Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of "Other Substances" – Conjugated Linoleic Acids

Per Ole Iversen, Livar Frøyland, Margaretha Haugen, Kristin Holvik, Martinus Løvik, Tor A. Strand, Grethe S. Tell

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 12-14
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2019/45628

The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses given by NFSA. These risk assessments will provide NFSA with the scientific basis for regulating the addition of "other substances" to food supplements and other foods.

 

"Other substances" are described in the food supplement directive 2002/46/EC as substances other than vitamins or minerals that have a nutritional or physiological effect. It is added mainly to food supplements, but also to energy drinks and other foods. VKM has not in this series of risk assessments of "other substances" evaluated any potential beneficial effects from these substances, only possible adverse effects.

 

The present report is a risk assessment of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), and is based on previous risk assessments of CLAs and articles retrieved from literature searches.

According to information from the NFSA, CLAs are ingredients in food supplements sold in Norway, and NFSA has requested a risk assessment of the following doses of CLAs in food supplements: 3.0, 3.25 and 3.5 g/day. The daily intakes in Norway of CLAs range between 20 and 170 mg (MoBa 2008, version 4).

 

The CLAs are mostly studied in overweight and obese subjects because of their claimed effects to reduce body weight.

 

CLAs constitute a group of isomeric fatty acids mostly produced by bacterial fermentation in the gut. In the human diet, meat (mainly isomers c9,t11 and t10,c12) and dairy products (mainly isomer c9,t11) are main sources of CLAs. The various isomers may have different metabolic effects. In the food supplements evaluated by EFSA (EFSA, 2010 a; EFSA, 2010 b; EFSA, 2012), Clarinol® and Tonalin®, the t10,c12 and the c9,t11 isomers are present in about equal proportions. In research articles not all authors are consistent in reporting what they have studied, so in this report we sometimes do not distinguish between these isomers; hence they are referred collectively to as CLAs if it is not specified.

 

Most of the cited studies have tested supplemental CLAs in doses of about 3.5 g/day, but ranging from 0.7 to 6.0 g/day. In most of the randomised controlled trials (RCTs) there have been no significant differences in adverse effects between the placebo and CLA-groups.

 

Concerns about indications of an unfavourable effect on biomarkers of lipid- and carbohydrate metabolism in obese men with metabolic syndrome as well as unfavourable effect on antioxidant status; increased markers of oxidative stress after consumption of supplemental CLAs have been reported in previous studies. No clear dose-response effects have been found. It is concluded that supplemental CLAs may impair lipid- and carbohydrate metabolism in obese men with the metabolic syndrome.

 

Intake of supplemental CLAs by lactating women may reduce fat content in breastmilk, and intake of supplemental CLAs by pregnant women may reduce birth weight and –length among their offsprings.

 

Only one randomised controlled trial has included children (6-10 years). These children were all overweight or obese, subjects likely to have a different CLA-metabolism/-effect than normal-weight subjects. VKM considers that current data are too incomplete to evaluate any doses of CLAs for children and adolescents.

 

There are few long-term studies, and adverse health effects were not primary outcomes in these studies. Based on available data no conclusions can be drawn for supplemental use of CLAs longer than six months.

 

VKM concludes that:

 

  • In adults (≥18 years), the specified doses 3.0, 3.25 and 3.5 g/day CLAs in food
  • supplements are considered to be unlikely to cause adverse health effects if used for
  • up to six months.
  • CLA may cause lipid- and carbohydrate disturbances in obese men with metabolic
  • syndrome as well as in overweight/obese subjects with type 2 diabetes.
  • Use of CLA supplements in lactating and pregnant women may cause reduction in
  • milk production and in the content on milk fat and cause decreased birth weight andlength
  • in their off-springs.
  • No conclusion can be made for children and adolescents.
  • Data are insufficient to conclude regarding use of CLAs for more than six months.

Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of "Other Substances" – Creatine

Per Ole Iversen, Livar Frøyland, Margaretha Haugen, Kristin Holvik, Martinus Løvik, Bjørn Steen Skålhegg, Tonje Holte Stea, Tor A. Strand, Grethe S. Tell

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 15-17
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2019/45629

The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses given by NFSA. These risk assessments will provide NFSA with the scientific basis for regulating the addition of "other substances" to food supplements and other foods. 

 

"Other substances" are described in the food supplement directive 2002/46/EC as substances other than vitamins or minerals that have a nutritional and/ or physiological effect. It is added mainly to food supplements, but also to energy drinks and other foods. VKM has not in this series of risk assessments of "other substances" evaluated any potential beneficial effects from these substances, only possible adverse effects.

 

The present report is a risk assessment of creatine as food supplement, and is based on previous risk assessments and articles retrieved in literature searches.

According to information from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA), creatine is an ingredient in food supplements sold in Norway, and NFSA has requested a risk assessment of the following doses of creatine in food supplements: 3.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 24.0 g/day. The average daily intake from the diet is about 1 g creatine, and the endogenous production also amounts to about 1 g/day. Most of the creatine supplements are in the form of creatine monohydrate.

 

Creatine is an organic acid occurring in the body as either phosphocreatine (2/3) or as free creatine (1/3). Phosphocreatine provides phosphate groups for synthesis of adenosine triphosphate, the major energy-providing compound in the body.

 

Previous risk assessments (AESAN, 2012; EFSA, 2004; SCF, 2000; VKM, 2010) all concluded that creatine supplementation with 3.0 g/day is unlikely to cause adverse health effects in adults. This is supported by human and animal data obtained in a literature search and assessed in the present report. Most of the studies with daily creatine intake above 3 g often (i) involved few and highly trained individuals of whom some took high daily loading doses of creatine for a short period, and (ii) were designed to test clinical benefit without emphasis on possible adverse effects. VKM therefore considers that there is insufficient evidence to conclude regarding possible adverse effects at doses of creatine above 3 g/day for the general population. 

