Open Access Grey Literature

Environmental Risk Assessment of Insect-resistant and Herbicide-tolerant Genetically Modified Maize 1507 x 59122 for Food and Feed Uses, Import and Processing under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 (EFSA/GMO/NL/2005/15)

Åshild Andreassen, Per Brandtzæg, Merethe Aasmo Finne, Askild Lorentz Holck, Anne-Marthe Jevnaker, Olavi Junttila, Heidi Sjursen Konestabo, Richard Meadow, Kåre M. Nielsen, Monica Sanden, Hilde-Gunn Opsahl-Sorteberg, Rose Vikse

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 221-224
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i430164

In preparation for a legal implementation of EU-regulation 1829/2003, the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) has been requested by the Norwegian Environment Agency (former Norwegian Directorate for Nature Management) to conduct final environmental risk assessments for all genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products containing or consisting of GMOs that are authorized in the European Union under Directive 2001/18/EC or Regulation 1829/2003/EC. The request covers scope(s) relevant to the Gene Technology Act. The request does not cover GMOs that VKM already has conducted its final risk assessments on. However, the Agency requests VKM to consider whether updates or other changes to earlier submitted assessments are necessary.

 

The insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant genetically modified maize 1507 x 59122 from Dow AgroSciences and Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. (Unique Identifier DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 x DAS59122-7) is approved under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 for food and feed uses, import and processing since 28 July 2010 (Commission Decision 2010/432/EC).

 

Genetically modified maize 1507 x 59122 has previously been risk assessed by the VKM Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), commissioned by the NFSA and the Norwegian Environment Agency related to the EFSAs public hearing of the applications EFSA/GMO/NL/2005/15 and EFSA/GMO/NL/2005/28 in 2007 (VKM 2007a, 2008a). The stack 1507 x 59122 has also been evaluated by the VKM GMO Panel as single events and as a component of several other stacked GM maize events (VKM 2004, VKM 2005a,b, VKM 2007b,c, VKM 2008b,c, VKM 2009a,b, VKM 2012). The environmental risk assessment of the maize 1507 x 59122 is based on information provided by the applicant in the applications EFSA/GMO/NL/2005/15 and EFSA/GMO/NL/2005/28, and scientific comments from EFSA and other member states made available on the EFSA website GMO Extranet. The risk assessment also considered other peer-reviewed scientific literature as relevant.

 

The VKM GMO Panel has evaluated 1507 x 59122 with reference to its intended uses in the European Economic Area (EEA), and according to the principles described in the Norwegian Food Act, the Norwegian Gene Technology Act and regulations relating to impact assessment pursuant to the Gene Technology Act, Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms, and Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 on genetically modified food and feed. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety has also decided to take account of the appropriate principles described in the EFSA guidelines for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed (EFSA 2011a), the environmental risk assessment of GM plants (EFSA 2010), the selection of comparators for the risk assessment of GM plants (EFSA 2011b), and for the post-market environmental monitoring of GM plants (EFSA 2011c).

 

The scientific risk assessment of maize 1507 x 59122 include molecular characterisation of the inserted DNA and expression of novel proteins, comparative assessment of agronomic and phenotypic characteristics, unintended effects on plant fitness, potential for gene transfer, interactions between the GM plant and target and non-target organisms, effects on biogeochemical processes and evaluations of the post-market environmental plan.

 

It is emphasized that the VKM mandate does not include assessments of contribution to sustainable development, societal utility and ethical considerations, according to the Norwegian Gene Technology Act and Regulations relating to impact assessment pursuant to the Gene Technology Act. These considerations are therefore not part of the risk assessment provided by the VKM Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms.

 

The genetically modified maize stack 1507 x 59122 was produced by conventional breeding between inbred lines of maize containing the 1507 and 59122 events. The hybrid was developed to provide protection against certain lepidopteran and coleopteran target pests, and to confer tolerance to glufosinate-ammonium herbicides.

 

Molecular Characterization:

 

As conventional breeding methods were used in the production of maize 1507 x 59122, no additional genetic modification was involved. Southern and PCR analyses demonstrated that the recombinant insert in the single 1507 and 59122 events were retained in maize stack 1507 x 59122. Genetic stability of the inserts has been demonstrated in the parental lines 1507 and 59122. Phenotypic analyses demonstrated stability of the insect resistance and herbicide tolerance traits in the hybrid. The expression levels of Cry1F, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 and PAT proteins in seeds and forage were considered comparable with those in the single events.

 

The characterisation of the recombinant insert and the physical, chemical and functional characteristics of the single events maize 1507 (VKM 2004) and maize 59122 (VKM 2005a, 2008b), have previously been evaluated by the VKM GMO Panel and considered adequate.

 

Comparative Assessment:

 

Comparative analyses of data from field trials located at representative sites and environments in the USA, Canada and Europe indicate that maize 1507 x 59122 is agronomically and phenotypically equivalent to the conventional counterpart, with the exception of the lepidopteran and coleopteranprotection traits and herbicide tolerance, conferred by the expression of the Cry1F, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 and PAT proteins. The field evaluations support the applicant’s conclusion of no other phenotypic changes indicative of increased plant weed/pest potential of 1507 x 59122 compared to conventional maize.

 

The VKM GMO Panel has previously assessed these data and concluded that maize 1507 x 59122 is agronomically and phenotypically equivalent to the conventional comparators, except for the newly introduced traits (VKM 2007a, 2008a).

 

Environmental assessment:

 

The scope of the application EFSA/GMO/NL/2005/15 includes import and processing of maize 1507 x 59122 for food and feed uses. Considering the intended uses of maize 1507 x 59122, excluding cultivation, the environmental risk assessment has been concerned with accidental release into the environment of viable grains during transportation and processing, and indirect exposure, mainly through manure and faeces from animals fed grains from maize 1507 x 59122.

 

The available data indicate that 1507 x 59122 has no altered survival, multiplication or dissemination characteristics, and there are no indications of an increased likelihood of spread and establishment of feral maize plants in the case of accidental release into the environment of seeds from maize 1507 x 59122. Maize is the only representative of the genus Zea in Europe, and there are no cross-compatible wild or weedy relatives outside cultivation. The VKM GMO Panel considers the risk of gene flow from occasional feral GM maize plants to conventional maize varieties to be negligible in Norway. Considering the intended use as food and feed, interactions with the biotic and abiotic environment are not considered by the GMO Panel to be an issue.

 

Overall Conclusion:

 

The VKM GMO Panel concludes that maize 1507 x 59122, based on current knowledge, is comparable to conventional maize varieties concerning environmental risk in Norway with the intended usage.

Open Access Grey Literature

Food/feed and Environmental Risk Assessment of Insect-resistant and Herbicide-tolerant Genetically Modified Maize 59122 x NK603 for Food and Feed Uses, Import and Processing under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 (EFSA/GMO/UK/2005/20)

Åshild Andreassen, Per Brandtzæg, Merethe Aasmo Finne, Askild Lorentz Holck, Anne-Marthe Jevnaker, Olavi Junttila, Heidi Sjursen Konestabo, Richard Meadow, Arne Mikalsen, Kåre M. Nielsen, Monica Sanden, Ville Erling Sipinen, Hilde-Gunn Opsahl-Sorteberg, Rose Vikse

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 225-228
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i430165

In preparation for a legal implementation of EU-regulation 1829/2003, the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) has been requested by the Norwegian Environment Agency (former Norwegian Directorate for Nature Management) and the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) to conduct final food/feed and environmental risk assessments for all genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products containing or consisting of GMOs that are authorized in the European Union under Directive 2001/18/EC or Regulation 1829/2003/EC. The request covers scope(s) relevant to the Gene Technology Act. The request does not cover GMOs that VKM already has conducted its final risk assessments on. However, the Agency and NFSA requests VKM to consider whether updates or other changes to earlier submitted assessments are necessary.

 

The insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant genetically modified maize 59122 x NK603 from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. (Unique Identifier DAS-59122-7 x MONØØ6Ø3-6) is approved under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 for food and feed uses, import and processing since 30 October 2009 (Commission Decision 2009/815/EC).

