Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Evaluation of Tea Brewed from Blends of Soursop (Annona muricata) and Moringa (Moringa oleifera) Leaves

Adanma C. Innocent-Ukachi, Ugochi C. Onukwugha

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i130090

Tea is commonly made from the leaves of Camellia sinensis. Production of similar drinks from other plant leaves with potential health benefits would help to prevent diseases. This study examined the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of tea made from blends of dried moringa (Moringa oleifera) and soursop (Annona muricata) leaves. Mature, fresh and green leaves from both plants were washed in water and sun-dried for 10 h. The dried leaves were milled and sieved to obtain the tea powders. Blends of soursop: Moringa tea were formulated as follows: A: 100% Soursop, B: 100% Moringa, and soursop: Moringa blends as C:50:50%; D: 60:40% and E: 40:60%. Ten grams of each blend of tea powder was brewed in 100 ml of hot water (90°C) for 10 min and cooled to room temperature (28 ±- 2°C) before analysis. From the result, 50:50 soursop-moringa tea gave the highest levels of vitamins C and A. Mineral levels were significantly different among the samples (p<0.05) with higher values recorded for calcium (2117.10 mg/100 ml), sodium (146.02 mg/100 ml), magnesium (362.03 mg/100 ml), phosphorous (241 mg/100 ml), zinc (7.13 mg/100 ml) and potassium (1207.20 mg/100 ml) in 50:50 soursop-moringa tea. The pH differed significantly (p<0.05) in all the tea samples and ranged from 7.28–7.81. Total solids gave values ranging from 3.47 mg/l-3.82 mg/l (p˂0.05) and total sugars 1.12–3.07% (p<0.05). The amount of tannin was significantly higher (p<0.05) in all tea blends compared to other antinutrients analyzed in this study and ranged from 8.95-9.84%. Assessment of the antioxidant capacity by Diphenol-2,2picrylhydroxyl (DPPH) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the tea samples with the 50:50 soursop: Moringa blend having the highest antioxidant activity with values up to 89.04% and 531.44 (µM/L) in each case. Overall the soursop-moringa tea blends exhibited good chemical composition and antioxidant activity, with 50:50 formulation showing the best nutritional quality attributes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on the Mineral Compositions and Organoleptic Properties of Fermented and Extruded Ripe Plantain and Groundnut Blend

T. L. Ajayi-Choco, A. O. Ojokoh

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 16-23
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i130091

Extrusion cooking is one of the most efficient and versatile food processing technologies that can be used to produce pre-cooked and dehydrated food products. This study aimed at investigating the mineral compositions and organoleptic properties of fermented and extruded ripe plantain and groundnut blend. Ripe plantain and groundnut samples were obtained from Oja Oba market, Akure. The dehauled groundnut seeds were milled to give a paste after which the oil was removed to give fine flour, plantains were dried and milled and both were kept in an airtight container before use. The unripe plantain and groundnut flours were formulated in the ratio of (ripe plantain: groundnut) 100:0; 80:20; 60:40; 50:50 and 0:100 Sample A (100:0) = 100% ripe plantain flour Sample B (80:20) = 80% ripe plantain flour and 20% groundnut flour, Sample C (60:40) = 60% ripe plantain flour and 40% groundnut flour, Sample D (50:50) = 50% ripe plantain flour and 50% groundnut flour and Sample E (0:100) = 100% groundnut flour. A batch of the flour blends was fermented using submerged state fermentation method for 96 hours. The fermentation process was terminated by oven drying at 60°C for 24 hours and later extruded. The sensory evaluation was carried out on the products. The study revealed that fermentation had significant (p<0.05) effects on high sodium contents (ranging from 37.90±0.00 to 44.80±0.01 mg/g) of the blends, potassium (K) content was highest in fermented blends with values ranging from 115.23±0.31 to 125.06±0.06 mg/g, extrusion and fermentation increased magnesium and calcium contents ranging from 18.00±0.57 to 150.0±0.00 and 50.01±0.24 to 220.0±0.57 mg/g respectively of the blends significantly (p<0.05) while there was no significant difference (p<0.05) in iron content between all the blends. Fermented blends had the highest overall acceptability. The investigation so far revealed that the blending of ripe plantain and groundnut has the potential of producing enriched complementary food for teeming malnourished children of developing countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Household Food Insecurity and Associated Dietary and Socio-economic Factors among Pregnant Women of Mid-west Bangladesh