 

 VKM concludes that: 

 

  • In adults (≥ 18 years) the specified dose of 3.0 g/day creatine in food supplements is considered unlikely to cause adverse health effects. The documentation for absence of adverse health effects of doses 5.0, 10.0 and 24.0 g/day creatine in food supplements in the general population is limited. Hence, these doses may represent risk of adverse health effects in adults.

 

  • In children (10-14 years) and adolescents (14-17 years), the specified doses of 3.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 24.0 g/day creatine in food supplements may represent a risk of adverse health effects.

 

Children below 10 years were not included in the terms of reference.

Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of “Other Substances” –Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Docosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid

Livar Frøyland, Margaretha Haugen, Kristin Holvik, Martinus Løvik, Tor A. Strand, Grethe S. Tell, Arild Vaktskjold, Per Ole Iversen

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 18-21
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2019/45630

The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of “other substances” in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses given by NFSA. These risk assessments will provide NFSA with the scientific basis while regulating the addition of “other substances” to food supplements and other foods.

 

“Other substances” are described in the food supplement directive 2002/46/EC as substances other than vitamins or minerals that have a nutritional or physiological effect. The substance is added mainly to food supplements, but also to energy drinks and other foods. VKM has not in this series of risk assessments of “other substances” evaluated any potential beneficial effects from these substances, only possible adverse effects.

 

The present report is a risk assessment of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in food supplements, and is based on previous risk assessments and a literature search.

 

It is emphasised that this risk assessment concerns the single fatty acids EPA, DPA or DHA separately and not mixtures of these as found in e.g. fish oil/cod liver oil. For risk assessment of combined mixtures of n-3 LCPUFAs in e.g. fish oil/cod liver oil, see the EFSA opinion from 2012 or the VKM assessment from 2011 (EFSA, 2012; VKM, 2011). In the reviewed literature of this risk assessment, no studies investigating ratios between EPA, DPA, DHA or other fatty acids in mixtures have been identified.

 

EPA, DPA and DHA are long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) and in food these fatty acids are incorporated in triacylglycerols (TAGs) and phospholipids (PLs). Dietary sources are fatty fish, cod liver-, seal-, whale-, fish- and krill oils and human milk, containing various ratios of these fatty acids in combination. EPA can be metabolised to eicosanoids such as prostaglandins, prostacyclins and leukotrienes, all groups are biologically active substances. The eicosanoids participate in the regulation of blood pressure, renal function, blood coagulation, inflammatory and immunological reactions. DHA is an essential structural component of the brain, skin, sperm, testicles and retina. DPA can be retro-converted to EPA or converted to DHA. Still little is known of the biological effects of DPA.

 

Humans have a limited capacity to synthesise EPA, DPA and subsequently DHA from the precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), and this endogenous production is negligible in comparison to the doses used in supplementation studies.

 

According to information from the NFSA, EPA, DPA and DHA are food supplement ingredients in Norway, and NFSA has requested a risk assessment of these fatty acids in the following doses in food supplements:

 

EPA: 1500, 1750 and 1825 mg/day

DPA: 100, 125 and 150 mg/day

DHA: 1050 and 1290 mg/day

 

Children below 10 years were not included in the terms of reference.

 

Information about intake of EPA, DPA and DHA from the diet is scarce, but calculations performed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study indicate a mean total intake (SD) from food and supplements of EPA around 330 (340) mg/day, DPA 43 (30) mg/day and DHA 430 (380) mg/day among pregnant women (2002 to 2008). Mean combined intake of EPA, DPA and DHA from fish oil/ cod liver oil in adults participating in a nationally representative dietary survey was 735 mg/day (VKM, 2014).

 

The major concerns with high intake of EPA and DHA have been increased bleeding time, adverse effects related to immune function, lipid peroxidation and glucose homeostasis. EFSA concluded in 2012 that long-term supplemental intakes of 5 g/day of the n-3 LCPUFA do not raise safety concerns for adults with regard to an increased risk of spontaneous bleeding episodes or bleeding complications, or affect glucose homeostasis, immune function or lipid peroxidation. In 2011, VKM concluded that an intake n-3 LCPUFA up to 6.9 g/day was not associated with increased risk of any serious adverse events.

 

Some adverse health effects related to gastrointestinal function, including abdominal cramps, flatulence, eructation, vomiting and diarrhea have been reported, but seem to be associated with intake of an oily substance and not related specifically to EPA, DPA and/or DHA.

 

EPA:

 

In the report from 2012, EFSA concluded that 1.8 g/day of supplemental EPA does not raise safety concerns in adults. None of the included studies from our literature searches limited to 2012 and onwards have investigated bleeding complications. The dosages of EPA in the three included studies in this report range from 1.8 to 3.8 g/day for 12 weeks. The main endpoints in the studies included lipid peroxidation, inflammation biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases and no serious adverse events were found related to the main endpoints. In general, adverse events were described as gastrointestinal discomforts and not related to dosage.

 

Studies of longer duration are necessary before an intake above 1.8 g of EPA can be considered safe.

 

The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) concludes that the specified doses of 1500, 1750, 1825 mg/day of EPA in food supplements are unlikely to cause adverse health effects in adults (≥18 years).

 

In 2012, EFSA did not make conclusions for children or adolescents for EPA. No new studies with EPA supplementation have been identified in children or adolescents after 2012, and therefore no risk assessment can be made for children (≥10 years) or adolescents.

 

DPA:

 

No dosage of DPA in food supplements can be evaluated due to lack of data.

 

DHA:

 

EFSA concluded that 1 g/day of supplemental DHA does not raise safety concerns for the general population (including children and adolescents). The dosages of DHA in the included trials in this report range from 1.0 to 3.6 g/day and the duration from five weeks to four years. Six out of seven studies have used dosages from 1 to 2 g DHA/day. The last study included up to 3.6 g DHA/day for four years and the age spanned from 7 to 31 years. The main endpoints in all studies included lipid peroxidation, inflammation, cognitive performance, blood pressure and biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases and no serious adverse events were found related to the main endpoints. In general, adverse events were described as gastrointestinal discomforts and not related to dosage. VKM therefore considers that the specified daily doses of DHA that moderately exceed 1 g per day (1050 and 1290 mg/day) are unlikely to cause adverse health effects in the general population including children ≥10 years and adolescents.

