Open Access Grey Literature

Assessment of Dietary Intake of Manganese in Relation to Tolerable Upper Intake Level

Margaretha Haugen, Livar Frøyland, Sigrun Henjum, Martinus Løvik, Tonje Holte Stea, Tor A. Strand, Christine Louise Parr, Kristin Holvik

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 91-93
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i230042

The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment (Vitenskapskomiteen for mat og miljø, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), evaluated the intake of manganese from the diet and 1, 5 or 10 mg manganese per day in food supplements. The former maximum limit for manganese in food supplements was 5 mg per daily dose. 

Manganese (Mn) is an essential dietary mineral for mammals, and is a component of metalloenzymes such as superoxide dismutase, arginase and pyruvate carboxylase. Manganese is involved in amino acid-, lipid- and carbohydrate metabolism and in proteoglycan synthesis in bone formation. In 2013, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) suggested 3 mg/day to represent an adequate intake (AI) of manganese because data was considered insufficient to set an average requirement (AR).

Reports of adverse effects resulting from manganese exposure in humans are associated primarily with inhalation in occupational settings. Excess oral exposure to manganese, especially from contaminated water sources, has been shown to cause permanent neurological disorder known as “manganism” which can be irreversible. The amount of manganese absorbed is inversely related to the concentration of manganese in the diet. This regulation seems to be part of the adaptive changes to the amount of dietary manganese intake, which allow the maintenance of manganese homeostasis over a wide range of intakes. Manganese is mainly absorbed as Mn(II), and absorption is reported to be below 10% of ingested manganese.

The main route of elimination of manganese from the body is via bile to the small intestine, while very little is excreted in the urine. Half-life for manganese can vary from 13 to 37 days, with a longer half-life in women than in men, but large inter-individual variation exists. 

In Norway, manganese content in drinking water is low, and does not contribute to any magnitude of manganese intake. Daily dietary intake of manganese in Norway is not known, but it is proposed that manganese intake is adequate in the Scandinavian countries (NNR Project Group, 2012). Results from the Swedish Market Basket study, 2015, indicate an average daily manganese intake of 4.2 mg per person and day. Calculations based on data from Denmark, 2013 and 2015, evaluate mean dietary intake of manganese to 3.9 mg/day for adults and up to 6.9 mg/day in the higher intake groups. EFSA report on an observed mean intake in EU around 3 mg/day for adults. Main contributor to dietary manganese intake is cereals (57%) followed by fruit, vegetables, nuts and coffee/tea. 

Irreversible neurotoxic adverse effects from intakes of manganese close to adequate intakes have been reported in humans (SCF, 2000). The Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) could not set a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL), because no relevant dose-response animal studies were found. Consequently SCF did not set a tolerable upper intake level (UL) for manganese. 

VKM considers that any dose of manganese as an ingredient in food supplements may be associated with increased risk of negative health effects. 

VKM emphasises that the current assessment of maximum limits for manganese in food supplements is merely based on published reports concerning upper levels from the IOM (2001, USA), SCF (2003, EU), EVM (2003, UK) and NNR (2012, Nordic countries). VKM has not conducted any systematic review of the literature for the current opinion, as this was outside the scope of the terms of reference from NFSA.

Open Access Grey Literature

Assessment of Dietary Intake of Molybdenum in Relation to Tolerable Upper Intake Level

Tor A. Strand, Livar Frøyland, Margaretha Haugen, Sigrun Henjum, Martinus Løvik, Tonje Holte Stea, Christine Louise Parr, Kristin Holvik

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 94-95
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i230043

The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment (Vitenskapskomiteen for mat og miljø, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), evaluated the intake of molybdenum. VKM has also conducted scenario calculations to illustrate the consequences of amending maximum limits for molybdenum to 100, 250, 500 or 1000 µg/day in food supplements. The previous maximum limit was 250 µg/day.

Molybdenum is as a cofactor for some important enzymes in humans. These enzymes are involved in the catabolism of sulfur amino acids and heterocyclic compounds, including purines and pyridines. A distinct molybdenum deficiency has not been described in animals when subjected to molybdenum restriction, despite considerable reduction in the activity of molybdoenzymes. Molybdenum deficiency is not observed in healthy humans. The estimated Adequate Intake (AI) proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is 65 µg per day for men and women. Legumes, grains, and nuts are major contributors of molybdenum in the diet. 

Molybdenum is a potential antagonist to copper absorption, but symptoms of copper deficiencies due to excess molybdenum intake have only been observed in ruminants. Based on the effect on reproduction and growth in animals, tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) have been estimated to be 2 mg/day by the U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 2001 and 0.6 mg/day by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) in 2000. These ULs were based on the same scientific evidence, but IOM used an uncertainty factor (UF) of 30 and SCF used a UF of 100 because the evidence base was considered to be weak.