 

Genetically modified maize 59122 x NK603 has previously been risk assessed by the VKM Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), commissioned by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority related to the EFSAs public hearing of the application EFSA/GMO/UK/2005/20 in 2007 (VKM 2007a). In addition 59122 x NK603 has been evaluated by the VKM GMO Panel as single events and as a component of several stacked GM maize events (VKM 2005a,b,d, VKM 2007b,c, VKM 2008b,c, VKM 2009a,b, VKM 2012). The food/feed and environmental risk assessment of the maize 59122 x NK603 is based on information provided by the applicant in the application EFSA/GMO/UK/2005/20, and scientific comments from EFSA and other member states made available on the EFSA website GMO Extranet. The risk assessment also considered other peer-reviewed scientific literature as relevant.  

 

The VKM GMO Panel has evaluated 59122 x NK603 with reference to its intended uses in the European Economic Area (EEA), and according to the principles described in the Norwegian Food Act, the Norwegian Gene Technology Act and regulations relating to impact assessment pursuant to the Gene Technology Act, Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms, and Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 on genetically modified food and feed. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety has also decided to take account of the appropriate principles described in the EFSA guidelines for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed (EFSA 2011a), the environmental risk assessment of GM plants (EFSA 2010), selection of comparators for the risk assessment of GM plants (EFSA 2011b) and for the post-market environmental monitoring of GM plants (EFSA 2011c). 

 

The scientific risk assessment of maize 59122 x NK603 include molecular characterisation of the inserted DNA and expression of novel proteins, comparative assessment of agronomic and phenotypic characteristics, nutritional assessments, toxicology and allergenicity, unintended effects on plant fitness, potential for gene transfer, interactions between the GM plant and target and non-target organisms, effects on biogeochemical processes. 

 

It is emphasized that the VKM mandate does not include assessments of contribution to sustainable development, societal utility and ethical considerations, according to the Norwegian Gene Technology Act and Regulations relating to impact assessment pursuant to the Gene Technology Act. These considerations are therefore not part of the risk assessment provided by the VKM Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. 

 

The genetically modified maize stack 59122 x NK603 was produced by conventional breeding between inbred lines of maize containing the 59122 and NK603 events. The hybrid was developed to provide protection against certain coleopteran target pests, and to confer tolerance to glufosinateammonium and glyphosate herbicides.

 

Molecular characterization:

 

Southern and PCR analyses has been performed and indicate that the recombinant inserts in the single maize events 59122 and NK603 are retained in maize stack 59122xNK603. Genetic stability of the inserts has previously been demonstrated in the parental lines 59122 and NK603. The level of Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1, PAT and CP4 EPSPS proteins in seed and forage from the stacked event were measured using ELISA and are comparable to the levels in the single events. Phenotypic analyses also indicate stability of the insect resistance and herbicide tolerance traits of the stacked event. 

 

Comparative Assessment:

 

Comparative analyses of data from field trials located at representative sites and environments in North America indicate that maize stack 59122 x NK603 is compositionally, agronomically and phenotypically equivalent to its conventional counterpart, with the exception of the introduced insect resistance and herbicide tolerance, conferred by the expression of the Cry34Ab1, Cry35Ab1, PAT and CP4 EPSPS proteins. Based on the assessment of available data, the VKM GMO Panel is of the opinion that conventional crossing of maize 59122 and NK603 to produce the hybrid 59122 x NK603 does not result in interactions that cause compositional, agronomic and phenotypic changes that would raise safety concerns. 

 

Food and Feed Risk Assessment:

 

Whole food feeding study has not been performed using 59122 x NK603 maize. The applicant has, however, provided a nutritional study on broilers using the triple stacked event 59122 x 1507 x NK603 maize as test material. Bioinformatics analyses have not revealed expression of any known ORFs in the parental maize lines, and none of the newly expressed proteins show resemblance to any known toxins or IgE allergens. Nor have the newly expressed proteins been reported to cause IgE mediated allergic reactions. Some studies have however indicated a potential role of Cry-proteins as adjuvants in allergic reactions.

 

Acute and repeated toxicity tests in rodents have not indicated toxic effects of the newly expressed proteins. However, these tests do not provide any additional information about possible adverse effects of the stacked event maize 59122 x NK603.

 

Based on the current knowledge, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that 59122 x NK603 maize is nutritionally equivalent to its conventional maize, and that it is unlikely that newly expressed proteins will introduce a toxic or allergenic potential of food/feed derived from maize 59122 x NK603 compared to conventional maize.

 

Environmental Risk Assessment:

 

The scope of the application EFSA/GMO/UK/2005/20 includes import and processing of maize stack 59122 x NK603 for food and feed uses. Considering the intended uses of maize 59122 x NK603, excluding cultivation, the environmental risk assessment is concerned with accidental release into the environment of viable grains during transportation and processing, and indirect exposure, mainly through manure and faeces from animals fed grains from maize 59122 x NK603.

 

Maize 59122 x NK603 has no altered survival, multiplication or dissemination characteristics, and there are no indications of an increased likelihood of spread and establishment of feral maize plants in the case of accidental release into the environment of seeds from maize 59122 x NK603. Maize is the only representative of the genus Zea in Europe, and there are no cross-compatible wild or weedy relatives outside cultivation. The VKM GMO Panel considers the risk of gene flow from occasional feral GM maize plants to conventional maize varieties to be negligible in Norway. Considering the intended use as food and feed, interactions with the biotic and abiotic environment are not considered by the GMO Panel to be an issue.

 

Overall Conclusion:

 

The VKM GMO Panel has not identified toxic or altered nutritional properties of maize 59122 x NK603 or its processed products compared to conventional maize. Based on current knowledge, it is also unlikely that the Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 protein will increase the allergenic potential of food and feed derived from maize 59122 x NK603 compared to conventional maize varieties. The VKM GMO Panel likewise concludes that maize 59122 x NK603, based on current knowledge, is comparable to conventional maize varieties concerning environmental risk in Norway with the intended usage.

Open Access Grey Literature

Final Health and Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Maize MON 89034

Åshild Andreassen, Per Brandtzæg, Merethe Aasmo Finne, Askild Lorentz Holck, Anne-Marthe Jevnaker, Olavi Junttila, Heidi Sjursen Konestabo, Richard Meadow, Arne Mikalsen, Kåre M. Nielsen, Rose Vikse, Ville Erling Sipinen, Hilde-Gunn Opsahl-Sorteberg

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 229-232
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i430166

In preparation for a legal implementation of EU-regulation 1829/2003, the Norwegian Environment Agency has requested the Norwegian Food Safety Authority to give final opinions on all genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products containing or consisting of GMOs that are authorized in the European Union under Directive 2001/18/EC or Regulation 1829/2003/EC within the Authority’s sectorial responsibility. The Norwegian Food Safety Authority has therefore, by letter dated 13 February 2013 (ref. 2012/150202), requested the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) to carry out scientific risk assessments of 39 GMOs and products containing or consisting of GMOs that are authorized in the European Union. The request covers scope(s) relevant to the Gene Technology Act. The request does not cover GMOs that VKM already has conducted its final risk assessments on. However, the Agency requests VKM to consider whether updates or other changes to earlier submitted assessments are necessary. The insect-resistant genetically modified maize MON 89034 (Unique Identifier MON-89Ø34-3) from Monsanto Company is approved under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 for food and feed uses, import and processing since 30 October 2009 (Application EFSA/GMO/NL/2007/37, Commission Decision 2009/813/EC). 

 Genetically modified maize MON 89034 has previously been risk assessed by the VKM Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), commissioned by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority and the Norwegian Environmental Agency related to the EFSAs public hearing of the application EFSA/GMO/NL/2007/37 in 2007 (VKM 2008a). VKM has also been requested to issue a preliminary scientific opinion on the safety of the genetically modified maize MON 89034 for cultivation, and submit relevant scientific comments or questions to EFSA on the application EFSA/GMO/BE/2011/90 (VKM 2012a). At the request from the Norwegian Environment Agency the VKM GMO Panel also submitted a final environmental risk assessment of MON 89034 for food and feed uses in 2013 (VKM 2013). Finally, maize MON 89034 has been evaluated by the VKM GMO Panel as a component of several stacked GM maize events (VKM 2008b, 2009a,b, 2010a,b).   The food/feed and environmental risk assessment of maize MON 89034 is based on information provided by the applicant in the applications EFSA/GMO/NL/2007/37 and EFSA/GMO/BE/2011/90, and scientific comments from EFSA and other member states made available on the EFSA website GMO Extranet. The risk assessment also considered other peer-reviewed scientific literature as relevant.  