 

VKM concludes that the specified doses of 1050 and 1290 mg/day of DHA in food supplements are unlikely to cause adverse health effects in the general population including children (≥10 years), adolescents and adults (≥18 years).

Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of “Other Substances” - L-cysteine and L-cystine

Tor A. Strand, Livar Frøyland, Margaretha Haugen, Kristin Holvik, Martinus Løvik, Grethe S. Tell, Arild Vaktskjold, Per Ole Iversen

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 22-24
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2019/45634

The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of “other substances” in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses given by NFSA. These risk assessments will provide NFSA with the scientific basis while regulating the addition of “other substances” to food supplements.

 

“Other substances” are described in the food supplement directive 2002/46/EC as substances other than vitamins or minerals that have a nutritional or physiological effect. It is added mainly to food supplements, but also to energy drinks and other foods. VKM has not in this series of risk assessments of “other substances” evaluated any claimed beneficial effects from these substances, only possible adverse effects.

The present report is a risk assessment of L-cysteine and L-cystine, and is based on previous risk assessments of these amino acids and articles retrieved from a comprehensive literature search. In this report L-cysteine and L-cystine are often termed merely cysteine and cystine, respectively.

 

L-cysteine is a central compound in sulphur metabolism in the human body. L-cysteine is a conditionally essential sulphur-containing amino acid, obtained from L-methionine and from serine. Sulphur-containing amino acids are mainly found in cereal proteins and animal proteins, and less abundantly in pulses. Cysteine may occur in proteins either as cysteine itself or as cystine. Cystine is the disulphide dimer of cysteine, and is a more stable compound than cysteine.

 

According to information from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA), cysteine and cystine are ingredients in food supplements purchased in Norway and NFSA has requested a risk assessment of the following doses of cysteine and cystine in food supplements: L-cysteine 10 mg/day and L-cystine 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/day. The mean usual daily intake of cysteine in the USA for all life stage- and gender groups is 1.0 g/day (NHANES II, USA).

 

Because there are few intervention studies with cysteine or cystine, studies with N-acetylcysteine (or N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC), which is readily converted to cysteine, is included in this risk assessment. NAC is used as a pharmaceutical drug for various conditions, mainly as mucolytic agent, as paracetamol antidote, and has been included in numerous clinical trials.

 

Most of the cited studies have tested NAC in doses of about 600-1200 mg/day. The study groups have been various patient groups which included children, adolescents, adults and elderly, however relatively few studies have been conducted in children. In the randomised controlled trials there have been no differences in severe adverse events between the placebo and NAC-groups. The adverse effects reported are generally limited to mild gastrointestinal symptoms.

 

The dose 1200 mg of NAC yields maximum 900 mg of L-cysteine or L-cystine. In adults, it is well documented that doses up to 900 mg per day for one year (corresponding to 13 mg/kg bw/day in a 70 kg adult) is without appreciable health risk. The data for doses above 900 mg/day are more scarce.

 

There are no data indicating that children and adolescent are more vulnerable than adults for L-cysteine or L-cystine. No tolerance level is set for cysteine or cystine specifically for children or adolescents, but an assumption is made that these age groups have similar tolerance per kg body weight as adults.

 

VKM concludes that:

 

  • In adults (≥18 years), the specified doses 10 mg/day L-cysteine and 250, 500 and 750 mg/day L-cystine in food supplements are considered to be unlikely to cause adverse health effects, whereas the dose 1000 mg L-cystine per day may represent a risk of adverse health effects.
  • In adolescents (14 to <18 years), the specified doses 10 mg/day L-cysteine and 250, 500 and 750 mg/day L-cystine in food supplements are considered to be unlikely to cause adverse health effects in adolescents, whereas the dose 1000 mg L-cystine per day may represent a risk of adverse health effects.
  • In children (10 to <14 years), the specified doses 10 mg/day L-cysteine and 250 and 500 mg/day L-cystine in food supplements are considered to be unlikely to cause adverse health effects, whereas the doses 750 and 1000 mg L-cystine per day may represent a risk of adverse health effects.

 

Children below 10 years were not included in the terms of reference.

Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of "Other Substances" – L-proline

Kristin Holvik, Livar Frøyland, Margaretha Haugen, Sigrun Henjum, Martinus Løvik, Bjørn Steen Skålhegg, Tonje Holte Stea, Tor A. Strand, Grethe S. Tell, Per Ole Iversen

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 25-27
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2019/45635

The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses given by NFSA. These risk assessments will provide NFSA with the scientific basis while regulating "other substances" in food supplements.

 

"Other substances" are described in the food supplement directive 2002/46/EC as substances other than vitamins or minerals that have a nutritional and/ or physiological effect. It is added mainly to food supplements, but also to energy drinks and other foods. In this series of risk assessments of "other substances" VKM has not evaluated any claimed beneficial effects from these substances, only possible adverse effects.

The present report is a risk assessment of specified doses of L-proline in food supplements, and it is based on previous risk assessments and articles retrieved from literature searches.

 

According to information from NFSA, L-proline is an ingredient in food supplements sold in Norway. NSFA has requested a risk assessment of 50, 500, 1000, 1500 and 1800 mg/day of L-proline from food supplements.

 

L-proline is considered a non-essential amino acid as it can be synthesised from arginine via the urea cycle in liver, and from glutamine/glutamic acid in the intestinal epithelium. In addition, L-proline is ingested through the diet. All protein rich foods provide L-proline, and animal proteins from milk and meat are particularly abundant sources. A dietary requirement for proline in healthy humans has not been estimated since proline is not considered an essential amino acid. Data on dietary intake of L-proline in Norway are not available. In the third US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; 1988-1994), overall mean intake of L-proline from food and supplements was 5.2 g/day.

