> and <em>A. muricata.</em> Soursop is not quite exploited in Cameroon. This work was aimed at determining the nutritional and phytochemical properties of soursop pulp and formulated juices.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The proximate composition, mineral and phytochemical contents of the pulp and formulated juice with food additives were determined using standard methods. The sensory evaluation of the juice was conducted using a 9- point hedonic scale.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Overall acceptability of the juices ranged from 3.87- 6.38. The qualitative phytochemical screening of the juices showed major secondary metabolites (alkaloids, saponins, tannins except steroids and glycosides). Quantitatively, total phenolic content ranged from 0.26-0.89mg GAE/ mL. Proximate composition of the pulp and juice also varied showing; protein (0.58-7.45%), lipid (0.10-0.74%), fibre (1.26-24.23%), ash (1.29 to 2.22%), carbohydrate (8.63-21.0%) and moisture (45.0-88.23%).The minerals in the pulp and juice were; K (7.70-10.06mg/g), Fe (0.19-0.42mg/g), Ca (0.96-2.16mg/g), Mg (0.19-0.68mg/g), Zn (0.04-0.08mg/g), P (0.05-1.23) and Na (0.73-0.81mg/g). Inclusion of additives to the juice generally increased the acceptability of consumers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It can be concluded that soursop pulp and juice contain appreciable amounts of nutrients and phytochemicals which can be exploited to improve nutrition and health. This may contribute to an increase in itsconsumption, a reduction in postharvest losses and an increase in domestication of soursop plant.</p> Bernard Tiencheu Agbor Claudia Egbe Aduni Ufuan Achidi Noel Tenyang Eurydice Flore Tiepma Ngongang Fabrice Tonfack Djikeng Bertrand Tatsinkou Fossi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-02-15 2021-02-15 15 28 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i130342 Evaluation and Comparison of the Antioxidant Activities and Nutritional Composition of Cucurbita maxima and Vigna unguiculata Leaf Extracts https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30343 <p>Antioxidant activities and nutritional composition are essential ingredients normally considered in the choice of vegetables for human consumption. Leafy vegetables in particular, are regarded as protective foods in human diet due to their many health benefits. The aim of this research was to carry out the quantitative phytochemical screening, the antioxidant activities of extracts and determine the nutritional content of Cucurbita maxima and Vigna unguiculata leaves. Quantitative phytochemical screening were conducted using standard techniques. 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to determine antioxidant activities of these extracts. Nutritional composition was determined using standard procedures.&nbsp; Quantitative analysis revealed the phytochemicals in C. maxima and V. unguiculata as; saponins (1.03%, and 1.34%), tannins (3.49% and 2.60%), terpenoids (0.0% and 0.47%), flavonoids (2.81% and 4.11%), alkaloids (5.72% and 3.5%), phenols (4.02% and 3.83%) respectively. There was a significant (p=0.05) difference in radical scavenging activity of ethanol leaf extract of V. unguiculata comprared to C. maxima. In FRAP both plants’ extract revealed a good antioxidant reducing power at 100mg/ml (range 0.40 to 0.5 absorbance) at 700nM. Antioxidant activities of extracts is attributed to their flavonoid and phenolic contents. Proximate analysis revealed the nutrients for C. maxima and V. unguiculata as; crude protein (11.58% and 14.83%), crude fat (0.47% and 0.61%), ash (4.11% and 3.72%), crude fiber (6.95 and 4.68%), moisture (1.03% and 1.38%), carbohydrate (75.86% and 74.78%) respectively. This shows that the leaves are a good source of energy to both humans and animals. Also, both vegetables revealed good percentages of proteins which can be used to compliment other sources of protein.</p> K. K. Sha’a ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-02-17 2021-02-17 29 39 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i130343 Chemical Composition and Preservation of Mnazi and Its Distillate (Pyuwa) https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30347 <p>Coconut palm (<em>Cocos nucifera</em>) is most well-known for the products of its fruit, such as coconut meat, coconut water, coconut milk, and coconut oil. Almost all edible products of the coconut come from the fruit, or “nut” portion of the plant. Some fruit products include desiccated coconut from the hard endosperm of the seed and toddy which, is produced by tapping the sap from inflorescence. Toddy can be boiled to produce coconut sugar (jaggery) or fermented to become an alcoholic beverage (<em>Mnazi</em>). This study explored the quality aspects and preservation of both <em>Mnazi</em> and its spirit (pyuwa) with an aim of providing a cheap alternative beverage for both low and middle income earners. The main volatile compounds that were found in both <em>Mnazi</em> and its spirit include propanol, isoamyl ethanol butanol and acetic acid. In <em>Mnazi</em>, the levels of the volatiles were far much less than 600 mg/l, which is considered the threshold value of acceptability in wine. The absence of methanol and fusel oils in fresh <em>Mnazi</em> makes it possible to compete effectively with beers and alcoholic drinks already in the market. However, its distillate (Pyuwa) cannot be recommended as safe alcohol drink unless further separation is done because of its high levels of fusel oils. The newly developed products: dry, medium dry and sweet brands were stable during the first 4 weeks after production. Assimilation of sucrose and fructose were faster than glucose, with fructose being the fastest.</p> T. T. Kadere ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-02-25 2021-02-25 46 58 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i130347 Nutrition Education of Mothers and Zinc Supplementation among Children in the Rural Community, Cameroon https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30348 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> Malnutrition among children, especially stunting is a public health problem in Cameroon. This study assesses the impact of zinc supplementation of children and nutrition education of mothers on the nutritional status of the children in the Bangang rural community.