Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of Malakite with the Active Substances Dithianon and Pyrimenthanil

Torsten Källqvist, Merete Grung, Katrine Borgå, Hubert Dirven, Ole Martin Eklo, Jan Ludvig Lyche, Marit Låg, Asbjørn Magne Nilsen, Line Emilie Sverdrup

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 312-314
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i430075

The plant protection product Malakite (BAS 669 01 F), containing the active substances dithianon and pyrimethanil, is a fungicide against scab in pome fruits. Products containing these active plant protection substances are approved in Norway, but not with both substances in the same product. The Swedish Chemicals Agency (KemI) has as zonal Rapporteur Member State (zRMS) of the Northern Zone evaluated the product Malakite and decided on non-approval due to the observation of unacceptable effects in exposed birds, aquatic organisms, non-target arthropods and earthworms.

On request from The Norwegian Food Safety Authority, the VKM Panel on Plant Protection Products has discussed the available data and the report prepared by KemI, and has concluded as follows on the questions raised:

On the refinement of DT50 in long term risk assessment for birds:

It is the view of the VKM panel that the refinement is not acceptable because the analysis using first order kinetics seems not in line with a realistic and sufficiently conservative approach for the data provided. Furthermore, field studies from more sites are required.

On the long term cumulative effects of the active substances on birds:

VKM shares the view of KemI, that the combined sub-lethal and reproduction effects should be assessed because the mode of action of the two ingredients has only been shown in fungi, and since the mechanisms in birds could be different.

On the reduction of assessment factor for fish:

VKM opposes to the reduction of assessment factor for dithianon in fish because the data from acute toxicity tests cannot be extrapolated to chronic toxicity, and because the factor should reflect not only the variation in interspecies sensitivity, but also the uncertainty involved in extrapolation from laboratory tests to the field situation.

On the choice of end point in risk assessment for fish:

The VKM panel considers the NOEC of dithianon for fish determined from the study at pH 7.9 not to be adequate for the more acidic Norwegian surface waters, and recommends using the data from the test performed at pH 6.5.

On the formulation studies for aquatic organisms:

It is the opinion of the VKM panel that the formulation studies may be used together with corresponding studies with the active ingredients as long as the studies compared are performed and evaluated according to the same principles. However, VKM notes that the formulation tests as well as the tests of the active ingredients have been performed at high pH values, which are not representative to most Norwegian surface waters. Thus, the toxic effect of dithianon shown in these tests are likely to be lower than expected under typical conditions in Norway.

On the assessment factors for concentration addition in fish:

It is the opinion of the VKM panel that a reduction in assessment factor for one component in a mixture cannot be used for a formulation containing components for which a similar reduction has not been accepted.

On effect studies of active substances and formulations on non-target arthropods:

The VKM panel shares the view of KemI that the risk assessment should be based on all available information, including the studies presented for the active substances.

On the endpoint in earthworm risk assessment:

VKM supports the view of KemI that the observed effects of pyrimethanil on reproduction of earthworms should be considered in the risk assessment of Malakite.

Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of Specific Strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Used as "Other Substances"

Siamak Yazdankhah, Danica Grahek-Ogden, Karl Eckner, Georg Kapperud, Jørgen Lassen, Judith Narvhus, Truls Nesbakken, Lucy Robertson, Jan Thomas Rosnes, Olaug Taran Skjerdal, Eystein Skjerve, Line Vold, Yngvild Wasteson

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 315-316
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i430076

The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements sold in Norway. These risk assessments will provide NFSA with the scientific basis for regulation of the addition of “other substances” to food supplements and other foods.

"Other substances" are described in the food supplement directive 2002/46/EC as substances other than vitamins or minerals that have a nutritional and/or physiological effect. It is added mainly to food supplements, but also to other foods. VKM has not in this series of risk assessments of "other substances" evaluated any claimed beneficial effects from these substances, only possible adverse effects.

The present report is a risk assessment of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Rosell-11 ND, Lactobacillus rhamnosus W71, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lr-329 based on previous risk assessments and also publications retrieved from literature search.

The risk of the Lactobacillus strains listed above was assessed for the general population. However, in previous assessments of probiotics published by VKM, concerns have been identified for specific groups. Therefore, the risk was assessed for the age group with immature gastro-intestinal microbiota (age group 0-36 months), population with mature gastro-intestinal microbiota (>3 years) and vulnerable groups with mature gastro-intestinal tract. VKM has also assessed the risk of L. rhamnosus Rosell-11 ND, L. rhamnosus W71, L. rhamnosus GG and L. rhamnosus Lr-329 in food supplements and other foods independent of the dose and have assessed exposure in general terms.