 

A previous report from the Institute of Medicine (2005) cited one small uncontrolled patient study (n=4) and two animal studies, none of which assessed the toxicity of L-proline in a dose-response manner. The report concluded that a tolerable upper intake level for L-proline could not be determined. 

 

In a risk grouping of amino acids from VKM (2011), proline was categorised as having potentially moderate risk, based on the scarce literature and the notion that amino acids are generally bioactive compounds. It was stated that "no conclusion can be drawn on a scientific basis due to lack of adequate scientific literature. Nor will it be possible to conduct a risk assessment until further studies are available". 

 

Three systematic literature searches without restriction on publication year were performed for the current risk assessment, aimed at identifying adverse effects of L-proline supplementation in human and animal studies. In humans, one uncontrolled experimental study was identified where a single oral dose of 500 mg/kg bw L-proline was administered as a growth hormone stimulatory agent to 20 children with hyposomatotropic dwarfism and 20 healthy children. No adverse effects were observed. In animals, one relevant subchronic (90 days) toxicological dose-response study in rats was included and forms the basis for the current risk assessment. In that study, performed in accordance with official guidelines from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, there were no indications of toxicity at the highest dose given through a powder diet (5.0% L-proline). This dose corresponded to 2773 mg L-proline/kg bw per day and was used as a no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL).

 

Studies to set a tolerance level for L-proline for children or adolescents have not been found. Therefore, an assumption is made that these age groups have similar tolerance as adults relative to their body weight.

 

To evaluate the safety of the specific doses given by NFSA, margin of exposure (MOE) was calculated with use of 2773 mg L-proline/kg bw per day as NOAEL. For the highest dose (1800 mg/day) MOE is 67 (= 2773* 43.3/1800) in children 10 to <14 years (default body weight 43.3 kg), and 94 (= 2773* 61.3/1800) in adolescents 14 to <18 years (default body weight 61.3 kg). For the dose of 1500 mg/day, the MOE in children is 80. MOE for all the other doses and age categories are above 100.

 

Based on the magnitude of MOE, the lack of adverse effects at the highest dose tested (current NOAEL) and the notion that L-proline is a nutrient that is synthesised endogenously from other amino acids in addition to a dietary intake in the magnitude of 5 grams per day, VKM concludes that:

 

  • In adults (≥18 years), the specified doses 50, 500, 1000, 1500 and 1800 mg/day Lproline in food supplements are unlikely to cause adverse health effects. 
  • In adolescents (14 to <18 years), the specified doses 50, 500, 1000, 1500 and 1800 mg/day L-proline in food supplements are unlikely to cause adverse health effects.
  • In children (10 to <14 years), the specified doses 50, 500, 1000, 1500 and 1800 mg/day L-proline in food supplements are unlikely to cause adverse health effects.  Children younger than 10 years were not within the scope of the present risk assessment.

Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of Specific Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum Used as "Other Substances"

Siamak Yazdankhah, Danica Grahek-Ogden, Karl Eckner, Georg Kapperud, Jørgen Lassen, Judith Narvhus, Truls Nesbakken, Lucy Robertson, Jan Thomas Rosnes, Olaug Taran Skjerdal, Eystein Skjerve, Line Vold, Yngvild Wasteson

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 28-29
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2019/45636

The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements sold in Norway. These risk assessments will provide NFSA with the scientific basis for regulation of the addition of “other substances” to food supplements and other foods.

 

"Other substances" are described in the food supplement directive 2002/46/EC as substances other than vitamins or minerals that have a nutritional and/or physiological effect. It is added mainly to food supplements, but also to other foods. VKM has not in this series of risk assessments of "other substances" evaluated any claimed beneficial effects from these substances, only possible adverse effects.

The present report is a risk assessment of Lactobacillus plantarum W62, Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL9 based on previous risk assessments and also publications retrieved from literature search.

 

The risk of the Lactobacillus strains listed above was assessed for the general population. However, in previous assessments of probiotics published by VKM, concerns have been identified for specific groups. Therefore, the risk was assessed for the age group with immature gastro-intestinal microbiota (age group 0-36 months), population with mature gastro-intestinal microbiota (>3 years) and vulnerable groups with mature gastro-intestinal tract. VKM has also assessed the risk of L. plantarum W62, L. plantarum 299v and L. plantarum HEAL9 in food supplements and other foods independent of the dose and have assessed exposure in general terms.

 

VKM concludes that it is unlikely that L. plantarum W62, L. plantarum 299v and L. plantarum HEAL9 would cause adverse health effects in the general healthy population with mature gastro-intestinal tract.

 

However, no data on long-term adverse effects on infants and young children were identified. As evidence is accruing that the early microbial composition of the neonatal gut is important for the development of the gut microbiota and the immune system of the growing child, it is not possible to exclude that a daily supply of a single particular bacterial strain over a prolonged period of time to an immature gastro-intestinal tract may have long-term, although still unknown, adverse effects on that development.

Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of "Other Substances" – Glycine

Grethe S. Tell, Livar Frøyland, Margaretha Haugen, Sigrun Henjum, Kristin Holvik, Martinus Løvik, Bjørn Steen Skålhegg, Tonje Holte Stea, Tor A. Strand, Per Ole Iversen

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 30-32
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2019/45631

The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses given by NFSA. These risk assessments will provide NFSA with the scientific basis while regulating "other substances" in food supplements.

 

"Other substances" are described in the food supplement directive 2002/46/EC as substances other than vitamins or minerals that have a nutritional and/ or physiological effect. It is added mainly to food supplements, but also to energy drinks and other foods. In this series of risk assessments of "other substances" VKM has not evaluated any claimed beneficial effects from these substances, only possible adverse effects.

The present report is a risk assessment of specified doses of glycine in food supplements, and it is based on previous risk assessments and articles retrieved from two literature searches. 