 The VKM GMO Panel has evaluated MON 89034 with reference to its intended uses in the European Economic Area (EEA) and according to the principles described in the Norwegian Food Act, the Norwegian Gene Technology Act and regulations relating to impact assessment pursuant to the Gene Technology Act, Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms, and Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 on genetically modified food and feed. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety has also decided to take account of the appropriate principles described in the EFSA guidelines for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed (EFSA 2011a), the environmental risk assessment of GM plants (EFSA 2010), selection of comparators for the risk assessment of GM plants (EFSA 2011b) and for the post-market environmental monitoring of GM plants (EFSA 2011c). 

 The scientific risk assessment of maize MON 89034 include molecular characterisation of the inserted DNA and expression of novel proteins, comparative assessment of agronomic and phenotypic characteristics, nutritional assessments, toxicology and allergenicity, unintended effects on plant fitness, potential for gene transfer, interactions between the GM plant and target and non-target organisms and effects on biogeochemical processes.

 It is emphasized that the VKM mandate does not include assessments of contribution to sustainable development, societal utility and ethical considerations, according to the Norwegian Gene Technology Act and Regulations relating to impact assessment pursuant to the Gene Technology Act. These considerations are therefore not part of the risk assessment provided by the VKM Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. 

 The genetically modified maize MON 89034 was developed to provide protection against certain lepidopteran target pest, including European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) and Mediterranean corn borer (Sesamia nonagrioides). Protection is achieved through expression in the plant of two insecticidal Cry proteins, Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2, derived from Bacillus thuringiensis, a common soil bacterium. Cry1A.105, encoded by the cry1A.105 gene, is a chimeric protein made up of different functional domains derived from three wild-type Cry proteins from B. thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki and aizawai. The Cry2Ab2 protein is encoded by the cry2Ab2 gene derived from B. thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki. 

 Molecular characterization:

 Appropriate analyses of the transgenic DNA insert, its integration site, number of inserts and flanking sequences in the maize genome, have been performed. The results show that only one copy of the insert is present in maize MON 89034. Homology searches with databases of known toxins and allergens have not indicated any potential production of harmful proteins or polypeptides caused by the genetic modification in maize MON 89034. Southern blot analyses and segregation studies show that the introduced genes cry1A.105 and cry2Ab2 are stably inherited and expressed over several generations along with the phenotypic characteristics of maize MON 89034. The VKM GMO Panel concludes that the molecular characterisation of maize MON 89034 does not indicate a safety concern.

 Comparative assessment:

 Comparative analyses of maize MON 89034 to its non-GM conventional counterpart have been performed during multiple field trials in representative areas for maize cultivation in USA, Argentina and Europe (2004, 2005 and 2007). With the exception of small intermittent variations, no biologically significant differences were found between maize MON 89034 and the conventional non-GM control. Based on the assessment of available data, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that maize MON 89034 is compositionally, agronomical and phenotypically equivalent to its conventional counterpart, except for the introduced characteristics.

 Food and feed risk assessment:

 A 90-day subchronic feeding study on rats, as well as whole food feeding studies on broilers and feedlot steers have not indicated any adverse effects of maize MON 89034 and shows that maize MON 89034 is nutritionally equivalent to conventional maize. The Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 proteins do not show sequence resemblance to other known toxins or IgE allergens, nor have they been reported to cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Some studies have however indicated a potential role of Cry-proteins as adjuvants in allergic reactions.

 Based on current knowledge, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that maize MON 89034 is nutritionally equivalent to conventional maize varieties. It is unlikely that the Cry1A.105 or Cry2Ab2 proteins will introduce a toxic or allergenic potential in food or feed based on maize MON 89034 compared to conventional maize.

 Environmental risk assessment:

 Considering the intended uses of maize MON 89034, excluding cultivation, the environmental risk assessment is concerned with accidental release into the environment of viable grains during transportation and processing, and indirect exposure, mainly through manure and faeces from animals fed grains from maize MON 89034. 

 Maize MON 89034 has no altered survival, multiplication or dissemination characteristics, and there are no indications of an increased likelihood of spread and establishment of feral maize plants in the case of accidental release into the environment of seeds from maize MON 89034. Maize is the only representative of the genus Zea in Europe and there are no cross-compatible wild or weedy relatives outside cultivation. The VKM GMO Panel considers the risk of gene flow from occasional feral GM maize plants to conventional maize varieties to be negligible in Norway. Considering the intended use as food and feed, interactions with the biotic and abiotic environment are not considered by the GMO Panel to be an issue.

 Overall conclusion:

 Based on current knowledge, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that maize MON 89034 is nutritionally equivalent to conventional maize varieties. It is unlikely that the Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 proteins will introduce a toxic or allergenic potential in food or feed derived from maize MON 89034 compared to conventional maize. 

 The VKM GMO Panel likewise concludes that maize MON 89034, based on current knowledge, is comparable to conventional maize varieties concerning environmental risk in Norway with the intended usage.

Open Access Grey Literature

Food, Feed and Environmental Risk Assessment of Glufosinatetolerant Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape T45 for Food and Feed Uses, Import and Processing Under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 (Application EFSA/GMO/UK/2005/25)

Åshild Andreassen, Per Brandtzæg, Merethe Aasmo Finne, Askild Lorentz Holck, Anne-Marthe Jevnaker, Olavi Junttila, Heidi Sjursen Konestabo, Richard Meadow, Arne Mikalsen, Kåre M. Nielsen, Monica Sanden, Ville Erling Sipinen, Hilde-Gunn Opsahl-Sorteberg, Rose Vikse

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 233-237
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i430167

In preparation for a legal implementation of EU-regulation 1829/2003, the Norwegian Environment Agency (former Norwegian Directorate for Nature Management) has requested the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) to give final opinions on all genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products containing or consisting of GMOs that are authorized in the European Union under Directive 2001/18/EC or Regulation 1829/2003/EC within the Authority’s sectoral responsibility.  The Norwegian Food Safety Authority has therefore, by letter dated 13 February 2013 (ref. 2012/150202), requested the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) to carry out scientific risk assessments of 39 GMOs and products containing or consisting of GMOs that are authorized in the European Union. The request covers scope(s) relevant to the Gene Technology Act. The request does not cover GMOs that VKM already has conducted its final risk assessments on. However, the Agency requests VKM to consider whether updates or other changes to earlier submitted assessments are necessary.

 The assignment includes a scientific risk assessment of oilseed rape T45 from Bayer Crop Science (Unique Identfier ACS-BNØØ8-2) for food and feed uses, import and processing. 

 Food additives produced from T45 oilseed rape were notified in the EU as existing food additives within the meaning of Article 8 (1) (b) of Regulation 1829/2003, authorized under Directive 89/10/EEC (Community Register 2005). Feed materials produced from T45 were also notified as existing feed products containing, consisting of or produced from T45 according to Articles 8 and 20 of Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 in 2003.  

 A notification for placing on the market of T45 according to the Directive 2001/18/EC was submitted in March 2004 (C/GB/04/M5/4), covering import and processing of T45 into food and feed. The application was further transferred into Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 in November 2005 (EFSA/GMO/UK/2005/25). An application for renewal of authorisation for continued marketing of food additives and feed materials produced from T45 oilseed rape was submitted under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 in 2007 (EFSA/GMO/RX/T45). The EFSA GMO Panel performed one single comprehensive risk assessment for all intended uses of genetically modified oilseed rape T45 and issued a comprehensive scientific opinion for both applications submitted under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003. The scientific opinion was published in January 30 2008 (EFSA 2008), and food and feed products containing or produced from oilseed rape T45 was approved by Commission Decision 26 March 2009 (Commission Decision 2009/184/EC). 