VKM concludes that it is unlikely that L. rhamnosus Rosell-11 ND, L. rhamnosus W71, L. rhamnosus GG and L. rhamnosus Lr-329 would cause adverse health effects in the general healthy population with mature gastro-intestinal tract.

However, no data on long-term adverse effects on infants and young children were identified. As evidence is accruing that the early microbial composition of the neonatal gut is important for the development of the gut microbiota and the immune system of the growing child, it is not possible to exclude that a daily supply of a single particular bacterial strain over a prolonged period of time to an immature gastro-intestinal tract may have long-term, although still unknown, adverse effects on that development.

Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of the Metabolite M44 of Bixafen, One of the Active Substancesin Aviator Xpro EC225

Jan Ludvig Lyche, Hubert Dirven, Marit Låg, Asbjørn Magne Nilsen, Katrine Borgå, Ole Martin Eklo, Merete Grung, Line Emilie Sverdrup, Torsten Källqvist

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 317-318
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i430077

Aviator Xpro EC 225 containing the active substance bixafen was assessed by VKM in spring 2013, and it was concluded that the metabolite M44 has potential for groundwater contamination. Furthermore, VKM assessed in late 2013 the relevance of this metabolite in accordance with the EU guidance document on metabolites in groundwater, and concluded that the malformations observed in rabbits exposed to the metabolite should be considered treatment related. VKM also concluded that the data presented to evaluate the possible genotoxic properties of the metabolite was insufficient to reach a conclusion. Based on this, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority rejected the approval of Aviator Xpro EC 225.

The applicant has now submitted results from an in vivo study to strengthen the basis for assessment of genotoxic properties, and also submitted new historical controls in relation to the experimental studies on foetal developmental effects in rabbits. The VKM Panel on Plant Protection Products has discussed the questions raised by The Norwegian Food Safety Authority on the basis of the new data, and has the following opinion:

On the assessment of genotoxic properties of the M44 metabolite of bixafen, one of the active ingredients of Aviator Xpro EC 225.

It is the view of VKM Panel on Plant Protection Products that the new in vivo mouse micronucleus study, supplemented together with a separate study demonstrating bioavailability, overrides the results of the in vitro clastogenicity studies. Taken together, it is the opinion of VKM that under the conditions studied, M44 should be considered as non-genotoxic.

On the assessment of the relevance of the foetal malformations in M44 exposed animals.

VKMs Panel on Plant Protection products has assessed the arguments and new historical control data presented by the applicant, intended to show that metabolite M44 is not teratogenic. It is however the opinion of the Panel that the arguments and the new historical data provided by the applicant do not alter the panel’s previous conclusion; that the malformations observed in rabbits exposed to the metabolite M44 should be considered treatment related.

Open Access Grey Literature

The Link between Antimicrobial Resistance and the Content of Potentially Toxic Metals in Soil and Fertilising Products

Yngvild Wastson, Eystein Skjerve, Siamak Yazdankhah, Karl Eckner, Georg Kapperud, Jørgen Fredrik Lassen, Judith Narvhus, Truls Nesbakken, Lucy Robertson, Jan Thomas Rosnes, Olaug Taran Skjerdal, Line Vold

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 319-321
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i430078

Potentially toxic metals (PTM), along with PTM-resistant bacteria and PTM-resistance genes may be introduced to soil and water through sewage systems, direct excretion, land application of biosolids (organic matter recycled from sewage, especially for use in agriculture) or animal manures as fertilisers, and irrigation with wastewater or treated effluents.

The Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) asked the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) for an assessment of the link between antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and potentially toxic metals (PTM) in soil and fertilising products.

The NFSA would like VKM to give an opinion on the following question related to the influence of potentially toxic metals on antimicrobial resistance:

  • Can the content of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (CrIII + CrVI), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in soil and fertilising products that are relevant for Norway play a role in the development, spreading, and persistence of bacterial resistance to these elements, as well as cross or co-resistance to antimicrobial agents?

VKM appointed a working group, consisting of two members of the Panel on Biological Hazards, to prepare a draft Opinion document and answer the questions. The Panel on Biological Hazards has reviewed and revised the draft prepared by the working group and approved the Opinion document “The link between antimicrobial resistance and the content of potentially toxic metals in soil and fertilising products”.