 

Glycine is a non-essential amino acid which is synthesised from 3-phosphoglycerate via serine, or derived from threonine, choline and hydroxyproline via inter-organ metabolism involving primarily the liver and kidneys. Endogeneous synthesis is estimated to be in the magnitude of 8 g per day in adults. Glycine is a constituent of all proteins in the human body. It also functions as a neurotransmitter, and can play both stimulatory and depressant roles in the brain. Data on dietary intake of glycine in Norway are not available. Based on NHANES III (1988-1994), the overall mean intake of glycine from food and food supplements in the United States was 3.2 g per day. Thus, the combined dietary intake and endogenous synthesis is more than 11 g per day. Because glycine is not considered an essential amino acid, a dietary requirement in healthy humans has not been established. Foods rich in glycine are generally protein rich foods such as meat, fish, dairy products and legumes.

 

According to information from NFSA, glycine is an ingredient in food supplements sold in Norway. NSFA has requested a risk assessment of 20, 50, 100, 300, 500 and 650 mg/day of glycine from food supplements. 

 

There is a lack of relevant supplementation studies with glycine in humans designed to address adverse effects and/or dose-response relationship, and none of the previous reports reviewed concluded with a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). For the current risk assessment, two literature searches were conducted, one for human studies and one for animal studies. No human studies were found that can be used for suggesting a "value for comparison", and there are no scientific data in the published literature suitable for assessing the specific doses in the terms of reference. 

 

The value for comparison used in this risk characterisation is 20 mg/kg per day. This value is derived from a study in rats in which the NOAEL was estimated at 2000 mg/kg per day. Using an uncertainty factor of 100, this corresponds to 20 mg/kg per day or 1.4 g per day for a person weighing 70 kg. This is more than twice as high as the highest dose for consideration in the present risk assessment, and it is far below the combined dietary intake and endogenous synthesis estimated at more than 11 g per day.  No particular vulnerable groups for glycine supplements have been identified.

 

VKM concludes that: 

 

  • In adults (≥18 years), the specified doses 20, 50, 100, 300, 500 and 650 mg/day of glycine from food supplements are unlikely to cause adverse health effects. 
  • In adolescents (14 to <18 years), the specified doses 20, 50, 100, 300, 500 and 650 mg/day of glycine from food supplements are unlikely to cause adverse health effects.
  • In children (10 to <14 years), the specified doses 20, 50, 100, 300, 500 and 650 mg/day of glycine from food supplements are unlikely to cause adverse health effects. 

 

Children younger than 10 years were not within the scope of the present risk assessment.

Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of "Other Substances" –L-arginine and Arginine Alpha-ketoglutarate

Grethe S. Tell, Livar Frøyland, Margaretha Haugen, Kristin Holvik, Martinus Løvik, Tor A. Strand, Per Ole Iversen

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 33-35
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2019/45632

The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses given by NFSA. The risk assessments are the scientific basis for NFSA in its efforts to regulate the use of "other substances".

 

"Other substances" are described in the food supplement directive 2002/46/EC as substances other than vitamins or minerals that have a nutritional or physiological effect. It is added mainly to food supplements, but also to energy drinks and other foods. VKM has not in this series of risk assessments of "other substances" evaluated any claimed beneficial effects from these substances, only possible adverse effects.

 

The present report is a risk assessment of the amino acid L-arginine and L-arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG), a salt of arginine. It is based on published articles retrieved from a literature search and previous risk assessments of L-arginine.

According to information from NFSA, L-arginine is an ingredient in food supplements sold in Norway. NSFA has requested a risk assessment of L-arginine, which according to the information provided by NFSA is found in food supplements in the doses 3000, 3500, 4000, 4500, 5000, 5500, 6000 and 6800 mg/day.

 

Arginine alpha-ketoglutarate is found in food supplements in doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/day.

 

Arginine is a constituent of all food proteins. Dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, wild game and seafood, as well as plant sources such as wheat germ and flour, oatmeal and nuts are good sources of arginine.

 

Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid, meaning that under most circumstances endogenous synthesis by the human body is sufficient. However, the biosynthetic pathway may under certain conditions produce insufficient amounts. In such cases a dietary supply is needed. Individuals with poor nutrition or certain physical conditions are examples of vulnerable groups.

 

Under normal conditions, endogenous production of arginine is 15-20 g/day. The requirements for L-arginine in adults are 117 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day (WHO, 2007), i.e. for a 70 kg adult person, the requirement is 8.2 g per day. The mean daily dietary intake for all life stage and gender groups of arginine is approximately 4.2 g/day (1988–1994 NHANES III, USA).

 

Arginine is physiologically active in the L-form, which is synthesised by endothelial cells and excreted with urine. The major part of body L-arginine is found in proteins. However, L-arginine is also substrate of nitric-oxide, a potent vasodilator, which may play a major role in regulating blood pressure and improve vascular function.

 

Arginine, supplied as alpha-ketoglutarate, has been observed to increase nitric-oxide production and is mostly studied in athletes because of its claimed enhancing effect on physical performance.

 

Due to the lack of adequate scientific information, a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) or lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) of arginine has not been identified, thus a tolerable upper intake level for arginine has not been established.

 

Most studies of arginine supplements have been of relatively short duration. The two most relevant randomised placebo-controlled trials for the current risk assessment are those published by Monti et al. (2012) and Lucotti et al. (2009). Both provided a daily dose of 6.4 g arginine, for a duration of 6 and 18 months, respectively. In both studies, adverse events did not differ between arginine and placebo groups.

 

Thus, based on the studies reviewed as well as previous reports, VKM will use the value 6.4 g/day as value for comparison in the risk characterisation of L-arginine. The dose 6.4 g/day of arginine corresponds to 91 mg/kg bw per day in a 70 kg person.

 

AAKG is one of several compounds that have been used as a source of arginine in food supplements. It has been studied in healthy athletic men without serious adverse side effects. However, studies of AAKG supplementation are too scarce to draw conclusions for this specific arginine compound.

 

No data are available indicating whether children or adolescents have different tolerance levels than adults for L-arginine. No tolerance level is set for L-arginine specifically for children or adolescents. The conclusions are therefore based on the assumption of similar tolerance for children and adolescents, per kg body weight, as for adults.

