Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Garlic Oil Supplementation on Intake, Digestibility, Performance and Rumen Function of Goats Fed Silage Based-diet

M. I. Okoruwa, O. M. Edoror

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 104-115
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i230102

This study was conducted to assess the effect of garlic oil supplementation on intake, digestibility, performance and rumen function of goats. Thirty goats with initial average body weight of 6 ± 0.99 kg were randomly divided into five treatments with six goats each in a completely randomized design. The diets contained a control group without garlic oil (CA1) and diets supplemented with garlic oil at 20 g (GB2), 25 g (GC3), 30 g (GD4) and 35 g (GE5). Results showed that acid detergent fibre and lignin (66.02 and 52.37%) digestibility, total volatile fatty acid with acetate (88.62 mM and 69.68mol/100mol), feed conversion ratio (9.47), ammonia nitrogen (12.39mg/dl), methane (21.96mol/mol) and protozoa (8.93 x 108 cfµ/mol) of goats reared on CA1 were (P < 0.05) higher than those on test diets (GB2, GC3, GD4 and GE5). Goats fed on GC3 and GD4 diets had higher (P < 0.05) nutrients digestibility with rumen parameters, daily weight gain and intake compared with those on CA1, CB2 and GE5 diets. The ether extract intake (58.09%) and digestibility (64.03%) in goats reared on GE5 were (P < 0.05) higher than those on other diets. Ash intake and digestibility, rumen pH, iso-butyrate, valerate, iso-valerate and total fungi count were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by treatment diets. In conclusion, the supplementation of garlic oil to treatment diets improved intake, digestibility, performance and rumen function of goats, indicating garlic oil as alternative additive to improve poor quality feeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Composition of Flour Blends from Water Yam, Yellow Maize and African Yam Bean

C. E. Kalu, I. C. Alaka, F. C. Ekwu

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 116-124
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i230104

Adequate and proper understanding of the nutritional composition of different flour materials is important in their use in the production of baked food materials. The proximate composition of water yam-yellow maize and African yam bean flour mixtures was therefore evaluated in this study. Standard procedure for dry-milling unit operation was used in the flour processing. Flour samples were blended in different ratios to form the following composite samples: AFK which comprised of 30% water yam (WY):40% yellow maize (YM):30% African yam bean (AYB); BGL which comprised of 40WY:30%YM:30%AYB CHM comprising of 50%WY:20%YM:30%AYB; DIN comprising of 60%YM:10%YM:30%AYB and control treatment comprising of 100%WY. Crude protein content ranged from 4 to 22.50%; fat content ranged from 1.80%; ash content ranged from 7.00%; moisture content ranged from 6.00 to 10.00% carbohydrate content ranged from 50.43 to 80.90% and energy content ranged from 331.50 to 356.35%ked. Addition of yellow maize and African yam bean statistically (p<0.05) increased the protein, fat, fibre, ash, moisture and energy content of flour blend but statistically (P<0.5) reduced the carbohydrate content. Flour sample DIN found to be adequate for both children and adult consumption of the flour when compared to the Codex Alimentarius Commission [1].

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimal Conditions for Production of Fermented Flour from Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) for Infant Foods

William Dzusuo Tedom, Edith Nig Fombang, Wilfred Damndja Ngaha, Richard Aba Ejoh

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 125-136
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i230105

The aim of this study was to determine the optimal conditions for production of a fermented pumpkin flour by lactic fermentation using Lactobacillus plantarum and the effect of the fermentation on nutritional potential and functional properties of pumpkin. To achieve this, pumpkin fruit was collected in the Ngaoundere main market, peeled, sliced, and the flesh obtained was grated, pasteurized at 90ºC for 5 minutes and placed under lactic fermentation using L. plantarum (108 cfu/mL). The sample obtained was dried at 45ºC ± 2ºC for 24 hours and crushed to obtain a flour with particle size ≤ 500 µm. According to the Doehlert's plan used, time and temperature of fermentation varied from 24 to 96 hours and 30 to 50°C respectively. Responses sought were the optimal levels of total carotenoids and reducing sugars in the flours. Chemical composition of flour was determined to evaluate the effect of fermentation on food matrix used. Results indicate that to produce a pumpkin flour with highest content in both carotenoids and reducing sugars, optimal conditions of lactic fermentation with L. plantarum are 70h at 45°C. Under these conditions, there is a decrease of 72.1% of proteins and 67% of fibers, against an increase of 106% of reducing sugars. Total carotenoids content decreased by 4.6%, but the level is still higher than the threshold recommended for infant food formulation, while mineral content increases with fermentation. A reduction of anti-nutrients (phytates, tannins, phenolic compounds and oxalates) of more than 50% is also observed when fermenting pumpkin. The functional properties of fermented pulp show a decrease of water absorption capacity of 24% and an increase of 134.4% in bulk density. Fermented pumpkin flour could be used in infant food formulation, but need to be associated with other sources of proteins and minerals.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Some Synthetic Food Colorants on Selected Biochemical Indices of Male Wistar Rats