In this report we assess the following PTM: arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn), because of their possible presence in fertilisers and their potential to induce AMR in bacteria.

This assessment is based on internationally published data. There is no systematic monitoring for toxic metals in soils in Norway, and the levels are expected to be highly variable depending on the input sources, previous and current agricultural practices, and the characteristics of the soil. Data on PTM in fertilising products added to soil are also fragmented and limited. Fertilising materials, in the form of sewage sludge or livestock manure, will add toxic metals to the existing levels in soil, and in areas of intensive agriculture, the levels will be expected to be highest. The additive effect of toxic metals in fertilising materials must be assessed from a long-term perspective, as these metals accumulate in the environment.

Development of AMR can be partly regarded as a dose- and time-dependant response to exposure to different drivers for resistance. There is an indication that the presence of potentially toxic metals is a driver for development of AMR in exposed bacteria, but the dose and time exposure most likely to cause this effect is not known. Investigation of PTM-driven co-selection of AMR in environments impacted by agriculture and aquaculture should focus especially on Cu and Zn, which are added to animal feed, and on Cd because of its high concentration, in comparison with other PTM, in inorganic fertilising products. The naturally occurring background resistance in environmental bacteria complicates the estimation of the effect of PTM exposure on development of resistance. In addition, it is difficult to distinguish between the natural resistome and an elevated abundance of AMR in environmental samples.

Spreading of resistance towards the PTM evaluated in this assessment involves cross- and co-resistance to antimicrobial agents used in prophylaxis and therapy in animals and people. Most important are those cases where toxic metal resistance is coupled to resistance towards highly important and critically important antibiotics. This has been described in some of the published articles included in this assessment. We do not fully understand the mechanisms behind persistence of AMR, and removing drivers for development and spread of resistance may result in a decrease in the levels of resistance, but not necessarily full disappearance.

There is lack of knowledge regarding links between the level and concentration of PTM in fertilising products and soil and development of resistance in bacteria. Data regarding the routes and frequencies of transmission of AMR from bacteria of environmental origin to bacteria of animal and human origin were lacking in the published articles reviewed here. Due to the lack of such data, it is difficult to estimate the probability of development, transmission, and persistence of PTM resistance in the Norwegian environment. More research is needed to explain the relationship between development of resistance against potential toxic metals and resistance toward antimicrobial agents in bacteria.

Open Access Short Research Article

Determination of Arsenic Content in Different Brands of Rice Sold in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Waribo, Helen Anthony, George, Daye Mandy, Selbut, Selchak Danjuma

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 437-443
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i430089

Arsenic, a naturally occurring element seen in the environment and cycled by water has been seen to be a pollutant in soil, water and air. The inorganic form of arsenic is associated with major health problems and cancer mainly arising due to its anthropogenic activities. The content of arsenic was assayed in six rice brands sold in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The rice samples were ground to powdered forms and subjected to acid digestion before analysis. The Agilent Micro Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (MP-AES) was used to analyze the digested samples. Results showed mean arsenic concentration in Vico Rice, the highest as 1.0073. This was followed by Local Rice 0.9420, Marori Benz 0.9140, Golden Stallion Rice 0.861 and the Cap Rice 0.8077 while the least mean concentration of arsenic was recorded in African Princess Rice 0.6417, all in mg/kg. The mean concentration was significantly different in the six brands of rice (P<0.05). The arsenic content in the different rice brand was within the tolerable concentration of 1.4 mg/kg as in cereals and vegetables. This concentration did not exceed the Maximum Permissible Limit of 1 mg/kg hence considered safe for consumption except Vico rice with a higher concentration above 1 mg/kg. This shows that rice brands sold in Port Harcourt pose no health risk for consumers with respect to arsenic content.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream as Influenced by Pulse Protein Concentrates

R. Sivasankari, G. Hemalatha, S. Amutha, M. Murugan, C. Vanniarajan, T. Umamaheswari

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 322-328
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i430079