 The oilseed rape T45 is however currently being phased out (EU-COM 2009). The commercialisation of T45 oilseed rape seeds in third countries was stopped after the 2005 planting season and stocks of all oilseed rape T45 lines have been recalled from distribution and destroyed. The applicant commits not to commercialize the event in the future and the import will therefore be restricted to adventitious levels in oilseed rape commodity. Thus the incidence of oilseed rape T45 in the EU is expected to be limited.

 Oilseed rape T45 has previously been risk assessed by the VKM Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), commissioned by the NFSA related to the EFSAs public hearing in 2007 (VKM 2007a).

 The risk assessment of the oilseed rape T45 is based on information provided by the notifier in the application EFSA/GMO/UK/2005/25 and EFSA/GMO/RX/T45, and scientific comments from EFSA and other member states made available on the EFSA website GMO Extranet. The risk assessment also considered other peer-reviewed scientific literature as relevant.  

 The VKM GMO Panel has evaluated T45 with reference to its intended uses in the European Economic Area (EEA) and according to the principles described in the Norwegian Food Act, the Norwegian Gene Technology Act and regulations relating to impact assessment pursuant to the Gene Technology Act, Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms, and Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 on genetically modified food and feed. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety has also decided to take account of the appropriate principles described in the EFSA guidelines for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed (EFSA 2006, 2011a), the environmental risk assessment of GM plants (EFSA 2010) and the selection of comparators for the risk assessment of GM plants (EFSA 2011b). 

The scientific risk assessment of oilseed rape T45 include molecular characterisation of the inserted DNA and expression of novel proteins, comparative assessment of agronomic and phenotypic characteristics, comparative compositional analysis, food/feed safety assessments and environmental assessment.

 It is emphasized that the VKM mandate does not include assessments of contribution to sustainable development, societal utility and ethical considerations, according to the Norwegian Gene Technology Act and Regulations relating to impact assessment pursuant to the Gene Technology Act. These considerations are therefore not part of the risk assessment provided by the VKM Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. 

 The glufosinate ammonium-tolerant oilseed rape transformation event T45 was developed by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of protoplast from the conventional oilseed rape cultivar “AC Excel”. T45 contains a synthetic version of the native pat gene isolated from the bacteria Streptomyces viridochromogenes, strain Tü 494. The inserted gene encodes the enzyme phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT), which confers tolerance to the herbical active substance glufosinate ammonium. The PAT enzyme detoxifies glufosinate-ammonium by acetylation of the L-isomer into N-acetyl-L-glufosinate ammonium (NAG) which does not inhibit glutamine synthetase and, therefore, confers tolerance to the herbicide.

 Glufosinate ammonium-tolerant oilseed rape transformation event T45 has been conventionally bred into an array of spring-type oilseed rape varieties.

 Molecular characterization:

 The molecular characterisation data established that only one copy of the gene cassette is integrated in the oilseed rape genomic DNA. Appropriate analysis of the integration site including sequence determination of the inserted DNA and flanking regions, and bioinformatics analysis have been performed. Bioinformatics analyses of junction regions demonstrated the absence of any potential new ORFs coding for known toxins or allergens. The genetic stability of transformation event T45 was demonstrated at the genomic level over multiple generations by Southern analysis. Segregation analysis shows that event T45 is inherited as dominant, single locus trait. Phenotypic stability has been confirmed by stable tolerance to the herbicide for T45 lines and varieties derived from the event grown in Canada since 1993. 

 Oilseed rape transformation event T45 and the physical, chemical and functional characteristics of the proteins have previously been evaluated by The VKM Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms, and considered satisfactory (VKM 2007a).

 Comparative assessment:

 For compositional analysis seeds were harvested from three field trials performed in Canada (1995, 2000 and 2004). These field trials were conducted using agronomic practices and field conditions typical of commercial oilseed rape cultivation and provided environmental situations representative of the geographical regions oilseed rape will be grown. The analytical data were statistically evaluated by analysis of difference between T45 oilseed rape and its non-transgenic parent variety AC Excel or to other comparators, derived from AC Excel. 

 Several of the components listed in OECDs consensus document (OECD 2011) concerning oilseed rape have not been analyzed in seed, oil or meal such as vitamin K and the antinutrient sinapine. Compositional analysis was carried out with respect to proximates, fibers, amino acids, vitamin E (alfa-, beta, gamma- and delta tocopherol, total tocopherol, minerals (phosphorus, iron, calcium, sodium, copper, magnesium, manganese, potassium and zinc), fatty acids, phytic acid and glucosinolates (alken glucosin, MSGL glucosin and indole glucosinolates). The PAT protein was detected by ELISA only in trace amounts in toasted meal from T45 oilseed rape and not detected in blended, degummed, refined, bleached and deodorized oil. The compositional analysis showed statistical differences for some of the analyzed components. However, this is not considered biological relevant because it is within the reference range from the literature.

Based on results from comparative analyses of data from field trials located at representative sites and environments in Canada in 1995-1997, it is concluded that oilseed rape T45 is agronomically and phenotypically equivalent to the conventional counterpart and commercial available reference varieties, with the exception of maturity and the herbicide tolerance conferred by the PAT protein.  The field evaluations support a conclusion of no phenotypic changes indicative of increased plant weed/pest potential of event T45 compared to conventional oilseed rape. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that in-crop applications of glufosinate herbicide do not alter the phenotypic and agronomic characteristics of event T45 compared to conventional oilseed rape.

 Food and feed safety assessment:

 The total amino acid sequence of the PAT protein was compared to that of known toxins and allergens listed in public databases. Based on these results, no evidence for any similarity to known toxic or allergenic proteins was found. An animal feeding study was performed in broiler chickens. This study showed no indications that neither the event T45 treated with glufosinate ammonium nor untreated, has adverse effects on feeding, growth or general health. To test the case of an acute exposure of the PAT protein to the circulatory system, an acute intravenous study was conducted in mice with highly purified (>95%) PAT protein, encoded by the pat gene (produced in E. coli). PAT protein, aprotinin (negative control) or melittin (positive control) were administered at dose levels of 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight. After 15 days the animals treated with the PAT protein and aprotinin at 10 mg/kg had no visible signs of systemic toxicity, in contrast to melittin which induced 100% mortality within 5 minutes at the same dose. Macroscopic examination of internal organs showed no signs of acute toxicity following treatment with PAT protein.

 Environmental risk:

 According to the applicant, the event T45 has been phased out, and stocks of all oilseed rape T45 lines have been recalled from distribution and destroyed since 2005. However, since future cultivation and import of oilseed rape T45 into the EU/EEA area cannot be entirely ruled out, the environmental risk assessment consider exposure of viable seeds of T45 through accidental spillage into the environment during transportation, storage, handling, processing and use of derived products.

 Oilseed rape is mainly a self-pollinating species, but has entomophilous flowers capable of both self- and cross-pollinating. Normally the level of outcrossing is about 30%, but outcrossing frequencies up to 55% are reported. 

 Several plant species related to oilseed rape that are either cultivated, occurs as weeds of cultivated and disturbed lands, or grow outside cultivation areas to which gene introgression from oilseed rape could be of concern. These are found both in the Brassica species complex and in related genera. A series of controlled crosses between oilseed rape and related taxa have been reported in the scientific literature. Because of a mismatch in the chromosome numbers most hybrids have a severely reduced fertility. Exceptions are hybrids obtained from crosses between oilseed rape and wild turnip (B. rapa ssp. campestris) and to a lesser extent, mustard greens (B. juncea), where spontaneously hybridising and transgene introgression under field conditions have been confirmed. Wild turnip is native to Norway and a common weed in arable lowlands.

 There is no evidence that the herbicide tolerant trait results in enhanced fitness, persistence or invasiveness of oilseed rape T45, or hybridizing wild relatives, compared to conventional oilseed rape varieties, unless the plants are exposed to herbicides with the active substance glufosinate ammonium. Glufosinate ammonium-containing herbicides have been withdrawn from the Norwegian market since 2008, and the substance will be phased out in the EU in 2017 for reasons of reproductive toxicity.