 

VKM concludes that:

 

  • In adults (≥18 years), the specified doses of 3000, 3500, 4000, 4500, 5000, 5500 and 6000 mg/day of L-arginine in food supplement are considered unlikely to cause adverse health effects. The dose 6800 mg/day may represent a risk of adverse health effects.
  • In adolescents (14 to <18 years), the specified doses 3000, 3500, 4000, 4500, 5000, 5500 mg/day L-arginine in food are considered unlikely to cause adverse health effects, whereas the doses 6000 and 6800 mg/day may represent a risk of adverse health effects.
  • In children (10 to <14 years), the specified doses 3000 and 3500 mg/day L-arginine in food supplements are considered unlikely to cause adverse health effects, whereas the doses 4000, 4500, 5000, 5500, 6000 and 6800 mg/day may represent a risk of adverse health effects.

 

Children below 10 years were not included in the terms of reference.

 

No dosage of arginine alpha-ketoglutarate in food supplements can be evaluated, due to lack of data.

 

In terms of the arginine content of AAKG, a dose of 1000 mg AAKG contains 544 mg arginine and 450 mg alpha-ketoglutarate (based on the molecular weight of 174.2 g/mol for arginine and 144.1 g/mol for alpha-ketoglutarate). A dose of 2000 mg AAKG, the highest dose found in food supplements sold in Norway, contains 1088 mg arginine and 900 mg alpha-ketoglutarate. This amount of arginine is well below the lowest specified dose of 3000 mg/day L-arginine found in food supplements.

Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of "Other Substances" – L-aspartic Acid

Sigrun Henjum, Livar Frøyland, Margaretha Haugen, Kristin Holvik, Martinus Løvik, Bjørn Steen Skålhegg, Tonje Holte Stea, Tor A. Strand, Per Ole Iversen

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 36-38
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2019/45633

The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses in food supplements and concentrations in energy drinks given by NFSA. These risk assessments will provide NFSA with the scientific basis while regulating the addition of "other substances" to food supplements and other foods.

 

"Other substances" are described in the food supplement directive 2002/46/EC as substances other than vitamins or minerals that have a nutritional and/or physiological effect. It is added mainly to food supplements, but also to energy drinks and other foods. VKM has not in this series of risk assessments of "other substances" evaluated any claimed beneficial effects from these substances, only possible adverse effects.

 

The present report is a risk assessment of specified doses of L-aspartic acid in food supplements, and it is based on previous risk assessments and articles retrieved from literature searches.

 

According to information from NFSA, L-aspartic acid is an ingredient in food supplements sold in Norway. NFSA has requested a risk assessment of 3000, 3500, 4000, 4500, 5000 and 5700 mg/day of L-aspartic acid in food supplements.

 

L-aspartic acid is a dispensable dicarboxylic amino acid that can be produced by the transamination of oxaloacetic acid, an intermediate in the metabolism of e.g. glucose and some amino acids. L-aspartic acid is present in frequently consumed foods of animal and plant origin and is also a component of the sweetener aspartame. Dietary intake of aspartic acid in Norway is not known, but data from NHANES III (USA) suggest a mean dietary intake of about 6.5 g/day in adults. The highest intake was seen in men 31 through 50 years of age at the 99th percentile of 15.4 g/day.

 

In the literature review we did not identify any long-term studies in human individuals that could be used for risk assessment. Short-term human studies found no adverse health effect when L-aspartic acid was given in acute doses ranging from 1 to 10 g/day, for time periods between one single dose and four weeks. None of these studies were undertaken to assess the toxicity of L-aspartic acid. 

 

In the literature search, two animal studies were identified of which one was a 90-day subchronic toxicity study. In that study, a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 697 mg/kg bw per day in male rats and 715 mg/kg bw per day in female rats was established. No neurotoxicity was found, however a toxic effect on kidneys and possibly salivary glands was observed at 1400 mg/kg bw per day (lowest observed adverse effect level, LOAEL). For the risk characterisation, the NOAEL of 697 mg/kg bw per day derived from the abovementioned subchronic toxicity study in rats was used for comparison with the estimated exposures from food supplements. The calculated Margin of Exposure (MOE) values for this NOAEL ranged from 5 to 16 for a daily intake of 3000-5700 mg/day of Laspartic acid. These low MOE-values may not be regarded as acceptable since L-aspartic acid has caused toxic effects on the kidneys (regenerative renal tubules with tubular dilation) and acinar cell hypertrophy of salivary glands in rats. Further, direct information regarding potential adverse health effects in humans is not available due to absence of long-term studies. 

 

In adults (≥18 years), adolescents (14 to < 18 years) and children (10 to < 14 years), the specified doses 3000, 3500, 4000, 4500, 5000 and 5700 mg/day L-aspartic acid in food supplements may represent a risk of adverse health effects. 

 

Children younger than 10 years were not within the scope of the present risk assessment.

Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of Streptococcus thermophilus Used as "Other Substances"

Danica Grahek-Ogden, Karl Eckner, Georg Kapperud, Jørgen Lassen, Judith Narvhus, Truls Nesbakken, Lucy Robertson, Jan Thomas Rosnes, Olaug Taran Skjerdal, Eystein Skjerve, Line Vold, Siamak Yazdankhah, Yngvild Wasteson

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 39-40
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2019/45637

The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements sold in Norway. These risk assessments will provide NFSA with the scientific basis while regulating the addition of “other substances” to food supplements and other foods.

 

"Other substances" are described in the food supplement directive 2002/46/EC as substances other than vitamins or minerals that have a nutritional and/or physiological effect. It is added mainly to food supplements, but also to other foods. VKM has not in this series of risk assessments of "other substances" evaluated any claimed beneficial effects from these substances, only possible adverse effects.

The present report is a risk assessment of Streptococcus thermopilus, and it is based on previous risk assessments and articles retrieved from a literature search.