Israt Jahan, Fardib Mahbub, Eyad Ahmed

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 24-30
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i130093

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of household food insecurity and to determine the dietary and non-dietary factors associated with household food insecurity among pregnant women of mid-west Bangladesh.

Methodology: The study was conducted in four sub-districts of Rajshahi district: Rajshahi Sadar, Godagari, Tanor and Shardah. It was a cross-sectional study which randomly enrolled 150 pregnant women. Household food insecurity among the respondents was calculated with the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS).

Results: The mean age of the pregnant women was 29±3 years. About 76% of respondents were food secure, 23% of respondents were mildly food insecure, and only 1% of respondents were moderately food insecure. Severe food insecurity was not observed among the respondents in Rajshahi. About 17% of respondents were anxious and uncertain about their household food supply, about 23% of respondents said that they had to eat foods of insufficient quality and only 1% of respondents replied that they had eaten an insufficient amount of food during the month prior to the study. It was observed that the mean Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) and mean Food Consumption Score (FCS) significantly differed (P < .05) between food secure and food insecure respondents. Meat, fish and poultry consumption were found higher among the food secure respondents but vegetable consumption was higher among the food insecure group. Some socio-economic factors such as household size, respondents’ educational status, husbands’ educational status, husbands’ occupation and monthly household income were significantly associated (P < .05) with household food insecurity of the respondents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Elemental Study of Common Iced Fish Species Sold in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

V. B. Simpson, Aliboh, Uche

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 31-42
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i130094

There is a death of information on the mineral composition of essential, toxic elements of commonly consumed frozen fishes in Nigeria, hence, this study was conducted to determine the proximate, elemental composition and also estimate the daily intake of the minerals obtained in the frozen samples of Hake (Merluccius merluccius), Sardine (Sardinella eba), Chub Mackerel (Scomber jopanicus), Atlantic horse Mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and, Croaker (Pseudolithus elongatus) obtained from four markets in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. The fish species examined contained appreciable concentrations of protein which ranged from 15.19% in Chub mackerel to 21.75 % in Atlantic horse mackerel. The ash and moisture content suggest that the fish species are a good source of minerals and a veritable medium for microbial proliferation respectively, while, the crude fat value ranging between 0.16 % in Atlantic horse mackerel to 0.27 % in Hake showed that they are lean fat fishes. The Estimated Dietary Intake (EDI) of the macro and microelements analysed in the fish species (except for phosphorus) fell short of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) that were established by the Institute of Medicine.  However, the concentrations of toxic elements such as lead, arsenic and cadmium exceeded the maximum limits set for these elements in foods, and this consequently poses a long term risk as a result of the bioaccumulation and biomagnifications of these toxic elements in the body.

Open Access Original Research Article

Snack Consumption Pattern of Adults in the University of Calabar & its Health Implications

Eridiong O. Onyenweaku, Gregory E. Oko, Winifred A. Fila

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 43-49
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i130095

Aims: To determine the snack consumption pattern of adults and the effect of consumption of certain snacks on the health status of adults in the University of Calabar.

Study design:  Cross-sectional survey.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Calabar, Calabar - Nigeria. June to July, 2017.

Methodology: After a multi-staged random sampling technique, a cross-sectional survey was carried out on 400 adult respondents using a well-structured questionnaire. Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24hour dietary recall were also administered to the respondents. The data obtained from the survey instruments were analysed with the aid of Microsoft excel. For the dietary intake assessment, Food and Agricultural Organisation’s (FAO) ‘Guidelines for Measuring Household and Individual Dietary Diversity’ was used to calculate individual’s dietary diversity score (DDS) before recording.

