Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Assessment of Quality Features and Physicochemical Characteristics of Rice Bran Supplemented Breads with Local Breads

Md. Lutfor Rahman, Nurul Absar, Md. Jahidul Islam, Shyama Prosad Moulick, Sabbir Ahmed, Mandira Saha, Md. Sabbir Hasan, Khokan Chandra Modak

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 108-113
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i330148

Aims: Qualitative assessment of rice bran supplemented bread with local breads.

Study Design: The study was designed to identify good quality bread between rice bran supplemented bread and local breads.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Five different varieties of rice brans (BR-5, BR-10, BRRI-28, BRRI-39, and Kalijira) were collected from Noor-Habib Grain Industries Ltd. Sopura, Rajshahi, Janata Auto Rice and Flour Mills Ltd.Bogura, North Bengal Auto Rice Mills, Naogan, Biswas Rice Mills, Natore, and Chaudhuri Auto Rice Mills Dinajpur respectively. The research was carried out at Natural Products Research Division, Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) Laboratories, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

Methodology: A comparative analysis of prepared rice bran supplemented bread and locally available bread has been done for the parameters such as moisture, ash, Fiber, Fat, protein, carbohydrate, total sugar,  saponification value, FFAs and iodine value.

Results: The prepared rice bran bread contained wheat flour and five different varieties of rice bran named BR-5, BR-10, BRRI-28, BRRI-39 and kalijira. The physicochemical characteristics of prepared rice bran supplemented bread such as moisture, ash, Fiber, Fat, protein, carbohydrate, total sugar, saponification value, FFA and iodine value were varied from 26.0-28.4 %,  2.17-2.83%,  1.54-1.96%,  6.95-8.04%, 6.64-7.25%,  43.2-46.3%,  5.60-6.80%, 150-169 mg KOH/g fat,1.16-1.51 mg KOH/g fat,92.1-100 g I2/100 g fat respectively. On the other hand,  physicochemical characteristics of locally available bread like moisture, ash, Fiber, Fat, protein, carbohydrate, total sugar, saponification value, FFA and iodine value were found to be ranged from 31.1-32.9%,  2.70-2.93%, 2.04-2.61%, 7.91-8.12%, 5.49-6.21%, 39.9-41.4%, 7.13-8.61%, 138-149 mg KOH/g fat, 1.63-1.86 mg KOH/g fat, 57.4-71.0 g I2/100 g fat respectively. 

Conclusion: It may be concluded that prepared rice bran supplemented bread might be considered superior quality than the locally available bread.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Associated with the Implementation of the WHO Breastfeeding Recommendations in Momo Division, North-West Region of Cameroon

Nwachan Mirabelle Boh, Ejoh Aba Richard

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 114-123
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i330149

Breastfeeding is essential to break the spiteful cycle of malnutrition in children. In spite of the WHO recommendations on optimum breastfeeding practices and their extensively acknowledged benefits, adherence to these recommendations in Cameroon remains incredibly low. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with the implementation of the WHO breastfeeding recommendations among mothers whose children are aged 0 to 24 months in Momo Division, Cameroon. To achieve this goal, 540 mothers attending 22 health units in the 5 sub divisions of Momo division completed structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Through this questionnaire, information on their socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, their knowledge and cultural beliefs about breastfeeding practices and the characteristics of their babies were collected. Results show that 51.5% of babies were girls and 46.1% of mothers had secondary education as their highest level of education. The monthly household income of most (80%) of the mothers was less than 100000frs CFA. Factors found to influence pre-lacteal feeding were mode of delivery, mother’s attitude on the type of first food to be given to the baby and birth order. Breastfeeding initiation within one hour following delivery was associated with place of delivery and mode of delivery. Exclusive breastfeeding was influenced by breast problems, mother’s employment status and misconceptions. The only factor associated with frequency of breastfeeding was the infant’s age. Duration of breastfeeding was associated with birth weight, and maternal knowledge on recommended duration of breastfeeding. The main impairments to breastfeeding practices were mistaken ideas based on misinformation, inadequate or no maternity leave, caesarian method of delivery, delayed breast milk secretion, breast problems and non-satiation of the baby after breastfeeding. The misconceptions noticed amongst mothers in this Division was the belief that breast milk alone is not enough to meet the nutritional needs of the baby for up to six months, expressed breast milk should not be fed to the baby and that infants below 6 months need water to quench their thirst. Maternal knowledge on breastfeeding was good as many knew the importance of breast milk.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Processing on the Nutritional Composition of Moringa olifera Leaves and Seeds

