Open Access Original Research Article

Amino Acid Profile, Functional Properties and In-vitro Antioxidant Capacity of Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita mixta Fruit Pulps and Seeds

Aleem Waheed Oyeleke, David Timilehin Oluwajuyitan, Olusola Matthew Oluwamukomi, Ndigwe Victor Enujiugha

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 224-241
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i430117

The study aimed at evaluating the amino acid profile, fatty acid profile, anti-nutritional factors, functional properties and in-vitro antioxidant activities of Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita mixta fruit pulps and seeds. Freshly harvested Cucurbita mixta and Cucurbita maxima fruit were processed into flour as; Pa: Cucurbita maxima pulp flour, Pi: Cucurbita mixta pulp flour, Sa: Cucurbita maxima seed flour and Si: Cucurbita mixta seed flour and were evaluated for amino acid profile, fatty acid profile, anti-nutritional factors, functional properties and in-vitro antioxidant activities. Triplicate data were analysed and means were separated using New Duncan Multiple Range Test (NDMRT) at p<0.05. The protein content of the fruit pulps and seeds flour samples were 12.77 g/100 g (Pi), 13.22 g/100 g (Pa), 15.37 g/100 g (Sa) and 16.86 g/100 g (Si). Total essential amino acid was 5.33 mg/100 g of protein (Pa) 6.62 mg/100 g of protein (Pi), 9.85 mg/100 g of protein (Sa) and 14.61 mg/100 g of protein (Si). Total essential amino acid of Pi and Si are significantly higher (p>0.05) than Pa and Sa. Statistically, saturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid of the Pi and Si were significantly lower (p<0.05) than Pa and Sa respectively. Antioxidant activities against ABTS* (Pi) is significantly higher (p>0.05) than Pa and with no significant differences (p<0.05) between ABTS values of Si and Sa. While there is a significant difference (p<0.05) between Si and Sa as well as Pi and Pa antioxidant activities against DPPH* respectively. In conclusion, Cucurbita seeds and pulps flour contains high protein content, appreciable amount of essential minerals, lower Na/K molar ratio of less than one and they also exhibit a good free radical scavenging abilities against DPPH*, ABTS* and ability to reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ with high content of total phenol and flavonoid.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Water Cooking of Sweet Potato (Ipomea batatas) Leaves and Characterization of Three Nutritional Interest Molecules (Folic Acid, Iron and Phytate)

Désirée A. Gouekou, Serge S. Guédé, Edith A. Agbo, Albarin G. Gbogouri

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 242-252
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i430118

Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) leaves are among the leafy vegetables most consumed by Ivorian population. In order to preserve iron and folic acid, and to eliminate phytates, a study of optimization of water cooking of these leaves was conducted. Response surface methodology was employed to describe the effects of cooking time and leaf quantity on iron, folic acid and phytate contents of sweet potato leaves using a central composite design. Response surfaces and isoresponse curves were plotted to visualize areas of interest (optimal points). Results showed that the experimental data were adequately fitted into the second-order polynomial model. Cooking time had significant effects (P < .05) on folic acid and phytate contents. The effect of leaf quantity was significant (P < .01) on the three response variables. In addition, the optimal points were located in areas of the experimental domain where iron and folic acid contents were high. Therefore, three optimal conditions for water cooking (cooking time, leaf quantity) were identified: (10 min, 400 g), (7.93 min, 300 g) and (22.07 min, 441.4 g). Under these conditions, iron and folic acid contents (mg/100 g) were: (49.17, 12.58), (37.00, 16.27) and (48.77, 11.26), respectively. These results could be exploited to formulate iron and folic acid supplementation products from sweet potato leaves.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Anthocyanins in Sweet Potato Leaves Grown in Various Stages and Conditions

Xiaoyu Su, Zhenbao Jia, Fei Tao, Jiamin Shen, Jingwen Xu, Jason Griffin, Weiqun Wang

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 253-262
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i430119

Phytochemical-enriched edible greens, sweet potato leaves (Ipomoea batatas L.), have become popular due to potential health benefits. However, the phytochemical contents in sweet potato leaves and their subsequent change over harvest stages and growth condition are mostly unknown. In this study, the anthocyanin profile and content in leaves of four sweet potato cultivars, i.e., white-skinned and white-fleshed Bonita, red-skinned and orange-fleshed Beauregard, red-skinned and white-fleshed Murasaki and purple-skinned and purple-fleshed P40, were evaluated. Fourteen anthocyanins were isolated and identified by HPLC-MSI/MS. The most abundant was cyanidin 3-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside, which comprised up to 20% of the total anthocyanins. Of the young leaves (1st and 2nd slip cuttings), Bonita contained the highest anthocyanin content followed by P40. Of the mature leaves (vine stage), Beauregard had the greatest anthocyanin (592.5 ± 86.4 mg/kg DW) and total phenolic (52.2 ± 3 mg GAE/g DW). It should be noted that the lowest anthocyanin and total phenolic content of shoots were found in P40, while tubers of P40 contain the highest content of each. Furthermore, the increase in leaf anthocyanin content over the growth stages that was observed in three of the cultivars but not in P40. No significant difference of anthocyanin content was found in Beauregard leaves grown in the high tunnels when compared with that in the open field. This study demonstrated for the first time that anthocyanin levels were significantly changed in response to various growth stages but not high tunnel condition, indicating that the effect of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sweet potato leaves is highly variable and genotype specific.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Characteristics of Bread Produced from Wheat and White Kidney Bean Composite Flour

M. T. Ukeyima, T. A. Dendegh, S. E. Isusu

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 263-272
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i430120

Aim: To evaluate the Quality characteristics of Bread produced from Wheat and Kidney Bean composite flour blend.