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>This was a descriptive and prospective study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The study took place in the Bangang community in the Region of West Cameroon, during the period from March to December 2015.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The children aged 6 to 48 months and mothers aged 20 to 34 years were selected after the baseline survey and enrolled. Dietary surveys were used to evaluate the frequency of foods consumed by 150 children. Zinc supplementation group of children (ZSG, n= 25) received 10 mg of zinc sulfate tablets per day for 14 days and control group (CG, n=25) was formed by children whose mothers received nutrition counseling. The nutrition education sessions organized into 4 modules were conducted quarterly for 9 months on a sample of 100 mothers. After interventions, impact of zinc supplementation and maternal education was assessed by determining height for age and weight for age indices, and biochemistry parameters.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that zincemia of ZSG varied significantly (<em>P</em> = .0001) and not significantly (<em>P</em> = .23) for CG. After nutrition education, dietary diversity was improved; reduction of chronic malnutrition (10.9%) and increasing number of children with good nutritional status (6.6%) were observed. Increased for phosphoremia (3.6 ± 2.4 to 5.7 ± 1.8 mg/dl;<em> P</em> = .001) and albuminemia (34.8 ± 15.5 to 46.9 ± 8.9 g/l; <em>P</em> = .002) were significant which was not the case of calcemia, zincemia, magnesemia and serum iron.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study showed positive impact of zinc supplementation and maternal education on the nutritional status of children.</p> Nicolas Policarpe Nolla Marie Modestine Kana Sop Marlyne Joséphine Mananga Inocent Gouado ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-01 2021-03-01 59 69 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i130348 Effect of Abiotic Factors on the Antifungal Activity of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Commercial Dairy and Fermented Foods from Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30350 <p>Increasing consumer demand for natural products have renewed food industry attention in bio preservation. Lactic acid bacteria are of particular interest as effective alternative to chemical preservation because of their food grade status. This work explores the effect of antifungal compounds produced by isolates of Lactobacillus sp on some selected pathogenic fungi growth. Samples of diary and fermented products were purchased from commercial vendors within the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) and screened for the presence of Lactobacillus sp. The Lactobacillus sp isolated were screened for antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Trichophyton rubrum using a dual culture assay. Strains with antifungal activity were identified and the fungal inhibitory activity was further evaluated. The effect of abiotic factors on the antifungal activity was evaluated by overlay assay under different temperature and pH. Majority of the identified isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus sp. produced antifungal compounds under different temperatures (25ºC, 30ºC and 37ºC). The antifungal compounds produced by Lactobacillus strains showed greater inhibitory activity on Aspergillus fumigatus. At 30ºC the percentage zones of inhibition range were 44.4%- 60.4%. All isolates showed stronger antifungal activity when grown at pH 4.0 and 5.0. At a pH 2.0 there was a total inhibition of fungal growth however, there was no inhibition of fungal growth at the pH 7.0. Lactic acid bacteria can be employed as effective alternative to chemical preservatives in food. Temperature and pH of the culture medium could influence the production of antifungal compounds by lactic acid bacteria.</p> Mercy Aboh Ngozi Amaeze Ijeoma Ikeji Peters Oladosu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 70 78 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i130350 Quality Characteristics of Complementary Food from Locally Fermented Maize Flour Blended with Sprouted Velvet Bean (Mucuna utilis) Flour in Nigeria https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30351 <p>Complementary food produced from fermented maize and sprouted velvet bean flour in ratios 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 and 100% maize (control) was studied in this research work. Proximate composition, anti-nutritional and sensory properties of the blends was evaluated using standard analytical methods. Results showed that moisture (5.49% - 8.35%), ash (0.55% - 1.25%), crude fiber (3.50% - 4.98%), protein (8.05 -13.05%) increased with increased velvet bean flour while carbohydrate content decreased (77.37% - 63.48%). Phytate (2.11 - 2.34 mg/100 g) and oxalate (0.40–10.1 mg/100 g) are within lethal doses. The colour, taste, and mouth-feel of the sample with 10% velvet bean flours were significantly (p&lt;0.05) being the most acceptable by the assessors. This study showed that protein-energy malnutrition in developing nations could be alleviated with complementary foods.</p> Abiodun Omowonuola Adebayo-Oyetoro Olawale Paul Olatidoye Taiwo Joy Bamikole Christianah Ose Igene Oluwafemi Jeremiah Coker ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-02 2021-03-02 79 92 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i130351 The Effect of Ascorbic Acid on the Physical and Proximate Properties of Wheat-Acha Composite Bread https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30352 <p>This work studied the effect of different proportions of ascorbic acid on the physical and proximate properties on wheat-acha composite bread. Bread was produced from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and acha (<em>Digitaria exilis</em>) composite flours. The wheat: acha ratios used were 100:0, 90:10 and 80:20. The proximate, and functional properties of the flours were analysed. The dough improver, ascorbic acid was added at 80, 100 and 120ppm during the bread making process and the proximate, physical and sensory properties of the bread was analysed. Flour sample with 20% acha had the significantly highest values for bulk density (0.744g/cm<sup>3</sup>), water absorption capacity (1.5g/g), oil absorption capacity (1.564g/g), foam capacity (11.32%) and swelling index (1.24). There was no significant difference in the crude fat and ash content of all bread samples. Significant difference was observed in the volume and specific volume of the bread samples, with 100% wheat flour giving the highest values of 431.33 ml and 3.16 ml/g respectively. However, addition of ascorbic acid significantly improved these parameters with no significant difference between the 100ppm and 120ppm bread samples.