Because of the limited safety data on molybdenum, VKM support the use of the default uncertainty factors at 100 for extrapolation of data from animal studies to humans. Additionally, molybdenum deficiency is very rare and no studies have indicated a nutritional need for additional molybdenum from dietary supplements. The ULs for children were derived by adjusting the adult UL according to default body weights.  

According to the scenario estimations, only the highest suggested maximum limit of 1000 µg molybdenum from food supplements will lead to exceedance of the UL for adults. For 1-3 year old children, all the suggested maximum limits for molybdenum will lead to exceedance of the UL. In children 4-10 years, supplements with 250, 500 or 1000 µg molybdenum will lead to exceedance of the ULs, whereas for adolescents 11-17 years, the UL will be exceeded with supplemental doses at 500 or 1000 µg per day.

VKM emphasises that the current assessment of maximum limits for molybdenum in food supplements is merely based on published reports concerning upper levels from the SCF (2000, EU), IOM (2001, USA), EVM (2003, UK) and NNR (2012, Nordic countries). VKM has not conducted any systematic review of the literature for the current opinion, as this was outside the scope of the terms of reference from NFSA.

Open Access Grey Literature

Assessment of Dietary Intake of Vitamin K and Maximum Limits for Vitamin K in Food Supplements

Kristin Holvik, Livar Frøyland, Margaretha Haugen, Sigrun Henjum, Martinus Løvik, Tonje Holte Stea, Tor A. Strand, Christine Louise Parr

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 96-98
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i230044

The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment (Vitenskapskomiteen for mat og miljø, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), evaluated the intake of vitamin K in the diet. VKM has also assessed the consequences of establishing maximum limits for vitamin K in food supplements at 100, 200, 300, 600 or 800 µg/day. The former maximum limit for vitamin K of 200 µg/day in food supplements was repealed 30 May 2017.

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin required for the carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in proteins that regulate blood coagulation and bone metabolism. The naturally occurring forms of vitamin K present in food and supplements are phylloquinone (vitamin K1) mainly produced by plants, and a range of menaquinones (vitamin K2) mainly produced by bacteria. The chemical structure of vitamin K is characterised by a methylated naphtoquinone ring structure assumed to be responsible for its function, in addition to a side chain which differs in length and degree of saturation. Due to the varying side chains, the different forms of vitamin K are thought to behave differently with regard to absorption, metabolism, bioavailability and thereby also toxic potential.

Dark green leafy vegetables are rich sources of phylloquinone. Meat and liver products provide menaquinone-4, the most common menaquinone in Western diets, while other menaquinones are found in fermented foods and cheese.

An Adequate Intake (AI) of phylloquinone of 1 µg/kg body weight per day was set by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) in 1993 and maintained by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2017. No dietary reference values (DRVs) have been established for menaquinones due to insufficient evidence. Furthermore, no tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) have been established for any form of vitamin K due to insufficient evidence, but previous reports stated that no adverse effects associated with vitamin K consumption from food or supplements had been reported in humans or animals. In 2003, the UK Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals (EVM) proposed a guidance level (GL) for safe upper intake of supplemental phylloquinone of 1 mg/day in adults. The GL was set by applying an uncertainty factor of 10 for inter-individual variation to the supplemental dose of 10 mg/day that had been consumed by eight female athletes (age 20-44) for 30 days with no reported adverse effects. The UK expert group emphasised that GLs had been derived from limited data and were less secure than safe upper levels. This GL was supported by a double-blind randomised study cited in the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (2012), in which 440 postmenopausal women with osteopenia received a daily supplement of 5 mg phylloquinone or placebo for up to four years with no difference in adverse events between the randomised groups.

Corresponding GLs for children and adolescents have been derived by adjusting for reference body weights0.75 by Rasmussen et al. (2006).

The distribution of intakes of vitamin K across age groups in Norway is not known, since food composition data is not available. However, habitual intakes in a representative sample of middle-aged and older adults in Western Norway were assessed in the population-based Hordaland Health Study 1997-2000, and revealed higher intakes than those estimated from dietary surveys in the other Nordic countries. Due to lack of representative estimates of vitamin K intakes in the Norwegian population, information on vitamin K intakes from other Nordic countries is included in the current opinion. This includes the distribution of vitamin K intakes in Sweden and Finland reported by EFSA, and the distribution of vitamin K intakes in Denmark, assessed by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). In middle-aged and older Western Norwegians participating in the Hordaland Health Study 1997-2000, estimated mean intakes of total vitamin K (denoting the sum of K1+K2) ranged from 109 to 148 µg/day in four groups based on age and gender, while the 95-percentiles ranged from 261 to 329 µg/day. Average intakes of total vitamin K in the other Nordic countries are in the magnitude of 100 µg/day in adults, while 95-percentiles in adults are in the magnitude of 200 µg/day.

To illustrate the consequences of establishing maximum limits for vitamin K at 100, 200, 300, 600 or 800 µg/day in food supplements, VKM has compared these levels to the age-specific GLs for supplemental phylloquinone proposed by EVM (2003). The GLs are: 1000 µg/day for adults, 870 µg/day at age 15-17 years, 670 µg/day at age 11-14 years, 500 µg/day at age 710 years, 370 µg/day at age 4-6 years and 270 µg/day at age 1-3 years. 