 Accidental spillage and loss of viable seeds of T45 during transport, storage, handling in the environment and processing into derived products is, however, likely to take place over time and the establishment of small populations of oilseed rape T45 cannot be excluded. Feral oilseed rape T45 arising from spilled seed could theoretically pollinate conventional crop plants if the escaped populations are immediately adjacent to field crops and shed seeds from cross-pollinated crop plants could emerge as GM volunteers in subsequent crops. 

 However, both the occurrence of feral oilseed rape resulting from seed import spills and the introgression of genetic material from feral oilseed rape populations to wild populations are likely to be low in an import scenario. Apart from the glufosinate tolerance trait, the resulting progeny will not possess a higher fitness and will not be different from progeny arising from cross-fertilisation with conventional oilseed rape varieties. The VKM GMO Panel The occurrence of feral oilseed rape resulting from seed import spills and the introgression of genetic material from feral oilseed rape populations to wild populations are likely to be low in an import scenario in Norway. 

 Overall conclusion:

 The VKM GMO Panel concludes that T45 oilseed rape, based on current knowledge, is comparable to conventional oilseed rape varieties concerning health risks with the intended usage. The GMO Panel likewise concludes that T45 is unlikely to have any adverse effect on the environment and agriculture in Norway in the context of its intended usage.

Open Access Grey Literature

Food/Feed and Environmental Risk Assessment of Insect-resistant and Herbicide-tolerant Genetically Modified Maize 59122 x 1507 x NK603 for Food and Feed Uses, Import and Processing under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 (EFSA/GMO/UK/2005/21)

Åshild Andreassen, Per Brandtzæg, Merethe Aasmo Finne, Askild Lorentz Holck, Anne-Marthe Jevnaker, Olavi Junttila, Heidi Sjursen Konestabo, Richard Meadow, Arne Mikalsen, Kåre M. Nielsen, Monica Sanden, Hilde-Gunn Opsahl-Sorteberg, Rose Vikse

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 238-241
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i430168

In preparation for a legal implementation of EU-regulation 1829/2003, the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) has been requested by the Norwegian Environment Agency (former Norwegian Directorate for Nature Management) and the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) to conduct final food/feed and environmental risk assessments for all genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products containing or consisting of GMOs that are authorized in the European Union under Directive 2001/18/EC or Regulation 1829/2003/EC. The request covers scope(s) relevant to the Gene Technology Act. The request does not cover GMOs that VKM already has conducted its final risk assessments on. However, the Agency and NFSA requests VKM to consider whether updates or other changes to earlier submitted assessments are necessary.

 The insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant genetically modified maize 59122 x 1507 x NK603 from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. (Unique Identifier DAS-59122-7 x DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 x MONØØ6Ø3-6) is approved under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 for food and feed uses, import and processing since 28 July 2010 (Commission Decision 2010/428/EU). 

 Genetically modified maize 59122 x 1507 x NK603 has previously been risk assessed by the VKM Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), commissioned by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority related to the EFSAs public hearing of the application EFSA/GMO/NL/2005/20 in 2007 (VKM 2007a). In addition, 59122 x 1507 x NK603 has been evaluated by the VKM GMO Panel as single events and as a component of several stacked GM maize events (VKM 2004, VKM 2005a,b, VKM 2007b,c, VKM 2008b,c, VKM 2009a,b, VKM 2012).   The food/feed and environmental risk assessment of the maize 59122 x 1507 x NK603 is based on information provided by the applicant in the application EFSA/GMO/UK/2005/21, and scientific comments from EFSA and other member states made available on the EFSA website GMO Extranet. The risk assessment also considered other peer-reviewed scientific literature as relevant.  

 The VKM GMO Panel has evaluated 59122 x 1507 x NK603 with reference to its intended uses in the European Economic Area (EEA), and according to the principles described in the Norwegian Food Act, the Norwegian Gene Technology Act and regulations relating to impact assessment pursuant to the Gene Technology Act, Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms, and Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 on genetically modified food and feed. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety has also decided to take account of the appropriate principles described in the EFSA guidelines for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed (EFSA 2011a), the environmental risk assessment of GM plants (EFSA 2010), selection of comparators for the risk assessment of GM plants (EFSA 2011b) and for the post-market environmental monitoring of GM plants (EFSA 2011c).

 The scientific risk assessment of maize 59122 x 1507 x NK603 include molecular characterisation of the inserted DNA and expression of novel proteins, comparative assessment of agronomic and phenotypic characteristics, nutritional assessments, toxicology and allergenicity, unintended effects on plant fitness, potential for gene transfer, interactions between the GM plant and target and non-target organisms, effects on biogeochemical processes. 

 It is emphasized that the VKM mandate does not include assessments of contribution to sustainable development, societal utility and ethical considerations, according to the Norwegian Gene Technology Act and Regulations relating to impact assessment pursuant to the Gene Technology Act. These considerations are therefore not part of the risk assessment provided by the VKM Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms.

 The genetically modified maize stack 59122 x 1507 x NK603 was produced by conventional breeding between inbred lines of maize containing the 59122, 1507 and NK603 events. The hybrid was developed to provide protection against certain lepidopteran and coleopteran target pests, and to confer tolerance to glufosinate-ammonium and glyphosate herbicides.

 Molecular Characterization:

 As conventional breeding methods were used in the production of maize 59122 x 1507 x NK603, no additional genetic modification was involved. Southern and PCR analyses demonstrated that the recombinant insert in the single 59122, 1507 and NK603 events were retained in maize stack 59122 x 1507 x NK603. Genetic stability of the inserts has been demonstrated in the parental lines 59122, 1507 and NK603. Phenotypic analyses demonstrated stability of the insect resistance and herbicide tolerance traits in the hybrid. The expression levels of Cry1F, Cry34Ab1, Cry35Ab1, PAT and CP4 EPSPS proteins in seeds and forage were considered comparable with those in the single events.

 Comparative Assessment:

 The applicant present compositional data on forage and grain material collected from field trials in Europe and North America. Comparative analyses of data from the Europe field trials indicate that maize stack 59122 x 1507 x NK603 is compositionally, agronomically and phenotypically equivalent to its conventional counterpart, with the exception of the introduced insect resistance and herbicide tolerance, conferred by the expression of the Cry1F, Cry34Ab1, Cry35Ab1, PAT               and CP4 EPSPS proteins. In the North American field trials, however, compositional,                 agronomic and phenotypic characteristics of maize 59122 x 1507 x NK603 was compared to a null-segregant comparator. As negative segregants are derived from a GM organism, the VKM GMO Panel does not consider them appropriate conventional counterparts with a history of safe use. Data obtained from field trials with negative segregants are considered as supplementary information only. 

 Based on the assessment of available data, the VKM GMO Panel is of the opinion that conventional crossing of maize 59122, 1507 and NK603 to produce the hybrid 59122 x 1507 x NK603 does not result in interactions that cause compositional, agronomic and phenotypic changes that would raise safety concerns.

 Food and Feed Safety Assessment:

 A poultry feeding study, conducted over a 42-day period, indicated no sub-chronic adverse effects of diets prepared with 59122 x 1507 x NK603 maize. Bioinformatics analyses have not revealed expression of any known ORFs in the parental maize events, and none of the newly expressed proteins showed resemblance to any known toxins or allergens. None of the proteins have been reported to cause IgE mediated allergic reactions. Some studies have, however, indicated a potential role of Cryproteins as adjuvants in allergic reactions.

 Acute and repeated dose toxicity tests in rodents have not indicated toxic effects of the newly expressed proteins. However, these tests do not provide any additional information about possible adverse effects of the stacked event maize 59122 x 1507 x NK603.   Based on the current knowledge, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that 59122 x 1507 x NK603 maize is nutritionally equivalent to its conventional counterpart, and that it is unlikely that the newly expressed proteins introduce a toxic or allergenic potential in food and feed derived from maize 59122 x 1507 x NK603 compared to conventional maize.