Pulses are one of the cheapest sources for the extraction of protein concentrates which can be gainfully utilized for meeting protein needs of specific groups. Techniques for maximum extraction of Pulse protein concentrates were developed for red gram and Bengal gram by standardisation of process parameters involving alkaline extraction followed by isoelectric precipitation. Extraction conditions viz., flour: water ratio – 1:10, pH 9 and stirring time- 4 hours were employed for isolation of the pulse protein concentrates. The protein concentrates extracted from red gram and chickpea were incorporated in ice cream formulations at concentrations of 5 and 10%. The pulse protein concentrate incorporated ice cream at 5% level had a higher sensory score of 8.7 and 8.8 on the nine-point hedonic scale compared to ice cream enriched with 10% pulse protein concentrate (8.4 and 8.5/9.0). The pulse protein enriched ice cream had a high protein content of 11.76 g/100 g compared to 4.90 g/100 g in control. Pulse protein concentrates have a wide food application in designing speciality foods for different age groups and disease conditions. The PPC incorporated protein enriched ice cream would provide for nutritious ice cream having desirable sensory properties with commercialisation prospects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Contribution of Eggs and Other Cholesterol-containing Foods to Total Dietary Cholesterol Intake, and Their Influence on Serum Lipid Profile of Adults in Calabar, Nigeria

Eridiong O. Onyenweaku, Henrietta N. Ene-Obong, Gregory E. Oko, Ima O. Williams

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 329-340
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i430080

Aim: Eggs have sometimes been regarded as unhealthy foods due to their relatively high cholesterol content. The aim of this study is to determine contribution of eggs and other    cholesterol containing food to total dietary cholesterol and their influence on serum lipid profile of adults.

Study Design: Cross sectional and experimental.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, University of Calabar, Calabar. February to July 2017.

Methodology: A cross-sectional survey to determine consumption pattern was carried out on 400 respondents using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24 hour dietary recall. The respondents were further grouped into four based on their reported weekly egg consumption. A detailed follow-up study was conducted on 50 participants selected from across the 4 groups, using a 3-day repeated 24 hour dietary recall to determine their consumption of egg and other cholesterol-containing foods. Serum blood lipid profile of these 50 participants was also determined using Randox cholesterol test kits. Food composition tables were used to calculate dietary cholesterol intake (DCI). The mean DCI of the 4 groups were cross-tabulated with mean serum cholesterol levels. Percentage contribution of eggs and other frequently consumed cholesterol-containing foods (such as milk and fish) to total DCI was calculated. Statistical significance was accepted at p = .05.

Results: For the follow-up participants, it was observed that results of correlations between DCI and the lipid profile parameters showed negative correlation (at p = .01) in both males and females, except slight positive correlations between cholesterol intake and HDL-c (r=0.191) among the males, and cholesterol with TC (r=0.265) among the females. Apart from this, no association was observed between DCI and the lipid profile parameters. Furthermore, the > 5eggs/week group had the lowest TC and LDL-c (4.23±0.19 mmol/L and 2.38±0.10 mmol/L). Based on the respondents’ consumption patterns, eggs (boiled and fried) contributed the highest- 34.8% to total DCI, followed by milk (15.9%); salad cream contributed lowest (0.3%) to total DCI.

Conclusion: Increased DCI from cholesterol-containing foods (such as eggs), did not cause an adverse increase in serum cholesterol levels of normocholesterolemic people.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical Characterization of Palm Kernel Oil Extracted from the Seeds of Two Varieties of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) for Possible Use in Feed or Food

Yapi Amin Paulin, Kouadio Ahou Irène

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 341-353
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i430081

This study was carried out in order to assess the quality of the type of palm kernel oil suitable for the alternative in animal oil in feed or food. To reach this objective, oil D and oil T extracted respectively from the seeds of the varieties Dura and Tenera of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) by the Soxhlet method using hexane as a solvent were analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics. The results obtained show that the values for the physical parameters (Oil yield, density and percentage of impurities) of both oils were similar and fell in those of the standards of Codex Alimentarius 2015. However, for the chemical parameters (Acid value, percentage of free fatty acids, peroxide value, saponification value and ester value), the values obtained for oil D were the highest, but for both oils, the values were above those recommended by the standards of Codex Alimentarius 2015, excepted the Saponification values and the Ester values which were below these standards. The determination of fatty acids composition by Gas Chromatography showed that these oils were not significantly different. Indeed, the totals saturated fatty acids were in amounts of 87.92% ± 0.17 and 87.53% ± 0.24, while the totals unsaturated fatty acids were in amounts of 12.08% ± 0.02 and 12.47% ± 0.02 respectively for oil D and oil T. The predominant fatty acid was lauric acid in amounts of 36.87% and 37.84% respectively for oil D and oil T.