VKM concludes that:

  • In adults and adolescents 15-17 years old, maximum limits of 100, 200, 300, 600 and 800 µg/day are below GL.
  • In adolescents 11-14 years old, maximum limits of 100, 200, 300 and 600 µg/day are below GL while the maximum limit of 800 µg exceeds GL.
  • In children 4-10 years old, maximum limits of 100, 200 and 300 µg/day are below GL while maximum limits of 600 µg/day and 800 µg/day exceeds GL.
  • In children 1-3 years old, maximum limits of 100 µg/day and 200 µg/day are below GL while maximum limits of 300, 600 and 800 µg/day exceeds GL.

    VKM notes that the current conclusions apply to phylloquinone (vitamin K1) only, while there is insufficient evidence to appraise potential health consequences of maximum limits of menaquinones (vitamin K2).

    VKM emphasises that the current assessment of maximum limits for vitamin K in food supplements is merely based on published reports concerning upper levels from the IOM (2001, USA), SCF (2003, EU), EVM (2003, UK) and NNR (2012, Nordic countries). VKM has not conducted any systematic review of the literature for the current opinion, as this was outside the scope of the terms of reference from NFSA.

Open Access Grey Literature

Comparison of Organic and Conventional Food and Food Production Part V: Human Health – Pesticide Residues

Christine Bjørge, Marit Låg, Ragna Bogen Hetland, Agnethe Christiansen, Lise Skrettberg, Åshild K. Andreassen, Augustine Arukwe, Knut Egil Bøe, Aksel Bernhoft, Ole Martin Eklo, Merete Grung, Margaretha Haugen, Gro Ingrunn Hemre, Ingeborg Klingen, Torsten Källqvist, Åshild Krogdahl, Jørgen F. Lassen, Bjørn Næss, Erik Ropstad, Janneche Utne Skåre, Inger-Lise Steffensen, Leif Sundheim, Line Emilie Sverdrup, Ole Torrissen, Jan Aelxander

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 99-101
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i230045

The present report is based on data from the 2010 EFSA Report on pesticide residues in food, the Norwegian monitoring programmes 2007-2012 and data from peer reviewed literature and governmental agencies. It is a challenge to perform quantitative estimates and comparative studies of residue levels due to large variation in the measured levels, and the large number of different pesticides present in the samples. Thus, the focus is on the frequency of observed contaminations in relation to regulatory limits and to present examples to illustrate the variation in residue values and number of detected substances. 

Pesticide residues in conventional and organic products:

Of the 12,168 samples (plant- and animal products) in the 2010 EU-coordinated programme, 1.6% exceeded the respective maximum residue level (MRL) values, and 47.7% had measurable residues above the limit of quantification (LOQ), but below or at the MRL. Of the 1168 samples analysed in Norway in 2012 (from both imported and domestic products), 1.9% exceeded MRL and 53% contained measurable pesticide residues. Direct comparison of these values is however not possible, since they contain different types of food samples, and are analysed for a different number of pesticides.

When organic and conventional samples from fruit, vegetables and other plant products in the 2010 EU-coordinated programme were compared, 4.2% of the conventional and 1.0% of the organic samples exceeded the MRL values, while 43.2% of the conventional and 10.8% of the organic samples had measurable residues below or at the MRL value. Most of the pesticide residues detected in organic samples are not permitted for use in organic farming. 

Of the 624 organic samples analysed in Norway 2007 - 2012, 0.2% (one sample) had residues exceeding MRL, while measurable residues were detected in 1.8% of the samples (11 samples).

Conventional products were often found to contain different pesticides while most organic samples were found to contain few or only one type of pesticide.  

Lack of data on pesticide residue levels of organic samples in the EU-coordinated programme, and few Norwegian samples do not allow for a quantitative comparison of pesticide residue levels in organic and conventional samples. Comparative estimation of pesticide residues faces a number of challenges and uncertainties. However, it seems unquestionable based on available data that organic plant products contain fewer and substantially lower amounts of pesticide residues than conventional products.

Health risk associated with pesticide residues:

The general level of pesticide residues in both conventional and organic food is low, and well below what is likely to result in adverse health effects. This conclusion is based on the comparison of estimated dietary exposure with toxicological reference values i.e. acceptable daily intake (ADI) for chronic effects, and acute reference dose (ARfD) for acute effects. The finding of pesticide residues that exceeds established regulatory limits in a minority of tested samples is not considered to represent a health risk.

When dietary exposure that was estimated in six different food commodities in the 2010 EUcoordinated programme was compared with their relevant reference values, EFSA concluded that for 79 of 18243 conventionally grown fruit and vegetable samples, a short-term acute consumer health risk could not be excluded. The conclusion was based on the exceeding of ARfD. None of these 79 samples were organic. It is important to also consider that the exceeding of the acute reference value only occurred in 0.4% of the samples and that the scenario used for acute intake assessment is conservative, suggesting that the toxicological implications are limited. This is also reflected in the chronic exposure assessment, where none of the samples were found to exceed the toxicological reference value ADI.  

