Open Access Original Research Article

Mycotoxin Contamination Risks Due to Handling Practices of Indigenous Chicken Feeds in Kenya

N. O. Owiro, H. A. Rachuonyo, J. O. Ochuodho, L. S. Gohole

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 168-177
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i330109

Aim: Mycotoxins are prevalent in animal feeds and agricultural products. These toxins are produced by fungi and once incorporated in the substrate, are not easy to eradicate. They are associated with morbidity and mortality in both livestock and humans. Avoiding contamination is the preferred way of mitigating mycotoxins in livestock feeds and cereals.

Study Design:  A purposive multiple-stage survey design was used in this study.

Place and Duration of Study: Between February and March 2016 to assess factors that exacerbate mycotoxins due to feed type and handling practice by smallholder farmers in farmer groups keeping indigenous chicken in Western Kenya.

Methodology: Three counties Siaya, Busia and Kakamega of Kenya were selected based on the population of indigenous chicken. Semi-structured questionnaires were used in gathering data on feed types, handling practices and mycotoxins awareness from 180 farmers in women and youth groups.

Results: Common feed types identified included maize (96%), sorghum (54%), cassava (42%), millet (40%), homemade rations (16%), while 44% used commercial feeds. It was noted that 38% use rotten, insect-infested, unsorted and broken cereals and 62% clean cereals as feeds. For storage, 85% and 7% of farmers were using polypropylene and hermetic bags, respectively; 97% dried their grains/feeds on a platform; 21% were not sorting their grains and 17% were not using grain preservatives during storage. Mycotoxin awareness levels were assessed among farmers. Approximately 44% of farmers were unaware of feed safety while 71% were aware of mycotoxins; however, 73% of participants were unaware of dangers posed by mycotoxin contamination in feeds.

Conclusion: Information to farmers on mycotoxin and proper feed and cereals handling and storage practices is necessary for mycotoxin management. Therefore, avoiding contamination is a preferred method of mitigating mycotoxins in indigenous chicken feeds and cereals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Knowledge, Behavior and Practices of Food Safety and Hygiene among Saudi Women in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

Fatima Al-Beesh, Welayah Al-Ammar, Arafat M. Goja

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 178-186
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i330111

Background: Unsafe food is a serious concern for human health and well-being and has surfaced as a burning issue worldwide.

Aims: The present work was aimed at assessing the awareness, behavior and practices of food safety and hygiene among Women in Eastern region of Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: A comprehensive questionnaire was designed for collecting required data. The questionnaire comprised mainly of three questions pertaining to food safety issue like (1) knowledge and attitude of food handling (buying, storage and serving food), (2) behavior and practices, (3) food safety knowledge & awareness. The data were analyzed for descriptive, frequency distribution and percentages using SPSS software.

Results: Findings indicated that 40% of the women purchased their foods and needs on weekly basis with high rate for the chicken (67.7%) and meat (57.9%), while 26.4% “weekly” utilize or cook vegetables and fruits. 96.2%, 97.4% and 98.3% of the women “always” washed their hands after touching raw chicken/meats and fish, while 48.9% utilized separate cutting boards/knives for raw chicken/meat and fish. However, 89.8% of respondent female rinse cutting boards, knives and plates used for chicken/meats and fish before using them for other food. Only 22.6% of the women “always” checked their fridge temperature (4°C), while 28.1% and 23.4% of the female believed that it was “safe” to leave hot or cold foods out of the fridge for more than 4 hours, respectively. 60% of women believed that it was safe practices to thaw food outside the fridge.

Conclusion: Majority of the women in Eastern region (>90%) were well aware of food safety and wash their hands, cutting boards, knives and plates. However, about 25% of the respondent’s female believed that it was “safe” to leave hot/cold foods out of the fridge for more than 4 hours, while 60% believed it was “safe” to defrost frozen foods outside the fridge.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Investigations on the Health Benefits of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad Seeds

A. A. Olushola-Siedoks, U. E. Igbo, G. O. Asieba, B. I. Ojo, T. O. Akinola, C. C. Igwe

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 187-198
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i330112

Aims: To evaluate the composition of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seed as a means of assessing its health and possible therapeutic benefits.

Study Design:  Test-tube Lab Research.

Place and Duration of Study: Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi, Nigeria, between June 2018 and March 2019.