N. N. Umerah, A. I. Asouzu, J. I. Okoye

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 124-135
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i330155

Background/Objective: Processing improves the nutritional quality of food and may/not lead to nutrient losses. Processing is done to eliminate inactive microorganisms/ antinutrients and extend the shelf life of food. Moringa oleifera plant is an important tree in some part of Nigeria having been successfully used as food, medicinal and for industrial purpose. This study was designed to determine the effect of processing on the nutritional profile of Moringa olifrera leaves and seeds.

Materials and Methods: The leaves and seeds were harvested from the forest. The leaves were washed, drained and divided into three portions. The first portion was processed raw, the sun and shade dried samples were the second and third portion. The seeds were cracked and divided into six portions. The first portion was processed raw and the other five portions were fermented for 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h respectively. The samples were analyzed for proximate, vitamin, mineral, and anti-nutrients contents using the standard method.

Results: The proximate composition of the seeds showed that the samples had a range of moisture, 16.63-17.75%, protein 13.92-38.45%, fat 14.93-19.00%, fibre 3.94-7.10%, ash 1.96-6.22% and carbohydrate 9.08-36.61%/100 g respectively. The ranges for the mineral contents of the seeds were iron 2.10-33.35 mg, zinc 1.19-1.35 mg/100 g, and iodine 12.33-126.61 mg. Also, the ascorbic acid content of the seeds ranged from 3.57- 24.55 mg. The anti-nutrient contents of the seeds were 0.03 – 1.35/100 g saponin, 0.21 – 6.25 mg/100 g of oxalate, 0.11 – 0.28 mg tannins and 5.69 – 16.81 mg/100 g of phytate. The proximate composition of the vegetables ranged from 8.99 – 75.33% moisture, 6.01 – 17.78% protein, 0.64 – 3.89% fat, 3.14 – 11.96% fibre, 2.46 – 15.22% ash and 12.01 – 48.52% carbohydrate. The ranges for mineral contents of the vegetables were iron 0.04 – 0.23 mg, zinc 0.03 – 0.10 mg and iodine 13.66 – 46.61 mg. The vitamin levels of the vegetables were ascorbic acid 56.43 – 167.66 mg/100 g. The level of the anti-nutrients in the vegetables ranged from 0.04 – 1.26 mg/100 g saponin, 0.31 – 8.44 mg/100 g oxalate, 0.05 – 0.20 mg/100 g tannins while phytate varied from 3.31 – 13.20 mg/100 g.

Conclusion: Processing of both leaves and seeds of Moringa olifera increased their nutrient density and reduced the concentration of anti-nutrients. The consumption of Moringa olifera should be popularized to diversify diet and extend their food use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Promoting Breastfeeding in Workplaces: Experiences with the Crèche at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Southern Nigeria

G. K. Eke, A. R. Nte

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 136-142
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i330156

Background: The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) aims to promote, protect and support optimal infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices among all women, irrespective of their employment status. Consequently the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), a Baby Friendly Hospital, has provided free Crèche services since 1996 to enable working mothers breastfeed their babies while at work, as they resume after 4 months of maternity leave.

Aims: To appraise attendance and use of the Crèche by health workers for the promotion, protection and support of breastfeeding at the UPTH.

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatrics, UPTH, Nigeria.

Methodology: Personal data and data on Crèche attendance were extracted from the Registers of children cared for at the Crèche between November 2006 and October 2016, entered into Excel Spreadsheet and analysed with SPSS version 20. Simple statistics were used to analyse and present data.

Results: One thousand and sixty-two children utilised the Crèche during the 10 years review period with total of 10,490 attendances. The children consisted of 604(57%) males and 458(43%) females, aged 6 weeks to 48 months (mean-6.44±2.54 months). An average of 93.6 children were cared for each month, with attendance showing a declining trend and they spent 2 to 9.5(mean-4.68) hours daily. The children attended the Crèche for 1 to 22(mean-7.35) days each month, while 32% of them attended only 1-3 days a month. Mothers from all clinical and non-clinical departments utilised the Crèche with nurses constituting 37%.