Dietary exposure assessments on the basis of Norwegian samples of apples, tomatoes, carrots, strawberries and lettuce did not show an exceeding of any toxicological reference value. 

Combined exposure and cumulative risk assessment of pesticide residues:

No generally accepted methodology is at present established for cumulative risk assessment of combined exposure to pesticide residues. Available data suggest however that combined exposure is not likely to result in increased human health risk.

Open Access Grey Literature

Evaluation of Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for Vitamin D in Children and Adolescents

Margaretha Haugen, Kristin Holvik, Per Ole Iversen

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 102-103
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i230046

In 2012, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) suggested a tolerable upper intake level (UL) for vitamin D at 100 µg/day for adults based on the risk of hypercalcaemia. EFSA concluded that consumption of up to 50 µg/day does not lead to hypercalcaemia in children and adolescents (10-17 years). Furthermore, EFSA stated that there is no reason to assume that children and adolescents in the phase of rapid bone formation and growth have a lower tolerance for vitamin D compared to adults, and a UL of 100 µg/day for adolescents aged 11-17 years and 50 µg/day in children 1-10 years, taking the smaller body size into account, was proposed.

The Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) is currently revising the national regulation of maximum limits in food supplements (not yet harmonised in the European Economic Area (EEA)), including maximum limits for vitamin D. NFSA has therefore requested the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) to evaluate the assumption in the EFSA opinion that children and adolescents can tolerate the same amount of vitamin D as adults due to rapid bone formation and growth. In children and adolescents with lower weight than adults, this assumption actually implies that adolescents can tolerate more vitamin D per kg body weight than adults. VKM is therefore requested to evaluate if there is scientific evidence that a UL at 50 µg/day for children (1-10 years) and 100 µg/day for adolescents (11-17 years) is safe.

The present statement is prepared by members of the Panel on Nutrition, Dietetic Products and Novel Food and Allergy in VKM.

Three literature searches were performed to find new relevant studies investigating high intakes of vitamin D in children and adolescents and the role of vitamin D in bone formation and growth.

No studies supporting a higher tolerance to vitamin D in children and adolescents due to rapid bone formation and growth were retrieved in the literature search. Moreover, there is apparently no firm association between bone formation and vitamin D levels in children during their growth period into adolescence and adulthood. 

No studies investigating high intakes of vitamin D in children 1-10 years were found. Furthermore, no studies that have examined safety issues and/or adverse effects of vitamin D supplementation in doses above 50 µg/day in adolescents were identified. It can therefore not be concluded that the UL at 50 µg/day in children (1-10 years) and 100 µg/day in adolescents (11-17 years) is safe.

In the 2002 report from European Scientific Committee on Food (SCF), a UL was set at 25 µg/day for children aged 2-10 years, and 50 µg/day for adolescents aged 11-17 years (corresponding to the UL for adults at that time). To the best of knowledge no serious, harmful effects have been reported for these doses of vitamin D.

Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of Lead Exposure from Cervid Meat in Norwegian Consumers and in Hunting Dogs

Helle Katrine Knutsen, Anne Lise Brantsæter, Christiane K. Fæste, Anders Ruus, Cathrine Thomsen, Jannceche Utne Skåre, Heidi Amlund, Augustine Arukwe, Gunnar S. Eriksen

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 104-107
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i230047

The Norwegian Food Safety Authority requested the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) to assess the risk of lead exposure to the Norwegian population by consumption of cervid meat, including any subpopulations with an increased risk. Further, VKM was asked to describe the distribution of lead from ammunition in the carcass and to estimate the tissue area associated with the wound channel that has to be removed in order to reduce the risk. VKM was also asked to present, if any, other appropriate measures in addition to removing tissue in order to limit the content of lead residues from ammunition in cervid meat. Finally, VKM was asked to assess the significance of lead exposure to the health of dogs if they were fed with trimmings from the wound channel. 

Consumption of cervid meat in Norway:

Lead exposure from cervid meat can be seen as an addition to the exposure from other food sources. According to a recent exposure assessment by EFSA, grains and grain products, milk and dairy products, non-alcoholic beverages, vegetables and vegetable products are the major dietary lead sources in the general population. 

According to the most recent (2012) representative national dietary survey in Norway, mean game (including cervid) meat consumption was low, approximately 5-7 meals per year. However, in other Norwegian population studies including hunters, a large proportion (70%) of the participants consumed cervid meat at least once a month or more often. No information on cervid meat consumption among Norwegian children has been found. However, it can be expected that children eat cervid meat equally often as the rest of the family.