Thus, these palm kernel oils could be used as ingredients and preservatives in feed due to their content in lauric acid which is known to possess antimicrobial properties and also to their content in unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and linoleic acids) which are an indicator of oil quality. However, oil T seems to be more suitable for the alternative in animal oil in feed due to its percentage of free fatty acid which is less than that of oil D.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Chronic Commercial Sweeteners Consumption in Lymphocytes of Peyer’s Patches

Julio Andrés Guzmán-Cruz, Beatríz Elina Martínez-Carrillo, Arturo G. Rillo, José Arturo Castillo-Cardiel, Flor de María Cruz-Estrada

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 354-364
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i430082

Aims: To know the effect of chronic commercial sweeteners consumption in lymphocytes of Peyer’s patches.

Study Design: A prospective, longitudinal, comparative and experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Nutrition Research Laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine of Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México (UAEMéx) between August 2018 and May 2019 and was approved by the Bioethics Committee.

Materials and Methods: Two groups of male mice of different strains were used: 1) Balb/c and 2) CD1, both at 8 weeks-old age. The groups were divided into 4 subgroups: 1) Control (without sweetener), 2) Sucrose (table sugar, 41.66 mg/mL), and two groups of commercial sweeteners 3) Splenda® (sucralose 1.2%, with a concentration of 4.16 mg/mL), and 4) Svetia® (Steviol glycoside 0.025 g with a concentration of 4.16 mg/mL). The mice consumed the supplementation for 6 weeks. Also, were quantified plasma glucose, percentage of lymphocytes from Peyer’s patches, water and food consumption weekly.

Results: Mice increased their body weight after 6 weeks of treatment. The animals of Control and Sucrose subgroups showed a significant body weight gain of 5 g compared with the Splenda® and Svetia® subgroups, which increased only 4 g. In the subgroup treated with Splenda®, the blood glucose was reduced significantly. Svetia® and Control groups consumed more water without sweetener. The differences in food consumption were between the subgroups, not between the strains. By the end, the percentage of lymphocytes from Peyer´s patches increased in the Sucrose subgroup but decreased significantly in other subgroups.

Conclusion: The consumption of sweeteners may modify the lymphocyte population of Peyer's patches in the small intestine and this variation depends on the frequency of consumption the strain of the rodents and the type of sweetener.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Assessment of the Microbial Load of Beef and Chicken Meat Collected at Different Hours of the Day in Ekpoma Town Market

P. I. Okoh, M. I. Okoruwa, S. E. Okosun

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 365-371
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i430083

A study on comparative assessment of the microbial load of beef and chicken meat collected at different hours of the day in Ekpoma town market was carried out. Samples were purchased at 8am, 1pm and 5pm and taken to the laboratory for microbial load counts. The design of the experiment was a completely randomized design (CRD). Result from the study revealed that microbial load of beef for Diluent 1 (Dil.-1) was less at 8am, having 30.0 log10 CFU/g as compared with 43.5 and 47.0 observed at 1pm and 5pm respectively. Diluent 2 (Dil.-2) showed similar results of less counts at 8am (22.0 log10 CFU/g) compared with 31.5 and 45.0 recorded at 1pm and 5pm respectively, as well as Diluent 3 (Dil.-3), which recorded similar results of less microbial load at the early hours of the day. The result from the microbial load count of chicken was not affected by the time (hours) of collection, as values were not significantly (P>0.05) different. Diluent 1 (Dil.-1) had the least count of 22.0 log10 CFU/g at 8am compared with a high count of 32.5 at 1pm and a less count of 24.5 at 5pm. Similarly, Diluent 2 (Dil.-2) recorded a microbial count of 20.5 log10 CFU/g at 8am compared with 24.5 and 22.5 recorded at 1pm and 5pm respectively. While Diluent 3 (Dil.-3) had 14.5 log 10 CFU/g at 8am compared with 18.5 and 17.5 recorded at 1pm and 5pm respectively. Microbial load of chicken meat was lowest in the morning (8am), high in the afternoon (1pm) and lower in the evening (5pm). Here, the rate of exposure of chickens in the refrigerator to the atmosphere affected its microbial load.  The result did not follow the trend of higher microbial load as time of the day progressed, observed in beef. Results on a comparative assessment of the microbial load of beef and chicken meat further revealed that microbial load in beef was higher than chicken, as beef was completely exposed on a table platform in the market, while chicken was stored in the refrigerator when sold in the market. It also revealed that microbial load concentration of beef and chicken decreased as dilution rate of concentration increased, as observed in Dil.1 – 3. Hence, home consumers should buy beef meat in the early hours of the day, and chicken meat in the morning and evening from the market, in order to check the risk of microbial contamination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incorporation of Spirulina (Athrospira platensis) in Traditional Egyptian Cookies as a Source of Natural Bioactive Molecules and Functional Ingredients: Preparation and Sensory Evaluation of Nutrition Snack for School Children