Results: It was observed that 84% of the respondents skipped meals and breakfast was the most skipped meal followed by lunch. Most people (46%) skipped breakfast because they left early for work while majority who skipped lunch did so because they had no time for food at work (53%). Only 8.6% of the respondents did not eat snacks, and most of those who consumed snacks did so because they preferred snacks to food (32%). The most commonly consumed snacks among the respondents was pastries (36.5%), followed by biscuits (25.7%) while the least consumed snacks were vegetables (1%) followed by sweets and gums (1.1%). Consequently, pastries contributed the most snack calories to the study population.

Conclusion: Most people skip meals; and snacks serve as a substitute for such skipped meals. Only few people frequently consume healthy snacks such as fruits and vegetables. Most people were discovered to eat pastries as snacks and these pastries (such as cakes and pies) are highly processed foods which could increase the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in their consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Insulin Resistance among Cigarette Smokers in Sokoto Metropolis

Saheed Ladipo Kakako, Taofeeq Oduola, Muhammad Kabiru Dallatu, Hauwa Bako, Chidi Ugwuoke, Ali Isah Ali

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 50-55
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i130096

Introduction: Cigarette smoking (CS) is a well-known risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases, various forms of cancer as well as insulin resistance (IR). IR is considered as an underlying derangement which very commonly aggravates metabolic syndrome.

Aim: This study assessed the prevalence of IR in cigarette smokers in Sokoto metropolis using selected surrogate markers.

Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted in Sokoto among 108 subjects.  Fasting venous blood samples were collected for plasma glucose, triglycerides and insulin estimation. Plasma glucose and serum triglycerides were analysed using enzymatic methods while insulin was assayed using ELISA method. Homeostasis model of assessment-IR (HOMA-IR), Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), Mc Auley (McA) and fasting IR index (FIRI) were calculated using standard formula and IR cut-off of >2.5, <0.339, >5.8 and >2.3 respectively were used.

Results: Based on the cut off mark, the prevalence of IR for HOMA-IR, QUICKI, McA, FIRI indices were 62(57.4%), 66(61.1%), 39(36.1%) and 60(55.6%) respectively. There was a significant correlation between HOMA-IR and FIRI (p< 0.05, r = 0.999). HOMA-IR also had a significant correlation with McA (p<0.05 r = -0.506). QUICKI had a significant correlation with McA (p<0.05 and r = 0.243).

Conclusion: This study established a significantly high prevalence of IR among CS. Importantly, it can be concluded that cigarette smokers may be predisposed to the development of metabolic disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Information-seeking Behaviour of Women Regarding Food Related Health and Hygiene Practices

Loveleen Kaur, Sukhjeet Kaur, Preeti Sharma

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 56-63
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i130097

The present study was undertaken with the objectives to identify the information-seeking behaviour of women regarding food related health and hygiene practices, and to ascertain the relationship of information-seeking behaviour of women with their personal and socio-economic characteristics. The study was conducted in both the rural and urban areas of Ludhiana district of Punjab, India. A total of 200 women formed the sample for the study, and data was collected with the help of an interview schedule. Information-seeking behaviour was studied in terms of information needs, use of information sources and information source evaluation. Findings of the study revealed that majority of the respondents had low information needs for selected food related health and hygiene practices. Informal sources (like family, friends, neighbours and relatives) were the most frequently used sources of information, whereas use of all information sources i.e. formal sources, informal sources and mass media were found to be low by most of the respondents. Information sources were never evaluated by the majority of the respondents while looking for information on food related health and hygiene practices. Most of the respondents possessed passive information-seeking behaviour for food related health and hygiene practices. Information-seeking behaviour of the respondents was positively correlated with their education, caste, family income and mass media exposure while age of the respondents was negatively correlated with their information-seeking behaviour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pasting Properties of Flour Blends from Water Yam, Yellow Maize and African Yam Bean Seeds