Negative health effects associated with lead exposure:

Lead concentration in blood is considered to be a good indicator of lead exposure. Lead exposure in Europe has decreased dramatically over the last three decades. In Norwegian studies, the mean or median concentrations of lead in blood were from 11 to 27 µg/L, which is in the same range as studies in most European countries the last 10 years. Blood lead concentrations were lower in pregnant women than in other adult population groups in Norway. No information on blood lead levels in Norwegian children has been found. Neurodevelopmental effects and increased blood pressure in adults were critical effects of lead exposure identified by both EFSA and JECFA. Children are more sensitive than adults to the effects of lead because their brain is under development. Increased blood pressure is not an adverse outcome by itself, but it is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. In addition, EFSA pointed out chronic kidney disease as a sensitive endpoint in adults. 

Overview of reference values for blood lead concentrations associated with increased blood pressure and increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease in adults, and neurodevelopmental effects in children:

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Lead exposure in cervid meat consumers:

Associations between game meat consumption and blood lead concentration have been studied in four population studies in Norway. In the three studies performed in the years 2003-2005, a significant association between game meat consumption and higher blood lead concentration was only seen in the subgroup of male participants in one of the studies (the Norwegian Fish and Game study).

In the fourth study, the Norwegian Game and Lead study conducted in 2012, the median blood lead concentration was in the lower range of medians measured in most European and Norwegian studies over the past 10 years. This study also showed association between cervid meat consumption and concentrations of lead in blood. Those with frequent (monthly or more often) cervid meat consumption had about 30% higher average levels of lead in blood than those with less frequent consumption. However, there was a wide range, and many participants with high or long-lasting game meat intake had low blood lead concentrations. The increase in blood lead concentrations seemed to be associated with consumption of minced cervid meat, particularly purchased minced meat. Blood lead concentration was significantly higher in participants who reported self-assembling of lead-containing bullets. 

Risk characterization:

The blood lead concentrations measured in participants in the Norwegian population studies are in the range of, and partly exceeding, the reference values for increased risk of high blood pressure and increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease in adults, and for neurodevelopmental effects in children. The additional lead exposure from cervid meat in frequent (monthly or more often) consumers of such meat is therefore of concern.

At the individual level, the risk for adverse effect is likely to be small. At present lead levels, adults with for example normal blood pressure will most likely not experience any clinical symptoms by a small increase, although it may add to the burden of those individuals who are at risk of experiencing cardiovascular disease. A small reduction in the intelligence of children will not be notable at the individual level, but at the population level it can for instance increase the proportion not able to graduate from school. Lead exposure was declining in the population on which the reference value for increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease was based. EFSA noted that this reference value (15 µg/L) is likely to be numerically lower than necessary. The implications of having a concurrent blood lead concentration above the reference value cannot fully be interpreted, since it is not known when and at which level of lead exposure the kidney disease was initiated. However, an eventual increased risk of chronic kidney disease would be higher among those who consume cervid meat regularly or often than those who rarely consume such meat.

For these reasons, continued effort is needed in order to reduce lead exposure in the population.

Exposure reducing measurements:

Removal of meat around the wound channel reduces the lead exposure from cervid meat consumption. Lead fragmenting and distribution is dependent on several variables, and there are no available studies in moose. The available studies do not allow a firm conclusion on the amount of meat needed to be trimmed around the wound channel in order to remove lead originating from the ammunition. Other possible measures to reduce lead exposure from cervid meat would be to use lead based ammunition with low fragmentation or ammunition without lead. 

Risk of negative health effects in dogs:

In dogs, metallic lead fragments most often pass through the gastrointestinal tract unretained. If larger lead fragments or particles are retained in the gastrointestinal tract for prolonged periods of time, this can result in a continual exposure and toxicity. 

A daily dose around 1 mg lead acetate/kg bw is shown to increase the blood pressure in dogs after a few days of exposure, and is considered as a Lowest Observed Effect Level (LOEL). This corresponds to a lead acetate concentration of 10-20 mg/kg in fresh meat or offal when fed daily to dogs.

The uptake of lead from small metallic lead fragments in contaminated cervid products is probably lower than that of lead acetate. However, high metallic lead concentrations are expected to be present in meat trimmed from the wound channel. Even when a lower absorption of metallic lead than of lead acetate is taken into consideration, the risk for chronic health effects in dogs fed on trimmings of meat/offal from the wound channel from lead killed cervids can be considered as high. On the other hand, the risk for adverse effects after a single exposure of lead contaminated meat must be considered as low. 

Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of Specific Strains of Bifidobacterium spp. Used as "Other Substances"

Siamak Yazdankhah, Danica Grahek-Ogden, Karl Eckner, Georg Kapperud, Jørgen Lassen, Judith Narvhus, Truls Nesbakken, Lucy Robertson, Jan Thomas Rosnes, Olaug Taran Skjerdal, Eystein Skjerve, Line Vold, Yngvild Wasteson

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 108-109
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i230048

The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements sold in Norway. These risk assessments will provide NFSA with the scientific basis for regulation of the addition of “other substances” to food supplements and other foods.