Conclusion: Utilisation of the Crèche services was sub-optimal. Its provision alone is insufficient to promote and support optimal IYCF practices among working women. User education and support for optimal IYCF practices are required. Access to Crèche services in all shifts and on all days should be guaranteed. Improved record keeping is required.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutraceutical and Health Benefits of Two Underutilized Leafy Vegetables (Pterocarpus santalinoides and Napoleona imperialis)

N. N. Umerah, A. I. Asouzu, J. I. Okoye

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 143-155
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i330157

The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and health implication of Pterocarpus santalinoides (Uturukpa) and Napoleona imperialis (Mkpodu) leaves. The vegetables were harvested from the forest in Udi Local Government area in Enugu State and identified at Department of Agronomy, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria. The vegetables were trimmed and washed with deionized water and drained. The vegetables were ground using hammer mill into paste separately and coded as sample A (Pterocarpus santalinoides) and sample B (Napoleona imperialis). Both samples were analyzed in the laboratory for proximate, vitamins, minerals, anti-nutrients and phytochemicals. The results were analyzed statistically using mean and standard deviation. The result showed that the proximate composition (on wet wt. basis) of sample A and B were protein 1.06 and 5.27%, fat 0.98 and 0.71%, fibre 0.90 and 1.01%, ash 2.73 and 1.27% and carbohydrate 30.63 and 23.54% respectively. The vitamin constituents were beta carotene 360.00 and 360.00 µg/100 g, vitamin C 5.20 and 7.13 mg/100 g and vitamin E 2.80 and 1.45 mg/100 g for sample A and B respectively. The result of the minerals were iron 3.49 and 1.40 mg/100 g, zinc 0.92 and 2.10 mg/100 g, calcium 36.00 and 25.60 mg/100 g, magnesium 20.01 and 25.20 mg/100 g and potassium 11.27 and 70.92 mg/100 g for sample A and B respectively. The result of the pyhtochemicals revealed that both leaves contained an appreciable amount of phytochemicals which are component of herbs use for ethnomedicine. The anti-nutrients in sample A and B were cyanide 0.48 and 0.94%, oxalate 1.08 and 3.87% and phytate 0.25 and 6.01% respectively. The high protein, fibre and mineral content of Napoleona imperialis is of interest, hence these lesser known vegetables are recommended due to its high nutritional content and health benefit.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metals Content of Spices Available on the Market of Asmara, Eritrea

Ezra Russom, Goitom Kfle, Ghebray Asgedom, Tedros Goje

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 156-163
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i330158

Spices and herbs are being added to diet as ingredients often to improve color, aroma and acceptability of food. The presence of heavy metals in spices could result in the accumulation of these metals in the body organs. The amount of essential and non-essential heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in spices commonly used in Eritrea were determined using a dual viewing ICP-OES. Fe was found to have the highest concentration of all the studied metals in all studied spices that ranged from 197-2364 mgkg-1. Co was found to be the least accumulated metal in all the species except in Rosemarie and Cinnamon. The level of Fe in all the studied spices (except Cinnamon), the level of Cd in Cumin and Cinnamon, the level of Cu in Allspices, the level of Mn in Black pepper, Allspices, Nutmeg and Cinnamon, the level of Pb in Turmeric and the level of Zn in Nutmeg were found above the WHO Maximum Permissible Limit (MPL). Cumin, Cinnamon, Black pepper and Nutmeg are constituents of the spice called Allspices. Allspices (comprising of almost fourteen spices) is added to berbere which is traditionally prepared and most consumed powder in Eritrea. Cumin was found to be the greatest accumulator of Co, Cr, Ni and Fe. Moreover, the levels of Cr and Cu in Cumin were alarming. Therefore, based on the results of this study consumption of Cumin, Cinnamon, Allspices, Black pepper and Nutmeg may have a serious health threat to consumers because berbere is consumed in large amount and with high frequency by Eritrean people. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that either the consumption of berbere has to be reduced or the addition of spices to berbere has to be controlled.