 

The risk of S. thermophilus was assessed for the general population. However, in previous assessments of “probiotics” published by VKM, concerns have been identified for specific groups. Therefore, the risk was assessed for the age group with immature gastro-intestinal flora (age group 0-36 months), population with mature gastro-intestinal flora (>3 years) and vulnerable groups independent of age. VKM has also assessed the risk of S. thermophilus in food supplements independent of the dose and have assessed exposure in general terms.

 

Other sources of S. thermophilus, such as foods, have not been included in the present risk assessment.

 

VKM concludes that it is unlikely that S. thermophilus causes adverse health effects in the general healthy population with mature gastro-intestinal tract. Acquired resistance genes have been detected in this species and the assessment of susceptibility to antibiotics for each single strain is required.

 

However, no data on long-term adverse effects on infants and young children were identified. As evidence is accruing that the early microbial composition of the neonatal gut is important for the development of the gut flora and the immune system of the growing child, it is not possible to exclude that a daily supply of a single particular bacterial strain over a prolonged period of time to an immature gastro-intestinal tract may have long-term, although still unknown, adverse effects on that development.

Open Access Short Research Article

Maternal Weight Levels Before and During Gestation as Indicators of Pregnancy Outcomes in Zibo, China

Xiang Zhao, Aiqin Han

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 84-90
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2019/46638

Aims: To examine the correlation of maternal weight gain before and during pregnancy with the health of mother and child, and to provide guidelines on weight control during pregnancy among Chinese women.

Study Design: Subjects were grouped according to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain, and then evaluated based on their risks of pregnancy complications. The birth outcomes were also recorded to study the influence of mothers’ weight gain on the health of their children.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics, Zibo Central Hospital, between August and December 2016.

Methodology: We included a total of 808 primiparous women who finished all                                periodic examinations in Zibo Central Hospital, China during the study period. Incidences of multiple common pregnancy complications were recorded to evaluate the health risk of each group. After delivery, the nutritional conditions of newborns were evaluated with their body            weights.

Results: Observation to subjects reveals the positive correlation between pre-pregnancy BMI and the incidence of gestational hypertension (1.3% vs. 7.7% between low body weight group and obese group). On the other hand, gestational body weight gain was found to be associated with multiple unfavorable pregnancy outcomes including hypertension disorder complicating pregnancy (2.6% vs. 8.9% between weight gain ΔW ≤ 10kg and ΔW ≥ 20kg), gestational diabetes mellitus (9.0% vs. 23.6% between weight gain ΔW ≤ 10kg and ΔW ≥ 20kg) and premature rupture of membranes (3.9% vs. 6.7% between weight gain ΔW ≤ 10kg and ΔW ≥ 20kg). Both pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational body weight correlate positively with infant body weights.                                                                                              

Conclusion: Both pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain are indicators of pregnancy outcomes. Particularly, gestational weight increase between 10 and 15 kg is recommended to counteract negative influence of non-optimal pre-pregnancy BMI and lead to satisfactory pregnancy outcomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Micronutrient Fortified Extruded Rice Analogues

R. Yogeshwari, G. Hemalatha, C. Vanniarajan, R. Saravanakumar, A. Kavithapushpam

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2019/44342

Fortified rice analogues can be manufactured using broken rice flour to suit the nutrient needs of target malnourished populations whose staple food is rice. The purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility of fortifying rice analogues with iron and zinc. The fortificant mix was formulated to furnish 6.34 mg of iron and 2.10 mg of zinc per 100 g of broken rice flour. Iron fortificant used as micronised ferric pyrophosphate (MFPP) and zinc fortificant as zinc oxide (ZNO). Fortified extruded rice analogues were developed by extrusion technology. The physical properties of the fortified rice analogues were analysed. The length and weight of the fortified extruded rice analogues were 6.0 to 6.1mm and 0.034 to 0.035 g. The bulk density was ranged from 0.90 to 0.96 g/ml. The water absorption index was ranged from 2.31 to 2.33g/g and soluble loss was found to be 0.13 to 0.14 g/g. The physical properties of the rice analogues was found to be non significant (p<0.05) between the treatments (p<0.05). Colour measurement revealed that rice analogues fortified with MFPP had significant (p<0.05) colour differences, compared to analogues fortified with ZNO. However, MFPP, when combined with ZNO, had produced visual appearance closest to the unfortified rice analogue. The iron and zinc content of the unfortified broken rice flour (before extrusion) was 0.80 mg and 1.35 mg/100g. The iron and zinc content of the corresponding fortified rice analogues (after extrusion) were 7.13 mg and 3.35 mg/100g thus recording an iron and zinc retention of 99.85 and 99.70% respectively hence no significant difference (p<0.05) was found between fortified rice flour and fortified rice analogues. Sensory analysis revealed, no significant difference (p<0.05) for aroma, moistness, stickiness and texture, while the significant difference for appearance, firmness and overall acceptance. The study revealed that the rice analogues fortified with MFPP and ZNO could be used in food fortification programs and also could serve as a micronutrient enriched food to target malnourished populations whose staple food is rice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrient Composition, Amino Acid Profile and Anti-nutritional Factors of Nixtamalized Maize Flour Supplemented with Sprouted Soybean Flour

Ufot E. Inyang, Bosede E. Akindolu, Aniekpeno I. Elijah

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 41-51
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2019/46150