D. M. El Nakib, M. M. Ibrahim, N. S. Mahmoud, E. N. Abd El Rahman, A. E. Ghaly

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 372-397
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i430084

Spirulina (Athrospira platensis) is very rich in protein, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals and its incorporation into foods will enrich their nutritional values. The objectives of this study were to incorporate spirulina into traditional Egyptian cookies as a source of natural bioactive molecules and to evaluate the effect of the amount of added spirulina on their sensory properties (texture, shred, color, odor and taste) and acceptability using a panel of 10 members. The results indicated that addition of spirulina to the cookies affected the texture, the mouth feel, the easiness with which breaking a cookie was made, the fragmentation and the appearance of the break line.  The cookies that received no spirulina had smoother texture and moist-smooth mouth feel whereas those received spirulina had more sandy-course texture and heavy-chewy mouth feel. Increasing spirulina content from 5 to 15% made the cookies more firm and harder to break. Irregular large parts and continuous break lines were observed with the cookies that received no spirulina while more granules and smaller parts with irregular line were observed with all the cookies that received spirulina. The results showed that adding spirulina to cookies may help maintain their integrity and reduce breakage during packaging and distributions. The color of the cookies that received no spirulina was yellow to yellow-orange and that of the cookies that received 5 and 10% spirulina was yellow- green to green-yellow-green while that of the cookies received 15% spirulina was green-yellow-green to green-blue-green. All the baked cookies had a noticeable smell and the odor intensity ranged from faint to strong. Increasing the spirulina content from 5 to 15% (3-fold) increased the odor intensity by 19.6%. The nature of the smell of the cookies that received 0 and 5% spirulina was pleasant while that of the cookies that revived 10 and 15% spirulina was musty-seawater and fishy-seawater, respectively. The addition of spirulina affected both the taste and the degree of acceptance. The taste of the cookies that received no spirulina was sweet-delicious with a high degree of acceptance while the taste of the cookies that received spirulina varied from sweet-sour to bitter-fishy with lower degree of acceptance. Adding 5% spirulina did not affect the smell or the taste. However, addition of a flavoring agent to cookies having higher spirulina contents (10-15%) may be required to musk the smell and taste of spirulina. The results showed that addition of spirulina enhanced the nutritional value of the cookies by increasing the protein content of the cookies and enriching them with vitamins, mineral, omega fatty acids and amino acids, all of which have significant health benefits to school children. Therefore, a further work should be directed towards improving the smell and the taste of spirulina cookies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Resistant Pattern of Therapeutics Antimicrobial Challenged on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacterium Isolated from Marketed Raw Buffalo Milk

N. M. Patel, R. Kumar, A. P. Suthar, D. N. Desai, I. H. Kalyani

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 398-407
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i430085

The study was designed to isolate predominance contamination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in marketed raw buffalo milk (n=122) samples, collected from private dairy farms from different places of south Gujarat, India. Pre-enrichment of 1 ml of each sample was done with inoculation in 9 ml tryptone soya broth and incubated at 37ºC for 24 hrs. A loopful of culture was taken from broth and streaked on selective Pseudomonas agar F plates and incubated at 37ºC for 24 hrs, after completion of incubation period, the colonies characteristics were studied and further confirmed by various biochemical tests and found 14 samples contaminated with P. aeruginosa, were further more biochemical testes are used and give positive results with IMViC, Motility test, catalase and sugar fermentation confirm at 37ºC for 24 hrs incubation. All biochemically conformed isolates were further subjected for molecular characterization and were also tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by using various antibiotics discs such as vancomycin, penicillin, tylosin, cefixime, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, ceftriaxone, cefixime, tetracycline, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and gentamicin, which has shown multi drug resistant ranging from seven to nine antimicrobials and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index ranges from 0.50 to 0.64.The isolates of P. aeruginosa in the present study are extremely resistant to vancomycin, penicillin, tylosin, cefixime, chloramphenicol and maximum sensitive to ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin followed by gentamicin. Further statistical analysis of antibiotics wise zone diameter interpretative standard (mm) reveled susceptibility phenotypes under significant of difference at P≤0.05 in one way ANOVA using Duncan’s multiple range test and found ciprofloxacin having maximum sensitivity among antibiotic tested and it could be considered as a drug of choice for controlling P. aeruginosa mediated animal and human infections in the studied regions for insuring food safety as well.