"Other substances" are described in the food supplement directive 2002/46/EC as substances other than vitamins or minerals that have a nutritional and/or physiological effect. It is added mainly to food supplements, but also to other foods. VKM has not in this series of risk assessments of "other substances" evaluated any claimed beneficial effects from these substances, only possible adverse effects.

The present report is a risk assessment of Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07, Bifidobacterium bifidum W23, Bifidobacterium longum Rosell-175, Bifidobacterium breve Rosell-70, and Bifidobacterium animalis sub. lactis Bb12 based on previous risk assessments and also publications retrieved from literature search.

The risk of the Bifidobacterium strains listed above was assessed for the general population. However, in previous assessments of probiotics published by VKM, concerns have been identified for specific groups. Therefore, the risk was assessed for the age group with immature gastro-intestinal microbiota (age group 0-36 months), population with mature gastro-intestinal microbiota (>3 years) and vulnerable groups with mature gastro-intestinal tract. VKM has also assessed the risk of Bifidobacterium spp. in food supplements and other foods independent of the dose and have assessed exposure in general terms.

VKM concludes that it is unlikely that B. lactis Bi-07, B. bifidum W23, B. longum Rosell-175, B. breve Rosell-70, and B. animalis sub. lactis Bb12 would cause adverse health effects in the general healthy population with mature gastro-intestinal tract.

However, no data on long-term adverse effects on infants and young children were identified. As evidence is accruing that the early microbial composition of the neonatal gut is important for the development of the gut microbiota and the immune system of the growing child, it is not possible to exclude that a daily supply of a single particular bacterial strain over a prolonged period of time to an immature gastro-intestinal tract may have long-term, although still unknown, adverse effects on that development.

Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of Specific Strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus Used as "Other Substances"

Siamak Yazdankhah, Danica Grahek-Ogden, Karl Eckner, Georg Kapperud, Jørgen Lassen, Judith Narvhus, Truls Nesbakken, Lucy Robertson, Jan Thomas Rosnes, Olaug Taran Skjerdal, Eystein Skjerve, Line Vold, Yngvild Wasteson

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 110-111
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i230049

The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements sold in Norway. These risk assessments will provide NFSA with the scientific basis for regulation of the addition of “other substances” to food supplements and other foods.

"Other substances" are described in the food supplement directive 2002/46/EC as substances other than vitamins or minerals that have a nutritional and/or physiological effect. It is added mainly to food supplements, but also to other foods. VKM has not in this series of risk assessments of "other substances" evaluated any claimed beneficial effects from these substances, only possible adverse effects.

The present report is a risk assessment of Lactobacillus acidophilus W37, Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1, Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14 based on previous risk assessments and also publications retrieved from literature search.

The risk of the Lactobacillus strains listed above was assessed for the general population. However, in previous assessments of probiotics published by VKM, concerns have been identified for specific groups. Therefore, the risk was assessed for the age group with immature gastro-intestinal microbiota (age group 0-36 months), population with mature gastro-intestinal microbiota (>3 years) and vulnerable groups with mature gastro-intestinal tract. VKM has also assessed the risk of L. acidophilus W37, L. acidophilus DDS-1, L. acidophilus La-5 and L. acidophilus La-14 in food supplements and other foods independent of the dose and have assessed exposure in general terms.

VKM concludes that it is unlikely that L. acidophilus W37, L. acidophilus DDS-1, L. acidophilus La-5 and L. acidophilus La-14 would cause adverse health effects in the general healthy population with mature gastro-intestinal tract.

However, no data on long-term adverse effects on infants and young children were identified. As evidence is accruing that the early microbial composition of the neonatal gut is important for the development of the gut microbiota and the immune system of the growing child, it is not possible to exclude that a daily supply of a single particular bacterial strain over a prolonged period of time to an immature gastro-intestinal tract may have long-term, although still unknown, adverse effects on that development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Evaluation of Amaranth-Soy-Wheat Composite Flours

Kanchan Joshi, Archana Kushwaha, Kalpana Kulshrestha

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 122-133
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i230051

Aims: Malnutrition among all ages is still a persistent problem in India, especially in areas where the poor largely depend on rice and wheat staples with limited access to diverse diets using underutilized foods.  This study was conducted to nutritionally enhance traditional food products like roti and lapsi utilizing suitable composite flours based on amaranth, soybean and wheat without affecting their sensory quality.

Study Design: Different combinations of amaranth, soybean and wheat flours were made to suit the quality characteristics of roti and lapsi.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Foods and Nutrition, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar (India), between January and June 2016.

Methodology: The sensory evaluation of food products and estimation of nutritional composition of composite flours was done using standard procedures.

Results: The composite flours having 25% amaranth, 15% soybean and 60% wheat flour and 25% amaranth, 10% soybean and 65% wheat flour were found to be most acceptable sensorially and were significantly superior to their control counterparts for protein, ash, fibre, carbohydrate calcium and iron content (p=.05).