Wopara, Iheanyichukwu, C. Awarajih, Uwaezuoke, Ike, Amanda

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 149-155
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i230107

The aim is to evaluate the effect of tartrazine and erythrosine on serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. A total of 20 adult male Wistar rats were divided into five groups with 4 rats per group. Group 1 served as the control and was given only water and feed. Whereas group 2, 3, 4, 5 were administered 5 mg/kgb.wt, 10 mg/kgb.wt, 20 mg/kgb.wt, 40 mg/kgb.wt of Tartrazine and Erythrosine via orogastric feeding for 21 days. At the end of 21 days, blood samples were collected via ocular puncture and used to measure glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride concentration in the serum of the animals. The results were analyzed using One way ANOVA, followed by post hoc multiple comparisons and level of significance set at p<0.05. The result revealed that there was a significant difference p<0.05 in the mean glucose concentration of Group 4 (5.81±0.40 mmol/L) and Group 5 (5.28±0.25 mmol/L) when compared with the control (3.27±0.11 mmol/L). Although Group 4 showed a higher mean cholesterol concentration (0.92±0.27 mmol/L) when compared with the control (0.18±0.05 mmol/L) the difference was not significant p>0.05. Furthermore, Group 5 showed no significant mean triglyceride concentration (2.01±0.15 mmol/L) when compared with the control (2.95±0.04 mmol/L). This result revealed that the colourants increased the glucose and cholesterol levels in the test group in a dose-dependent manner. The increase in serum glucose concentration may be an indication of pancreatic cancer caused by the hydrocarbons contained in the colourants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Changes in the Malnourished Rats Serum and Liver Exposed to Dietary Monosodium Glutamate

Babawande A. Origbemisoye, Badiu A. Akinbode, Ganiyat A. Oparemi

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 156-167
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i230108

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavor enhancer. Its toxicity in a malnourished state appears not to have been fully investigated. This study was carried out to determine the effects of MSG on malnourished rats. Rats were randomly assigned into four groups of five rats/group. Group 1 rats were fed with malnourished feed; Group 2 rats received malnourished feed with dosed 1.6 mg/g MSG per body weight; Group 3 rats were fed with normal feed and dosed 1.6 mg/g MSG per body weight and Group 4 rats served as the control group (normal healthy rats) and were fed with normal feed for 28 days. After 28 days, the rats were sacrificed with the liver harvested and blood samples collected. Results from the study showed that malnourished rats had significantly lower levels of oxidative stress biomarkers including, anti-oxidants compared with the control. The levels of malondialldehyde concentration and xanthine oxidase activity were high in malnourished fed rats. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine transaminase levels of malnourished and normal rats administered MSG were significantly low compared to the normal healthy suggesting that labialization occurs in liver leading to leakage of these enzymes from the liver to the serum. Malnourished rats showed significant decrease in body weight losing 48 grams after 28 days compared to malnourished and normal rats fed with MSG which recorded significant increase in body weight after 28 days adding 26 g and 42 g respectively.

Open Access Review Article

Manner of Ethiopian Dairy Products Processing and Their Nutritional and Health Importance

Jemal Mohammed

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 137-148
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i230106

Dairy products play a vital role in human nutrition and protecting against numerous diseases. Understanding the meticulous characteristics of traditionally processed dairy products as well as appropriate examination of the indigenous processing steps are important in order to vouch for suitable manufacturing procedure and protocols for commercialization. In Ethiopia, fortunately, some evidence is available on the general characteristics and processing practices of traditional dairy products nevertheless a few data is available about their role in human nutrition and health. Therefore, the objective of this review was to assess and compile information on processing of traditional dairy products in Ethiopia and their nutritional and health benefits. Ergo, ayib , arera,  kibe, neter kibe, aguat, ititu, and dhanaan are the major dairy products encompassed in this review.