 Environmental Risk Assessment:

 The scope of the application EFSA/GMO/UK/2005/21 includes import and processing of maize stack 59122 x 1507 x NK603 for food and feed uses. Considering the intended uses of maize 59122 x 1507 x NK603, excluding cultivation, the environmental risk assessment is concerned with accidental release into the environment of viable grains during transportation and processing, and indirect exposure, mainly through manure and faeces from animals fed grains from maize 59122 x 1507 x NK603.

 Maize 59122 x 1507 x NK603 has no altered survival, multiplication or dissemination characteristics, and there are no indications of an increased likelihood of spread and establishment of feral maize plants in the case of accidental release into the environment of seeds from maize 59122 x 1507 x NK603. Maize is the only representative of the genus Zea in Europe, and there are no crosscompatible wild or weedy relatives outside cultivation. The VKM GMO Panel considers the risk of gene flow from occasional feral GM maize plants to conventional maize varieties to be negligible in Norway. Considering the intended use as food and feed, interactions with the biotic and abiotic environment are not considered by the GMO Panel to be an issue.

 Overall Conclusion:

 The VKM GMO Panel has not identified toxic or altered nutritional properties of maize 59122 x 1507 x NK603 or its processed products compared to conventional maize. Based on current knowledge, it is also unlikely that the newly expressed proteins will increase the allergenic potential of food and feed derived from maize 59122 x 1507 x NK603 compared to conventional maize varieties. 

 The VKM GMO Panel likewise concludes that maize 59122 x 1507 x NK603, based on current knowledge, is comparable to conventional maize varieties concerning environmental risk in Norway with the intended usage.

Open Access Grey Literature

Final Health and Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Maize 59122

Åshild Andreassen, Per Brandtzæg, Merethe Aasmo Finne, Askild Lorentz Holck, Anne-Marthe Jevnaker, Olavi Junttila, Heidi Sjursen Konestabo, Richard Meadow, Arne Mikalsen, Kåre M. Nielsen, Rose Vikse, Ville Erling Sipinen, Hilde-Gunn Opsahl-Sorteberg

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 242-245
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i430169

In preparation for a legal implementation of EU-regulation 1829/2003, the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) has been requested by the Norwegian Environment Agency (former Norwegian Directorate for Nature Management) and the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) to conduct final food/feed and environmental risk assessments for all genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products containing or consisting of GMOs that are authorized in the European Union under Directive 2001/18/EC or Regulation 1829/2003/EC. The request covers scope(s) relevant to the Gene Technology Act. The request does not cover GMOs that VKM already has conducted its final risk assessments on. However, the Agency and NFSA requests VKM to consider whether updates or other changes to earlier submitted assessments are necessary. 

The herbicide-tolerant and insect-resistant genetically modified maize 59122 from Pioneer HiBred/Mycogen Seeds (Unique Identifier DAS-59122-7) is approved under EU Regulation 1829/2003/EC for food and feed uses, import and processing since 24 October 2007 (Application EFSA/GMO/NL/2005/12, Commission Decision 2007/702/EC). An application for granting   consent to all uses of 59122 maize, including cultivation, was submitted by Pioneer in               accordance with articles 5 and 17 of the Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003 21 October, 2005 (EFSA/GMO/NL/2005/23). 

 VKM participated in the 90 days public consultation of the application for placing on the market of maize 59122 for food and feed uses, import and processing (EFSA/GMO/NL/2005/12) in 2005, and submitted a preliminary opinion in December 2005 (VKM 2005a). Maize 59122 has also been assessed as food and feed by the VKM GMO Panel, commissioned by the Norwegian Environment Agency and the Norwegian Food Safety Authority in connection with the national finalisation of the application in 2008 (VKM 2008a). Maize 59122 has also been evaluated by the VKM GMO Panel as a component of several stacked GM maize events under Regulation (EC) 1829/2003 (VKM 2007a,b,c, VKM 2008b, VKM 2009, VKM 2012a,b, VKM 2013a,b,c,d). Due to the publication of new scientific literature and updated guidelines for risk assessment of genetically modified plants, the VKM GMO Panel has decided to deliver an updated food/feed and environmental risk assessment of event 59122.

 The updated  food/feed and environmental risk assessment of the maize 59122 is based on information provided by the applicant in the applications EFSA/GMO/NL/2005/12 and EFSA/GMO/NL/2005/23 and scientific comments from EFSA and other member states made available on the EFSA website GMO Extranet. The risk assessment also considered other peer-reviewed scientific literature as relevant.  

 The VKM GMO Panel has evaluated 59122 with reference to its intended uses in the European Economic Area (EEA), and according to the principles described in the Norwegian Food Act, the Norwegian Gene Technology Act and regulations relating to impact assessment pursuant to the Gene Technology Act, Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms, and Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 on genetically modified food and feed. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety has also decided to take account of the appropriate principles described in the EFSA guidelines for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed (EFSA 2011a), the environmental risk assessment of GM plants (EFSA 2010a), selection of comparators for the risk assessment of GM plants (EFSA 2011b) and for the post-market environmental monitoring of GM plants (EFSA 2011c). 

 The scientific risk assessment of maize 59122 include molecular characterisation of the inserted DNA and expression of novel proteins, comparative assessment of agronomic and phenotypic characteristics, nutritional assessments, toxicology and allergenicity, unintended effects on plant fitness, potential for gene transfer, interactions between the GM plant, target and non-target organisms, and effects on biogeochemical processes. 

 It is emphasised that the VKM mandate does not include assessments of contribution to sustainable development, societal utility and ethical considerations, according to the Norwegian Gene Technology Act and Regulations relating to impact assessment pursuant to the Gene Technology Act. These considerations are therefore not part of the risk assessment provided by the VKM Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. 

 Genetically modified maize 59122 expresses the cry34Ab1 and cry35Ab1 genes from Bacillus thuringiensis, conferring resistance to certain coleopteran target pests belonging to the genus Diabrotica, such as the larvae of western corn rootworm (D. virgifera virgifera), northern corn rootworm (D. barberi) and the southern corn rootworm (D. undecimpunctata howardi). None of the target pests for maize 59122 are present in the Norwegian agriculture. Maize 59122 also expresses the phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase (pat) gene, from the soil bacterium Streptomyces viridochromogenes. The encoded PAT protein confers tolerance to the herbicidal active substance glufosinate-ammonium. The PAT protein produced by maize 59122 has been used as a selectable marker to facilitate the selection process of transformed plant cells and is not intended for weed management purposes. 

Molecular Characterization:

 Appropriate analyses of the transgenic DNA insert, its integration site, number of inserts and flanking sequences in the maize genome, have been performed. The results show that only one copy of the insert is present in maize 59122. Homology searches with databases of known toxins and allergens have not indicated any potential production of harmful proteins or polypeptides caused by the genetic modification in maize 59122. Southern blot analyses and segregation studies show that the introduced genes cry34Ab1, cry35Ab1 and pat are stably inherited and expressed over several generations along with the phenotypic characteristics of maize 59122. The VKM GMO Panel considers the molecular characterisation of maize 59122 satisfactory.

 Comparative assessment Comparative analyses of maize 59122 to its non-GM conventional counterpart have been performed during multiple field trials in representative areas for maize cultivation in Chile (2002/2003), North America (2003, 2004) and Europe (2003, 2004). With the exception of small intermittent variations, no biologically significant differences were found between maize 59122 and the conventional non-GM control. Based on the assessment of available data, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that maize 59122 is compositionally, agronomical and phenotypically equivalent to its conventional counterpart, except for the introduced characteristics. 

 Food and Feed Risk Assessment:

 A 90-day subchronic feeding study in rats, as well as whole food feeding studies on broilers, laying hens, lactating dairy cows, feedlot steers, and growing-finishing pigs, have not indicated any adverse effects of maize 59122, and shows that maize 59122 is nutritionally equivalent to conventional maize. The PAT, Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins do not show sequence resemblance to other known toxins or IgE allergens, nor have they been reported to cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Some studies have however indicated a potential role of Cry-proteins as adjuvants in allergic reactions.

 Based on current knowledge, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that maize 59122 is nutritionally equivalent to conventional maize varieties. It is unlikely that the PAT, Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins will introduce a toxic or allergenic potential in food or feed based on maize 59122 compared to conventional maize.