Conclusion: Roti made from amaranth and soybean incorporated composite flours with better protein quality and low available carbohydrates and physiological energy almost same as control would be better diet alternative to diabetic and overweight patients whereas lapsi may be effectively used as supplementary food. Many other traditional food products like laddoo, halwa, puri, parantha, burfi etc. may also be made from such composite flours.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metals Contamination and Potential Human Health Risk via Consumption of Vegetables from Selected Communities in ONELGA, Rivers State, Nigeria

Ahiakwo Bright Ogbo, Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 134-151
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i230053

Background: Anthropogenic activities such as excessive oil exploration, automobile emissions with agricultural activities, etc tend to elevate the concentrations of heavy metals in the soil. These metals are accumulated by plant roots, thereby resulting to heavy metal contamination of such plants.

Objectives: This study evaluated the concentration of heavy metals namely: Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Nickel (Ni), Arsenic (As), Iron (Fe), and Copper (Cu) in edible vegetables from selected communities in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area (ONELGA), Rivers State, Nigeria, and the concentrations of these metals were used to assess the human health risk posed to the consumers of the edible vegetables.

Materials and Methods: Sixteen different vegetable samples comprising Vernonia amygdalina, Talinum triangulare, Abelmoschus esculentus and Telfairia occidentalis were digested and analyzed for heavy metals using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (F-AAS). Results obtained from this study were used to estimate the human health risk of these heavy metals.

Results: The results showed that the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni, As, Fe, and Cu ranged from 0.168-4.908; 0.364-2.977; 2.780-10.241; 0.157-2.633; 61.589-101.520 and 12.029-46.540 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni and As in some of the analyzed vegetable samples exceeded the permissible limit as recommended by WHO/FAO, EC/CODEX and NAFDAC respectively. The concentration of Fe and Cu were below the permissible limit as recommended by WHO/FAO. The Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of Pb and Cd exceeded the permissible tolerable daily intake of metals (TDI) but fall within the upper tolerable daily intake (UTDI) recommended by Institute of medicine, FDA, also Ni, Fe, and Cu fall within the recommended TDI and the UTDI. The EDI values of As exceeded the recommended TDI and the UTDI. The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) and Hazard Index (HI) values of Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni were greater than 1. The Life Cancer Risk (LCR) of Pb were within the range of permissible predicted lifetime risks for carcinogens as recommended by US EPA.

Conclusion: The result from the present study indicate that the exposed population may be at risk of Pb, Cd, Ni and Cu toxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Aluminum Oxide and Silica Oxide Nanocomposite on Foodborne Pathogens in Chicken Fillets

Alaa G. Osman, Ahmed I. El-Desouky, Mohamed K. Morsy, Ahmed A. Aboud, Mahmoud H. Mohamed

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 152-162
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i230054

Nanotechnology is an innovative technology for improving food quality and safety.

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) films containing nanoparticles against three foodborne pathogens.       

Design of the Study: *This study was designed using two nanoparticles i.e. (Al2O3-NPs and SiO2-NPs), edible film (HPMC), and three foodborne pathogens i.e. Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella Typhimurium. Both nanoparticles were evaluated against foodborne pathogens as well applied in chicken fillets.    

Place and Duration: All experiments were done in the Food Technology Department, Benha University, Egypt; Nanomaterial Laboratory, Beni-Suef University, Egypt; and Agricultural Research Center, Egypt and were done within three months.       

Methodology: The preparation of edible films, the antimicrobial activity, mode of antimicrobial action, challenge study, and scanning electron microscopy had been carried out in different laboratories. As well the mechanical properties of the HPMC films were evaluated.                                                                                                   

Results: The results obtained from this study showed that the nanoparticles (~80 nm) at 80 ppm were active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella Typhimurium compared with 20 and 40 ppm. The HPMC films including Al2O3-NPs were active against B. cereus than S. aureus and S. typhimurium, while the SiO2-NPs were more effective against S. typhimurium and B. cereus compared with S. aureus. In challenge studies, HPMC films including Al2O3-NPs and SiO2-NPs at 80 ppm decreased the viability of the three-foodborne pathogens associated with chicken fillets stored at 4±1°C for 15 days, as compared with the control sample. HPMC films incorporated with nanoparticles inhibited the microbial population ~ 2-3 log10 CFU/cm2 over the chicken fillets during storage period.                                                  

Conclusion: This work indicated that, HPMC films incorporated with Al2O3-NPs and SiO2-NPs (~80 nm) at 80 ppm could be reduce the microbiological loads of the refrigerated chicken fillets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antinutritional Factors Reduction from Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Roots by Grating or Chipping Processing Technique in Mtwara Tanzania

Ladislaus M. Kasankala, Malimi E. Kitunda, Elifatio E. Towo, Grace Mahende Ngwasy, Loyce Kaitira, Cypriana Cyprian, Devotha Mushumbusi

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 163-171
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i230055