Open Access Original Research Article

Amylase Production by Solid State Fermentation of Agro-industrial Wastes Using Bacillus species

C. N. Obi, O. Okezie, A. N. Ezugwu

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 408-414
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i430087

This study evaluated amylase production by Bacillus species employing the solid state fermentation (SSF) method using five agro-industrial wastes namely corn cobs, potato peel and maize straw, groundnut husk and corn chaff. Five Bacillus species were tested for amylase production abilities and Bacillus subtilis showed the highest amylase production ability after incubation. Corn chaff gave maximum enzyme production (3.25 U/ml) while the least enzyme was recorded on groundnut husk (2.35 U/ml) at 25. Potato peel had maximum enzyme production by Bacillus subtilis (3.05 U/ml) at pH 7.0 while the least enzyme production was from groundnut husk (2.84 U/ml) at pH 4.0.Thus there was an increase in enzyme production with corresponding increase in substrate concentration. The results obtained in this study support the suitability of using agro-industrial wastes as solid state fermentation substrates for high production of amylase. It’s also a means of solving pollution problems thus making solid state fermentation an attractive method.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cooking Methods and Temperature on Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Breakfast Sausage

D. O. Oshibanjo, O. O. Olusola, O. A. Ogunwole

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 415-423
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i430086

Aims: The effect of cooking method and temperature on amino acid composition of breakfast sausage (BS) was undertaken in this study.

Methodology: Three batches of prepared BS from beef, were randomly allotted to three cooking methods (CM): (boiling, grilling and frying) each at cooking temperatures (CT) of 80, 90 and 100°C to attain internal temperature of 72°C in a completely randomized design. Samples from each treatment were oven-dried and assayed for amino acid and proximate composition using standard procedures. Data obtained was analysed using descriptive statistic and ANOVA at α0.05.

Results: Results showed that grilled sausage at 80°C had highest total amino acid profile (3.2%). Grilled sausage at 80°C had highest crude protein (25.58%). Grilled BS at 80°C recorded least fat content (15.99%). Grilled sausage at 80°C had the higher ash (6.66%) and least (1.40%) in boiled sausage at 90°C.

Conclusion: Therefore, breakfast sausage could be best grilled at 80°C due to maintain high amino acid profile, crude protein, ash and lower fat content.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of the Nutritive Composition on the Organoleptic Characters of Cakes Enriched with Fruits Almond of Terminalia catappa

Douati Togba Etienne, Biego Godi Henri Marius, Konan N’Guessan Ysidor, Sidibe Daouda, Nyamien Bleou Yves, Coulibaly Adama

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 424-436
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v9i430088

Aims: The study focuses the organoleptic trend according to the nutritive composition of cakes processed from wheat flour enriched with the almond flour of T. catappa, a plant growing in some regions of Côte d’Ivoire.

Study Design:  Nine formulations of cakes processed from addition of almond flour of Terminalia catappa to wheat flour and then submitted to nutrients and descriptive sensory analyses.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Sciences, Biochemistry department of Biosciences Unit, Felix Houphouet-Boigny University, running 2015.

Methodology: The contents in nutriments, namely macronutrients, minerals (macroelements and oligoelements), vitamins, and polyphenol antioxidants of the enriched cakes were determined using standard methods and their sensory description achieved. Then, the influence between both types of characteristics was assessed through the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) at ± 0.5 significance using statistical software SPSS.

Results: The cakes investigated recorded invarious content in total carbohydrates (the major nutritive compound of the flours) whereas the other nutrients increased accordingly to the ratio of the almond flour incorporated for. Oppositely, the full sensory descriptors were responded with statistically similar scores over the cakes formulated. The correlation analysis mainly showed reduction of the cakes aroma during the nutrients increase, with r coefficients of –0.65 to –0.54. Thus, the study shows no rather nutritional influence of the nutritive enrichment of cakes on the sensory profile.

Conclusion: The valorization of the cakes enriched with almonds of T. catappa could be sustained on the basis of their acceptance by consumers.