&nbsp; Also the bread samples produced with 100:0 and 90:10 wheat: acha flours showed no significant difference in their sensory properties. The 80:20 composite bread gave significantly lower sensory scores for all the sensory parameters.</p> N. C. Onuegbu P. C. Ngobidi N. C. Ihediohanma E. N. Bede ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-03 2021-03-03 93 100 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i130352 Heavy Metals Contamination of Agricultural Land and Their Impact on Food Safety https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30354 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of this study is to investigate the heavy metals pollution status and health risks assessment of the vegetables grown at Danbatta irrigation lands.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>The research involved the collection of soil, water and cultivated vegetable from irrigation lands as well as analyzing their heavy metals pollution status.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Samples were collected from Danbatta irrigation lands of Kano state, Nigeria. The research study covered a period of one year.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This study investigates the prevalence of heavy metals pollution and related health risks associated with the vegetables grown at Danbatta local government of Kano state. This was achieved by collecting irrigation soil, water and vegetables (onion, spinach and lettuce) from the irrigation sites, which were subsequently assayed for several heavy metals such as; Pb, Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn and Co using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results obtained show that the concentrations of Pb, Cu and Zn in water samples to be 0.033, 0.8, and 0.89 mg/ml, respectively, while Mn and Co were not detected. Even though concentrations of these metals in water are within FAO/WHO limits, the soil was found to be contaminated with Cu (12.17 mg/kg), Fe (152.29 mg/kg) and Zn (55.75 mg/kg). Furthermore, both spinach, lettuce and onion were contaminated with Pb, and Mn. However, only lettuce and spinach were contaminated with Cu, Fe and Zn. Health risk assessment of both adults and children show that Pb, Mn, Co and Cu, posed a significant health risk to the population as their health risk index (HRI) is greater than one. The result shows that poor agricultural practices could be responsible for contaminating the soil with heavy metals, which eventually gets accumulated in the edible parts of the plants and posed a great risk to its consumers. Impacts of heavy metals pollution is on the rise across the globe. As such, it becomes necessary to monitor our environment to checkmate the threat of these contaminants and implement a reliable strategy and stable treatment of the pollution to ensure food safety.</p> Murtala Muhammad I. Y. Habib Ismail Hamza Tasiu A. Mikail Abdulmumin Yunusa Ibrahim A. Muhammad Abubakar A. Bello ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-03 2021-03-03 104 111 Assessment of Fish Consumption Patterns amongst Students in Kwara State Nigeria https://journalejnfs.com/index.php/EJNFS/article/view/30360 <p>Fish is a nutrient dense food of animal origin commonly consumed across lifecycle. Different species are found across continents based on many factors with varying benefits of which health is key.&nbsp; The nutrition benefits of fish are not fully understood among youths as many consume other sources of protein for many reasons due to lack of information. The diverse reasons for consuming other sources of protein such as meat, eggs, poultry etc. need to be investigated so as to increase nutrition education among youths. This study was designed to determine the fish consumption levels among undergraduates, reasons for its consumption, and reasons for non-consumption. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among one hundred and fifty(150) students from Kwara State Polytechnic and one hundred and fifty-two students (152) of the University of Ilorin with a total of three hundred and two (302) undergraduate students. Respondents were randomly selected in each institution. Self-administered structured questionnaires containing both persona and dietary information were filled. Results showed that about 92.4% (280) respondents consume fish in any form; 57.2% (174) preferred frying to boiling; 53.5% (162) preferred mackerel locally called Titus in Nigeria to any other species. Fish consumption when cross matched with educational qualification indicates increase in consumption with education qualification. Respondents with National Diploma qualification (51.8%) consumed fish more than once in a week, this could be as a result of their environment or financial status compared with others. Nutrition education on fish consumption especially amongst youths should increase to enable them obtain essential nutrients such as iodine, omega- 3 fatty acid necessary for memory improvement. Hygiene and display pattern by retailers should also improve to make purchase and consumption of fish more appealing for the youths. Government agencies such as the Ministry of Health should educate marketers on safer ways of handling fish from farm to retail. Members of the public should also be sensitized on consequences of consuming unwholesome foods particularly with respect to risk assessment.</p> Adeoso Abiodun Adebayo-Oyetoro Abiodun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-06 2021-03-06 120 129 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i130360