Study Design: Composite bread was produced from wheat and kidney bean flour of various proportions (10, 15, 20 and 25%). Proximate (protein, ash, moisture, fibre, fat and carbohydrate) composition, functional (Bulk density, foaming capacity, swelling index, water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity) properties and sensory (appearance, taste, flavour, texture and overall acceptability) attributes were determined.

Results: Bread was produced from wheat and kidney beans composite (B, C, D and E) flour. The bread samples were subjected to physical, proximate and sensory analyses. The functional properties of the composite flour blends were also determined. The functional properties shows a significant (P<0.05) difference in water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and swelling index with values ranged from 1.10 – 0.60 ml/g, 1.03 – 0.76 ml/g and 5.92 – 2.89 ml/g respectively. The bulk density and foaming capacity shows significant (P<0.05) difference with its values ranging from 0.90 – 0.97 g/ml and 32.69 – 26.94 cm3 respectively as kidney beans flour increases. The result of the physical properties shows significant (P<0.05) difference in dough height, proofing rate, loaf volume, specific volume, baking loss and oven spring with values ranging from 1.169 – 3.39 cm3, 0.01 – 0.02 cm3/min, 0.79 – 1.19 cm3, 0.32 – 0.48 cm3/g, 1.59 – 2.79 and 101.58 – 102.79 respectively while the loaf weight ranged from 243.21 – 246.09 g. proximate composition of the sample were also analyzed and the result shows significant (P<0.05) difference in crude protein, moisture content, ash, crude fat, crude fibre and carbohydrate with values ranging from 8.36 – 10.47%, 22.18 – 23.28%, 0.97 – 1.38%, 11.80 – 12.94%, 0.29 – 0.59% and 51.33 – 57.10% respectively. The results of the sensory scores shows a significant (P<0.05) difference in all the samples analyzed. However, sample C with 15% kidney beans flour was most preferred.

Conclusion: It could be concluded that increased in kidney beans flour addition in the production of composite bread had significant (P<0.05) impact on the proximate, physical and organoleptic properties of the bread. Hence, 85% wheat to 15% kidney bean flour should be used in bread making.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical Properties Comparison between Released Varieties and Local Germplasm of Sapota (Manilkara zapota)

Shekh Tanjina Islam Dola, Md. Shahidul Islam, Mahbub Robbani, Md. Sharifur Rahman

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 273-283
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i430121

Aim: Comparison of physico-chemical properties between released varieties and local germplasm of Sapota with a view to selecting the superior germplasm/variety in respect of nutritional quality.

Study Design: A laboratory experiment was done by the following Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 replications.

Sample Collection: Local germplasms were collected from different homestead of Dumki upazila and six released varieties were collected from Germplasm Center, Department of Horticulture, PSTU and Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted during March, 2018 to February, 2019 at the Plant Biotechnology Lab and Postharvest Lab, Department of Horticulture, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh.

Results: The highest fruit length (4.85 cm), width (4.93 cm), weight (115.33 g), edible portion (92.33%), phenolic content (2.537 mg/100 g) and anthocyanin content (1.807 μg/100 g) were exhibited in local germplasm (G3). The highest carotenoid content (5.320 μg/100 g) was found in local germplasm G3 followed by G1 (5.173 μg/100 g). On the other hand the highest vitamin-C content (11.42 mg/100 g) and carbohydrate percentage (22.99%) were observed in local germplasm G1 and G2 respectively. BARI-3 (V10) exhibited the highest percentage of TSS (21.28%) along with highest peel weight (6.80 g) and the highest percentage of antioxidant (95.80 mg/100 g) was traced in BARI-2 (V9).

Conclusion: Based on the selected physico-chemical properties it was revealed that local germplasm (G3) was superior than the other germplasm/varieties. G1, G2, V9 and V10 germplasm/variety were identified as good source of phytochemicals. Based on Physico-chemical properties local germplasm (G3) was better for eating fresh fruit as well as processing than the other germplasms/varieties considered in this research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Processing of Fermented Cassava Semolina (attiéké) Fortified with Soybean Proteins

K. C. M. Kouakou, D. B. C. Ebah, S. S. Guédé, G. A. Gbogouri

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 284-294
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v10i430122

Aims: This study was carried out to optimize the processing of soybean proteins-fortified attiéké.

Methodology: Response surface methodology was used to describe the effects of ferment and soy contents, and fermentation time on the protein content, pH and acceptability of the attiéké product. A central composite design consisted of twenty-three experiments was conceived using the Galiachi design.

Results: Results showed that the experimental data were adequately adjusted in the second-order polynomial model. Protein content and overall acceptability were significantly influenced by soy content. pH was affected by the three studied factors. The optimum conditions were 11.41% of ferment, 6.35% of soybean content and 18 h 7 min 48 s of fermentation time. Under these conditions, the protein content (6.62%), the pH (4.57) and the overall acceptability (3.41) were within defined target range.

Conclusion: The obtained results could be used in the artisanal and modern industries for the processing of attiéké with high nutritional value.