 Environmental Risk Assessment:

 Considering the intended uses of maize 59122, excluding cultivation, the environmental risk assessment is concerned with accidental release into the environment of viable grains during transportation and processing, and indirect exposure, mainly through manure and faeces from animals fed grains from maize 59122. 

 Maize 59122 has no altered survival, multiplication or dissemination characteristics, and there are no indications of an increased likelihood of spread and establishment of feral maize plants in the case of accidental release into the environment of seeds from maize 59122. Maize is the only representative of the genus Zea in Europe, and there are no cross-compatible wild or weedy relatives outside cultivation. The risk of gene flow from occasional feral GM maize plants to conventional maize varieties is negligible. Considering the intended use as food and feed, interactions with the biotic and abiotic environment are not considered to be an issue.

 Overall Conclusion:

 Based on current knowledge, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that maize 59122 is nutritionally equivalent to conventional maize varieties. It is unlikely that the PAT, Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins will introduce a toxic or allergenic potential in food or feed based on maize 59122 compared to conventional maize. The VKM GMO Panel likewise concludes that maize 59122, based on current knowledge, is comparable to conventional maize varieties concerning environmental risk in Norway with the intended usage.

Open Access Grey Literature

Food and Environmental Risk Assessment of Herbicide-tolerant Genetically Modified Maize NK603 for Food Uses, Import and Processing under Directive 2001/18/EC (Notification C/ES/00/01)

Åshild Andreassen, Per Brandtzæg, Merethe Aasmo Finne, Askild Lorentz Holck, Anne-Marthe Jevnaker, Olavi Junttila, Heidi Sjursen Konestabo, Richard Meadow, Arne Mikalsen, Kåre M. Nielsen, Monica Sanden, Ville Erling Sipinen, Hilde-Gunn Opsahl-Sorteberg, Rose Vikse

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 246-249
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i430170

In preparation for a legal implementation of EU-regulation 1829/2003, the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) has been requested by the Norwegian Environment Agency (former Norwegian Directorate for Nature Management) and the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) to conduct final food/feed and environmental risk assessments for all genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products containing or consisting of GMOs that are authorised in the European Union under Directive 2001/18/EC or Regulation 1829/2003/EC. The request covers scope(s) relevant to the Gene Technology Act. The request does not cover GMOs that VKM already has conducted its final risk assessments on. However, the Agency and NFSA requests VKM to consider whether updates or other changes to earlier submitted assessments are necessary. 

 The herbicide-tolerant genetically modified maize NK603 from Monsanto (Unique Identifier MONØØ6Ø3-6) is approved under Directive 2001/18/EC as feed since 19 July 2004 (Commission Decision 2004/643/EC). Foods and food ingredients derived from NK603 was authorised under Novel Foods Regulation (EC) No 258/97 3 March 2005 (Commission Decision 2005/448/EC) (EC 2013). 

 Genetically modified maize NK603 has previously been risk assessed by the VKM Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), commissioned by the NFSA in connection with the national finalisation of the procedure of the notification in 2005 (VKM 2005a). NK603 has also been evaluated by the VKM GMO Panel as a component of several stacked GM maize events (VKM 2005b,c,d,e VKM 2007a,b,  VKM 2008a,b, VKM 2009, VKM 2010, VKM 2011, VKM 2012a, VKM 2013a,b). Due to the publication of new scientific literature and updated guidelines for risk assessment of genetically modified plants, the VKM GMO Panel has decided to deliver an updated risk assessment of NK603. This updated assessment only covers health and environmental risks with regard to maize NK603 in food products. 

 The risk assessment of maize NK603 is based on information provided by the applicant in the notification C/EC/00/01, the applications EFSA/GMO/NL/2005/22 and EFSA/GMO/RX/NK603, and scientific comments from EFSA and other member states made available on the EFSA website GMO Extranet. The risk assessment also considers other relevant peer-reviewed scientific literature.

 The VKM GMO Panel has assessed maize NK603 with reference to its intended uses in the European Economic Area (EEA), and according to the principles described in the Norwegian Food Act, the Norwegian Gene Technology Act and regulations relating to impact assessment pursuant to the Gene Technology Act, Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms, and Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 on genetically modified food and feed. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety has also decided to take account of the appropriate principles described in the EFSA guidelines for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed (EFSA 2011a), the environmental risk assessment of GM plants (EFSA 2010), selection of comparators for the risk assessment of GM plants (EFSA 2011b) and for the post-market environmental monitoring of GM plants (EFSA 2011c). 

 The scientific risk assessment of maize NK603 include molecular characterisation of the inserted DNA and expression of novel proteins, comparative assessment of agronomic and phenotypic characteristics, nutritional assessments, toxicology and allergenicity, unintended effects on plant fitness, potential for gene transfer, interactions between the GM plant and target and non-target organisms, effects on biogeochemical processes and evaluations of the post-market environmental plan. 

 It is emphasised that the VKM mandate does not include assessments of contribution to sustainable development, societal utility and ethical considerations, according to the Norwegian Gene Technology Act and Regulations relating to impact assessment pursuant to the Gene Technology Act. These considerations are therefore not part of the risk assessment provided by the VKM Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. 

 The genetically modified maize NK603 has been developed to provide tolerance to glyphosate by the introduction, via particle gun acceleration, of a gene coding for 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (CP4 EPSPS).

 Molecular Characterization:

 NK603 was developed for tolerance to glyphosate by the introduction of the gene cp4 epsps from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4. via a particle acceleration method. The molecular characterisation data indicate that only one copy of the tandem cp4 epsps cassette is integrated in the DNA of maize NK603, and that it is inherited as a dominant, single locus trait. Appropriate analyses of the integration site, inserted DNA sequence, flanking regions, and bioinformatics have been performed. No potential new ORFs with sequence similarities to known toxins or allergens were detected. The Chi square analyses of the segregation results for the glyphosate tolerance trait in the progeny are also consistent with a single active site of insertion. The VKM GMO Panel considers the molecular characterisation of maize NK603 as adequate. 

 Comparative Assessment:

 Comparative analyses of data from field trials located at representative sites and environments in North America and Europe indicate that maize NK603 is compositionally, agronomically and phenotypically equivalent to conventional maize, with the exception of the glyphosate tolerance conferred by the CP4 EPSPS protein. 

 Food and Feed Risk Assessment:

 Whole food feeding studies on rats have not indicated any adverse effects of maize NK603. Nutritional feeding studies on broilers, pigs, steers and cows indicate that NK603 is nutritionally equivalent to conventional maize. The CP4 EPSPS protein does not show resemblance to any known toxins or IgE allergens, nor has CP4 EPSPS been reported to cause IgE mediated allergic reactions. An acute oral toxicity test in mice did not indicate toxic effects of purified E. coli produced CP4 EPSPS protein. However, such a test does not provide any additional information about possible adverse effects of maize NK603.

 Based on current knowledge, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that maize NK603 is nutritionally equivalent to conventional maize varieties, and that it is unlikely that the CP4 EPSPS protein will introduce a toxic or allergenic potential in food derived from maize NK603 compared to conventional maize.

 Environmental Assessment:

 The authorisations of maize NK603 under Directive 2001/18/EC and the Novel Foods Regulation (EC) No 258/97 include import and processing of maize NK603 for food and feed uses. Considering the intended uses of maize NK603, excluding cultivation, the environmental risk assessment has been concerned with accidental release into the environment of viable grains during transportation and processing.

 The available data indicate that NK603 has no altered survival, multiplication or dissemination characteristics, and there are no indications of an increased likelihood of spread and establishment of feral maize plants in the case of accidental release into the environment of seeds from maize NK603. Maize is the only representative of the genus Zea in Europe, and there are no cross-compatible wild or weedy relatives outside cultivation. The VKM GMO Panel considers the risk of gene flow from occasional feral GM maize plants to conventional maize varieties to be negligible in Norway.

 Considering the intended use as food, interactions with the biotic and abiotic environment are not considered by the GMO Panel to be an issue.