C. E. Kalu, I. C. Alaka, F. C. Ekwu

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 64-71
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i130098

Pasting properties of flour blends from water yam, yellow maize and African yam bean were investigated in this study. Peak viscosity ranged from 133.50 to 166.25RVU, Trough viscosity ranged from 85.08 to 135.20RVU, break down viscosity ranged from 28.17 to 50.58RVU, final viscosity ranged from 5.05 to 5.49 min and pasting temperature ranged from 80.25 84.15oC. Addition of yellow maize and African yam bean affected (p<0.05) the peak viscosity, trough viscosity, break down viscosity, final viscosity, and setback viscosity in different trends. However, peak time and peak temperature of the flour sample were not statically (p<0.05) affected by the blend ratio in this study. Amongst the flour samples investigated in this study, flour sample DIN (60%WY:10%YM:30%AYB) showed promise for value added products such as noodles among other flour products. They flour sample adjusted to be the best sample could be used as a good replacement for wheat flour and when achieved, it will reduce the cost of importation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Watermelon Rind (Citrullus lanatus) Addition on the Functional, Pasting and Microbiological Quality of Sorghum Based Mumu

Stephen T. Gbaa, Samuel A. Ahemen, Christiana O. Ameh

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 72-83
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i130099

The effect of watermelon rind powder addition on the functional, pasting and microbiological quality of Sorghum based mumu was evaluated. Sorghum-based mumu was prepared from composite flours of 85:15, 75:15, 70:15 and 65:15% roasted sorghum flour and roasted partially defatted groundnut flour respectively and included with 0, 10, 15 and 20% watermelon rind powder respectively which were known as sample A, B, C and D accordingly. Subsequently, the functional, pasting properties and microbial quality was assessed. Functional properties values; Bulk density (0.89 to 0.80mg/100g), reconstitution index (4.99 to 4.89) and swelling index (2.35 to 2.20) decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increase in watermelon powder addition while water absorption (10.36 to 10.97g/g), oil absorption (10.33 to 10.79) and foam capacities (12.46 to 13.85%) increased with increase in watermelon rind powder.  The pasting properties; peak (302.22 to 292.44 RVU), trough (156.44 to 150.00 RVU) and Final viscosities (412.69 to 400.76RVU), and breakdown (149.95 to 140.59RVU) decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increased in watermelon rind powder while setback viscosity (101.05 to 115.59RVU), pasting temperature (59.32 to 62.02oC) and pasting time (4.93 to 5.13mins) increased. Microbial analysis revealed the following ranges: Total viable count, 0.5x102 to1.0x102 cfu/g, fungi count of 6.1x101- 9.9x101 cfu/g and no coliform was detected. Overall, addition of watermelon rind powder showed good functional, pasting and microbiological qualities of sorghum based mumu.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Proximate, Vitamin and Mineral Composition of Leaves of Four Selected Tropical Vegetable Plants Namely: Ocimum gratissimum, Piper guineense, Gongronema latifolium and Vernonia amygdalina

Bob I. A. Mgbeje, Ezekiel Udo Umoh, Onot Ekpe

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 84-93
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i130100

Aim: The aim of the study was to carry out a comparative analysis of the proximate, vitamin and mineral composition of the leaves of four selected tropical vegetable plants namely: Ocimum gratissimum, Piper guineense, Gongronema latifolium and Vernonia amygdalina.

Methodology: Fresh leaves of each vegetable were washed and air dried at room temperature for two weeks. The dried leaves were pulverized using a mechanical grinder. Measured amounts were subjected to quantitative proximate, vitamin and mineral analysis.