Methodology: Intact dehulled Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seeds were analyzed for their proximate and elemental content using standard methods and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. The seed oil was extracted with n-hexane via cold maceration and the extracted oil was analyzed for its physiochemical properties. The fatty acid profile was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Results: The proximate analysis values were determined to be 6.51%, 51.46%, 21.62%, 13.26%, 3.76% and 3.39% for the moisture, crude fat, crude protein, crude fiber, ash and total carbohydrate content respectively. Results of the elemental analysis show the seed contains; 3653.0322 mg/kg Na, 6639.7818 mg/kg K, 2329.0612 mg/kg Ca, 235.6057 mg/kg Fe, 5252.5884 mg/kg Mg, 27.9056 mg/kg Zn and 7.0068 mg/kg Pb. The predominant fatty acid detected with an area percentage of 20.31 was cis-11-octadecenoic acid. Other fatty acids detected include cis-9, cis-12-octadecadienoic acid, cis-9-octadecenoic, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and icosanoic acid. Squalene, a biosynthetic precursor of cholesterol, was detected with an area percentage of 8.54.

Conclusion: The evaluation of the compositional data provided evidential support for its beneficial health impact particularly in regards to nutritional and cardio-vascular health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Physical and Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Potential of Various Cooking Oils

Haq Nawaz, Muhammad Aslam Shad, Saira Hassan, Muhibullah . Shah, Haseeba Shahzad, Raheela Jabeen, Aqsa Nawaz, Zakia Riaz, Sumaira Jamal

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 199-207
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i330113

The study was based on the comparative evaluation of physical and physicochemical properties and antioxidant potential of different cooking oils as awareness for the consumers. The cooking oils extracted from sunflower, corn, canola, soybean, and rapeseed and available for consumers as different commercial brands were purchased from the local market and analysed for their physical, physicochemical and antioxidant properties. All of the selected oils were found to be statistically similar on the basis of their physical properties including odour, specific gravity (P=.65) and refractive index (P=0.84). All of the selected oils contained vitamin A except one brand of each of the sunflower, corn and canola oils. The selected oils and their blend showed statistically different physicochemical properties and antioxidant potential (P=.000). The corn oil and rapeseed oil were found to be the best quality oil due to comparatively lower acid, peroxide and saponification values and higher antioxidant potential in terms of free radical scavenging capacity. The study results would provide valuable information to the consumers and the researchers regarding the selection of the best quality cooking oils available in the market.


Open Access Original Research Article

Consumers’ Opinion towards Food Product Recall

C. Kaaviya, S. Moghana Lavanya, B. Krishnakumare

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 208-215
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i330114

Aim: To examine consumers’ opinion towards food product harm crisis.

Research Design: Primary data was collected using well-structured questionnaire. Online survey was conducted and responses were obtained from 100 respondents. The study used convenience sampling technique in order to full fill the objectives.

Methodology: Percentage analysis was used to analyze the data collected.

Results: The results revealed that that the quality is the major factor influencing purchase of food products rather than its taste and promotional activities. Besides, majority of respondents would buy the product again if the issues were resolved. Also, the study revealed that consumers’ would switch the brand if there is any quality issues arise in usual brands they are buying.

Conclusion: Results inferred that brand loyalty is dependent on the quality of the product. In order to overcome the food harm crisis, it is suggested that, stringent measures need to be taken regarding the quality of the product, traceability system needs to be implemented for the food products to ensure food safety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Characteristics of Bread from Wheat and Garden Peas Flours

M. T. Ukeyima, H. Agoh, P. O. Ochelle

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 216-223
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i330115

The functional, physicochemical and sensory evaluation of bread from wheat and garden peas flours were investigated. Five (5) bread samples were produced from the proportion of wheat and garden pea flours as 90%:10% (B), 80%:20% (C), 70%:30% (D), 60%:40% (E) and 100% wheat was the control sample (A) using standard methods. All the functional parameters differed (p≤0.05) significantly. The moisture, crude protein, crude fat, Ash and crude fiber increased (p≤0.05) significantly while the carbohydrate content decrease (p≤0.05) significantly with corresponding increase in the percentage of the composite flour from 10-40%. The result of the physical properties showed that there was a significant difference in all the physical parameters. Also, sensory results showed that there were significant differences in all the sensory scores. However, consumers preferred the bread from 100% wheat flour and 90% and 10% (Sample B) of wheat and garden peas flours substitution.