Regular intake of diets high in cyanogenic amount in iodine deficiency areas with limited sulfur supply diets have been associated with the development of hypothyroidism, goiter and cretinism in young and adult populations. This study aimed at the investigation of the suitable processing technique for the production of high-quality cassava flour (HQCF) with acceptable consumption level of cyanide residues from different cassava varieties available at Mmongo village in Mtwara region. Grating technique was used to produce wet and dried cassava grits, whereas chipping technique produced wet and dried cassava chips. The wet and dried cassava products were all produced in a single day and under the same environmental conditions. The results showed that the hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in fresh cassava roots was 62.18–139.28 mg HCN/kg. Upon processing, the cyanide was lower (P<0.05) in wet cassava grits 24.27–76.74 mg HCN/Kg but higher in wet cassava chips 44.81–92.57 mg HCN/kg. After sun drying, the HCN retention was higher in dried cassava chips (10.7–14.2%) and lower in dried cassava grits (7.3–9.1%). Grating, efficiently reduced HCN from bitter cassava roots to the level within the WHO/FAO recommended safe limit (10 mg HCN/kg) as chipping only suite for sweet cassava roots. Therefore, HQCF can be nutritionally strategic cassava product consumed regularly and during food shortage without causing potential health problems even in iodine deficiency areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact Study of Institutional Food Supplementation on Nutritional Status of Pre-school Children

D. Mounika, B. Kasturiba

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 172-181
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i230056

Aims: To assess the Nutritional status of urban and semi-urban pre-school children of Dharwad, at baseline and after institutional supplementation.  

Study Design:  Nutritional status of the pre-school children was assessed based on anthropometry and clinical examination.  Urban pre-school children were treated as control and semi-urban pre-school children were supplemented with institutional food for three months (experimental). Nutritional status were measured before and after institutional food supplementation.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Community Science, University of Agricultural Science, Dharwad, Karnataka, India. The experiment was conducted between July 2017 and July 2018. 

Methodology: A sample size of 100 pre-school children (3-6 years) were selected, out of which, 50 children from urban and another 50 children from semi-urban school were randomly selected from Dharwad district. Nutritional status of the pre-school children was assessed based on anthropometry and clinical examination. Nutritional status were measured before and after institutional food supplementation, in both schools.

Results: Results revealed that, at baseline nutritional status were higher in urban pre-school children compare to semi-urban pre-school children, but after supplementing with the institutional food, significant improvement in anthropometric measurements were observed in semi-urban group and they were on par with the urban children in terms of nutritional status.

Conclusion: The weight for age is an indicator of current nutritional status, whereas height for age is an indicator of past nutritional status, so height improvement was observed in urban group and weight improvement was observed in semi-urban group.  Finally concluded that food intervention can go long way in changing the current malnutrition scenario.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Determinants of Malnutrition in under Five Children in Selected Health Facilities in Egume, Kogi State, Nigeria

Achadu Abraham Eleojo, Umeh Chisom Charles, Onoja Inikpi

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 182-191
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i230057

Aims: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in under five children in selected health facilities in Egume, Dekina LGA, Kogi State.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study with historic data that assessed the Prevalence and determinants of malnutrition of under-five children in selected health facilities in Egume Dekina Local Government Area, Kogi State.

Study Area: The study was conducted at General Hospital and St. Luke clinic in Egume, Dekina LGA, Kogi State.

Methodology: The study focused on Mothers and their under five children who were treated as in- or out- patients at the General Hospital and St. luke clinic Egume within the past five years, Interview was conducted with the aid of a validated, questionnaire, after obtaining informed consent from mothers and ethical clearance from the Health Research Ethics Committee, Kogi State Ministry of Health. Data was obtained through reviews of available health records. Anthropometric measurement was carried out following standard procedures.

Results: The study showed that 21.3%, 25.6%, 47.4% and 5.7% of the sampled children were mildly undernourished, moderately undernourished, severely undernourished and healthy respectively.

Conclusion: The present study further revealed that a child’s age and gender, mother’s education and nutrition and other health variables such as clean water and toilet are determinants of child malnutrition.

Open Access Review Article

Staple Crops Biofortification Linking Agriculture, Food and Nutrition towards Eliminating Hidden Hunger

Vumilia Lwoga Zikankuba, Denis Mteremko, Armachius James

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 112-121
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i230050

Agriculture is the mainstay of most of people globally. Despite the fact that agriculture has been a traditionally food and nutrition source, people go to bed without food and suffer from malnutrition even within the same households. Similarly, hunger and hidden hunger remains a worldwide widespread challenge. In response, researchers have tried to enhance micronutrients through staple food crops biofortification. The promotion of biofortified crops and unintended narrowed food choices might have been the underlying factor for the coexisting forms of malnutrition: undernutrition, obesity and increased incidence of non-communicable diseases; a malnutrition double burden problem. Therefore, this paper provides views to rethinking critically in order to take steps towards integrating nutrition education in modern agriculture crop biofortification programs more effectively.