Results: For all four plants, carbohydrates was the major macronutrient constituents (range 49.61-64.09% dry wt.) followed by fats (15.06-29.43%), Protein (7.28-12.53%), ash (1.81-14.82%) and fiber (2.92-7.53%) in that order. G. latifolium had the highest carbohydrate (64.09±0.09% dry weight) and protein (12.53±0.10%) composition while V. amygdalina had the highest fat (29.43±0.03%) composition. Results of Ash analysis of the four leaves showed P. guineense to have the highest total mineral content (14.82±0.12% dry wt.) followed by V. amygdalina (10.75±0.01%), O. gratissimum (4.60±0.04%) and G. latifolium (1.81±0.01%) in that order. O. gratissimum and P. guineense had the highest composition of fiber (7.53±0.02% and 7.22±0.02% respectively) closely followed by G. latifolium (6.03±0.02%) and V. amygdalina (2.92±0.02%). Vitamin analysis revealed that leaves of the four vegetable plants contained high levels of vitamin C (range 18.1-43.4 mg/100 g) and appreciable quantities of vitamins A (0.3-1.2 mg/100 g) and E (0.67-0.9 mg/100 g). V. amygdalina leaf contained the highest concentration of vitamin C (43.4±0.01 mg/100 g) and A (1.2±0.9 mg/100 g) while O. gratissimum had the highest vitamin E content (0.9 mg/100 g). The mineral assay indicated that the leaves of the plants contain high levels of Magnesium (Mg)(3.6-24.8 mg/100 g), Phosphorus (P) (2.8-34.3 mg/100 g), Calcium (Ca) (12.1-19.0 mg/100 g) and copper (Cu) (5.8-18.5 mg/100 g) relative to their Zinc (Zn) (1.1-2.1 mg/100 g), Potassium (K) (2.1-6.9 mg/100 g)  and Sodium (Na) (4.3-8.1 mg/100 g) contents.

Conclusion: In conclusion, these plants were shown to be rich in carbohydrates, proteins and fats, vitamins and minerals justifying their use in diets. That the plants were particularly rich in vitamins and mineral with antioxidant properties could explain the therapeutic uses of the various preparations of these leafy vegetables, in traditional medicine, for the treatment and management of diseases that have their etiology and pathophysiology in free radical generation and oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Breastfeeding Practices and Associated Factors among Mothers of Children Aged 6-23 Months in Konduga Local Government Area, North East Nigeria

Adewale M. Adejugbagbe, Ikeoluwapo O. Ajayi, Olubunmi P. Oki

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 94-103
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i130101

Aims: To assess knowledge and practices of breastfeeding as well as identify associated factors among mothers of children aged 6-23 months in Konduga Local Government Area (LGA) in Borno State, Nigeria.

Study Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among mothers of children aged 6 to 23 months.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted in Konduga LGA of Borno State, Nigeria in August, 2018.

Methodology: The study focused on 224 mothers of children aged 6-23 months that have ever assessed the health facility for Micronutrient Powder (MNP) supplementation for their index child. A semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, knowledge of breastfeeding and their practices of breastfeeding. A point was assigned to correct response to each of the two questions used to assess breastfeeding practices, and respondents with two points were categorized as those with effective breastfeeding practice. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and logistics regression, with the level of significance set at 0.05.

Results: A total of 224 respondents were approached for interview and 218 responded, giving a response rate of 97%. Forty-six (21%) of the respondents knew that it is not appropriate to give semi-solid food or water to child that is 4 months old, and 98 (45%) knew that breastfeeding should not be discontinued for a child that is one year of age. Sixty-one (28%) of the respondents practice effective breastfeeding, which was significantly predicted by having formal education (AOR=14.0, 95% CI= 4.0 – 48.6), having a spouse that is educated (AOR=6.0, 95% CI= 2.1- 17.6) and having a male child (AOR=3.2, 95% CI= 1.3 – 8.0).

Conclusions: The study findings suggest that effective breastfeeding practice is low among the study participants particularly among the less educated and those having a female child. Interventions targeted at strengthening Infant and Young Child Feeding counseling in the health facility and community are recommended.