The high dependence on maize as a staple food in Tropical Africa, coupled with its low nutritive value necessitate investigation on how to improve the nutritional value of maize based foods. The present study was aimed at assessing the effect of supplementing nixtamalized maize flour with sprouted soy bean flour on the proximate composition, mineral content, amino acid profile and anti-nutritional factors in the blends. Nixtamalized maize flour was prepared by cooking maize grains in 1% unripe plantain peel ash solution (pH 10.2), steeped in the cooked solution for 15 h, washed, dried and milled into flour. The flour was supplemented with 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% sprouted soy flour and analyzed for the aforementioned parameters. The results showed that protein, fat, ash, crude fibre and caloric value increased with increase in soy flour supplementation ranging from 9.26–22.57%, 4.51–10.53%, 1.38–2.06%, 2.14–2.39% and 408.47–434.85 kcal/100 g respectively while carbohydrate decreased from 82.71 – 62.45%. Potassium, calcium, magnesium and zinc contents increased from 267.58 – 286.35mg/100g, 126.93 – 161.03 mg/100 g, 135.71 – 163.81 mg/100 g and 4.52 – 4.85 mg/100 g respectively with soy flour addition. The total amino acids and total essential amino acids increased from 70.55 g/100 g protein and 30.54 g/100 g protein for the control to 87.97 g/100 g protein and 38.98 g/100 g protein for the 40% soy flour supplemented blends respectively. Limiting essential amino acids in both flours were significantly (P = 0.5) improved as a result of soy flour supplementation. Majority of essential amino acid chemical scores were above 100% except for lysine (51.03–66.38%), tryptophan (67.27–95.46%) and threonine (80.88 – 99.12%). Soy flour supplemented blends had higher phytate, trypsin inhibitor and tannin contents than the control sample but their values were low and may not have serious effect on nutrient bioavailability. The study clearly shows that nutritional value of nixtamalized maize flour can be improved by supplementing it with sprouted soy flour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Content of Vietnamese Edible Bird’s Nest from Selected Regions

Than Thi My Linh, Hoang Le Son, Huynh Mai Minh Ai

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 66-71
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2019/46572

Aims: Edible bird’s nest is well known as health food and Chinese’s traditional medicine. Edible bird’s nest is made from saliva secretions of the swiftlets, genus Aerodramus, whose habitats are Southeast Asian countries. This study reports on the nutritional content of edible bird’s nest of two different sources - house-farmed bird’s nest (Long An and Kien Giang Province) and cave bird’s nest (Khanh Hoa Province) in Vietnam.

Methodology: Samples were collected from three different selected regions of Vietnam. Determination of protein, lipid and carbohydrate content was performed by AOAC Official Method 2001.12 (2005), AOAC Official Method 986.25 (2012) and FAO (1986), respectively. Meanwhile, Analysis of amino acid was conducted using Shimadzu gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID 2010) (EZ: faastTM USER’S MANUAL).

Results: Analytical results showed that the most abundant component found in these edible bird’s nests was protein (49.43 - 51.17%), followed by carbohydrate (36.93 - 38.53%), and lipid (0.01 - 0.04%). Fifteen amino acids including seven essential amino acids were found in the house-farmed bird’s nest while seventeen amino acids including eight essential were identified in cave bird’s nest. Proline (3.68 - 4.69%), aspartic acid (3.58 - 4.52%), and serine (3.74 - 4.09%) were the major amino acids found in both house-farmed and cave bird’s nests while lysine was found to be the lowest concentration (0.74 - 0.87%). Methionine and 4-hydroxyproline were presented only in the cave bird’s nest.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that there has been no significant difference in the content of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid (p > .05); however, the quality and quantity of some amino acids could be considered to be one of the key factors making the difference (p < .05) between house-farmed and cave edible bird’s nest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Some Preservatives on Nutritional Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Pickled African Walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum)

V. C. Eze, N. Maduka, I. Ahaotu, N. N. Odu

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 72-83
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2019/45065

This study was carried out between July-September, 2017 at Food and Industrial Microbiology Laboratory, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt Nigeria. 1 %, 3 % and 5 % citric acid were separately added to brine solution containing pickled African walnut inside three glass jars, and sterilised. Similarly, 1 %, 3 % and 5 % lactic acid was added to already sterilised pickled African walnut mixed with brine solution. Pickled African walnut without preservative was the control sample. The entire setup was stored for 6 Wks at room temperature (28±2°C). At 1 Wk interval, pH of the samples was monitored. Proximate composition and antinutrients in freshly cooked African walnut (FCAW) and pickle from each glass jar were determined using standard methods after 6 Wks storage period and sensory characteristics by 9 point Hedonic scale. The antinutrients, fibre, ash and carbohydrate content of FCAW were higher than that of pickled samples after 6 weeks storage period. The protein content of the pickles ranged between 24.12-25.20 %, ash 2.88-3.22 %, moisture 31.55-33.33 %, fat 28.30-29.24 %, fibre 0.90-1.21 % and carbohydrate 10.08-10.49 %. All the parameters evaluated showed significant differences (P = .05) among the samples. Very strong correlation exist between the proximate composition of the pickles preserved with same concentration of citric and lactic acid but level of antinutrients and sensory evaluation scores of the pickles exhibited weaker correlations with few exceptions. During storage, pH of FCAW steadily increased from 5.6-7.0 but that of pickled samples which ranged between1.8-4.0 decreased. The pickles met U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR Part 114) which stipulate that acetic acid added to food products must maintain its pH at 4.6 or below. Sensory evaluation revealed that pickled African walnut preserved with 5 % lactic acid was most preferred. Pickled African walnut preserved with citric and lactic acid is well acceptable to consumers. The preservatives slightly affected its nutritional composition, reduced its pH and level of antinutrients.

Open Access Review Article

Mycotoxin Contamination of Food and Associated Health Risk in Cameroon: A 25-years Review (1993-2018)

Evelyne Nguegwouo, Alex Tchuenchieu, Hippolyte Mouafo Tene, Elie Fokou, Gabriel Medoua Nama, Sarah De Saeger, François-Xavier Etoa

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 52-65
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2019/45667

The Gross Domestic Product of Cameron is partially based on agricultural products. Crops like maize, peanuts, beans, cassava, cocoa and coffee are the most cultivated ones. A high portion of this production is locally consumed, and the other part is exported to foreign countries in order to balance the economy. Postharvest losses due to fungal contamination and the presence of mycotoxins in food represent some of the most important problems this producing country government and populations are facing. The analysis of food from animal or vegatal origin in this country during the last 25 years have highlighted the presence of mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in some cases. This paper reviews the effects of mycotoxins on human health and associated regulations, their occurrence in food commodities from Cameroon, as well as the dietary exposure of consuming populations and the results obtained from their bio-monitoring.