 Overall Conclusion:

 Based on current knowledge, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that maize NK603 is nutritionally equivalent to conventional maize varieties, and that it is unlikely that the CP4 EPSPS protein will introduce a toxic or allergenic potential in food derived from maize NK603 compared to conventional maize. The VKM GMO Panel likewise concludes that maize NK603, based on current knowledge, is comparable to conventional maize varieties concerning environmental risk in Norway with the intended usage.

Open Access Grey Literature

Food/Feed and Environmental Risk Assessment of Insect Resistant Genetically Modified Maize MON810 for Cultivation, Seed Production, Import, Processing and Feed Uses under Directive 2001/18/EC (Notification C/F/95/12/02)

Åshild Andreassen, Per Brandtzæg, Merethe Aasmo Finne, Askild Lorentz Holck, Olavi Junttila, Heidi Sjursen Konestabo, Richard Meadow, Arne Mikalsen, Kåre M. Nielsen, Monica Sanden, Ville Erling Sipinen, Hilde-Gunn Opsahl-Sorteberg, Rose Vikse

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 250-254
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i430171

In preparation for a legal implementation of EU-regulation 1829/2003, the Norwegian Environment Agency (former Norwegian Directorate for Nature Management) has requested the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) to give final opinions on all genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products containing or consisting of GMOs that are authorized in the European Union under Directive 2001/18/EC or Regulation 1829/2003/EC within the Authority’s sectoral responsibility.  The Norwegian Food Safety Authority has therefore, by letter dated 13 February 2013 (ref. 2012/150202), requested the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) to carry out scientific risk assessments of 39 GMOs and products containing or consisting of GMOs that are authorized in the European Union. The request covers scope(s) relevant to the Gene Technology Act. The request does not cover GMOs that VKM already has conducted its final risk assessments on. However, the Agency requests VKM to consider whether updates or other changes to earlier submitted assessments are necessary.

 MON810 notification C/F/95/12-02 is approved under Directive 90/220/EEC for cultivation, seed production, import and processing into feeding stuffs and industrial purposes since 22 April 1998 (Commission Decision 98/294/EC). In December 1997, food and food ingredients derived from the progeny of maize line MON810 were notified under Article 5 of Regulation (EC) No 258/97 on novel foods and novel food ingredients. In addition, existing food and feed products containing, consisting of or produced from MON810 were notified according to Articles 8 and 20 of Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 and were placed in the Community Register in 2005. 

 Three applications for renewal of the authorisation for continued marketing of (1) existing food and food ingredients produced from MON810; (2) feed consisting of and/or containing maize MON810, and MON810 for feed use (including cultivation); and (3) food and feed additives, and feed materials produced from maize MON810 within the framework of Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 were submitted in 2007. 

 Maize MON810 has previously been assessed by the VKM GMO Panel commissioned by the Norwegian Environment Agency in connection with the national finalisation of the procedure of the notification C/F/95/12/02 (VKM 2007a,b). In addition, MON810 has been evaluated by the VKM GMO Panel as a component of several stacked GM maize events (VKM 2005a,b,c, VKM 2007c, VKM 2008, VKM 2009, VKM 2012a). Due to the publication of new scientific literature and updated guidance for food/feed and environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants, the VKM GMO Panel has decided to deliver an updated risk assessment of MON810.

 The updated risk assessment of the maize MON810 is based on information provided by the applicant in the notification C/F/95/12/02 and application EFSA/GMO/RX/MON810, and scientific comments from EFSA and other member states made available on the EFSA website GMO Extranet. The risk assessment also considered other peer-reviewed scientific literature as relevant.  

 The VKM GMO Panel has evaluated MON810 with reference to its intended uses in the European Economic Area (EEA), and according to the principles described in the Norwegian Food Act, the Norwegian Gene Technology Act and regulations relating to impact assessment pursuant to the Gene Technology Act, Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms, and Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 on genetically modified food and feed. The VKM GMO panel has also decided to take account of the appropriate principles described in the EFSA guidelines for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed (EFSA 2006, 2011a), the environmental risk assessment of GM plants (EFSA 2010), and the selection of comparators for the risk assessment of GM plants (EFSA 2011b). 

 The scientific risk assessment of maize MON810 includes molecular characterisation of the transformation process, vector construction, expression, inheritance and stability of the transgene construct, comparative assessment of agronomic and phenotypic characteristics, nutritional assessments, toxicology and  allergenicity, unintended effects on plant fitness, potential for gene transfer, interactions between the GM plant and target and non-target organisms and effects on biogeochemical processes.

 It is emphasized that the VKM mandate does not include assessments of contribution to sustainable development, societal utility and ethical considerations, according to the Norwegian Gene Technology Act and Regulations relating to impact assessment pursuant to the Gene Technology Act. These considerations are therefore not part of the risk assessment provided by the VKM Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. 

 The genetically modified maize MON810 was developed to provide protection against certain lepidopteran target pests, including European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) and species belonging to the genus Sesamia. Protection is achieved through expression in the plant of the insecticidal Cry protein, Cry1Ab, derived from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki, a common soil bacterium.  

 Molecular Characterisation:

 Appropriate analysis of the integration site including flanking sequences and bioinformatics analyses have been performed to analyse the construct integrated in the GM plant. Updated bioinformatics analyses revealed that one ORF shared sequence similarity to a putative HECT-ubiquitin ligase protein. 

 The VKM GMO Panel found no safety implications from the interruption of this gene sequence. Analyses of leaf, grains, whole plant tissue and pollen from the maize MON810 demonstrated that the Cry1Ab protein is expressed at very low levels in all tissues tested and constitute less than 0.001% of the fresh weight in each tissue. The cry1Ab gene is the only transgene expressed in line MON810 and is expressed the highest in leaves. The stability of the genetic modification has been demonstrated over several generations.

 Event MON810 and the physical, chemical and functional characteristics of the proteins have previously been evaluated by The VKM Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms, and considered satisfactory (VKM 2007a,b).

 Comparative Assessment:

 Compositional assessments were performed using the principles and analytes outlined in the OECD consensus document for maize composition (OECD 2002). For maize MON810 grain and forage, VKM previously concluded, based on data from risk assessments and field trials as presented in notification MON810 (C/F/95/12/02) and application NK603 x MON810 (EFA/GMO/UK/2004/1), MON 863 x MON810 (EFSA/GMO/DE/2004/03), MON863xMON810x NK603 (EFSA/GMO/BE/2004/07) and MON 88017 x MON810 (EFSA/GMO/ CZ/2006/33), that maize MON810 is compositionally similar to the non-GM counterparts and conventional maize varieties, except for the new trait (VKM 2005a,b,c, 2007a,b,c).

 Comparative analyses of data from field trials located at representative sites and environments in the USA and Europe indicate that maize MON810 is agronomically and phenotypically equivalent to the conventional counterpart and commercially available reference varieties, with the exception of the lepidopteran-protection trait, conferred by the expression of the Cry1Ab protein. The field evaluations support a conclusion of no phenotypic changes indicative of increased plant weed/pest potential of MON810 compared to conventional maize. Evaluations of ecological interactions between maize MON810 and the biotic and abiotic environment indicate no unintended effects of the introduced trait on agronomic and phenotypic characteristics. 

 Food and Feed Safety Assessment:

 Based on current knowledge, there is no reason to assume that the characteristics of processed products derived from maize MON810 would be different from processed products derived from nonGM maize. The compositional and nutritional equivalence of MON810 to conventional non-GM maize varieties is supported by several animal studies.

 Acute oral toxicity tests have not indicated any toxicity related to the Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis. Cry1Ab is readily degraded in simulated gastric fluids and no adverse health effects have been reported related to maize MON810 from whole food feeding studies performed on rats, broilers, pigs or dairy cows. Some studies on Atlantic salmon have however indicated possible immunological reactions related to MON810 in fish feed. Bioinformatics analyses show no resemblance of the Cry1Ab protein to known toxins or allergens. Cry1Ab has not been shown to cause IgE mediated allergic reactions and is considered a non-allergenic by EFSA. Some studies have however indicated a potential role of Cryproteins as adjuvants in allergic reactions (VKM 2012b). 

 Environmental Risk:

 There are no reports of the target lepidopteran species attaining pest status on maize in Norway. Since there are no Bt-based insecticides approved for use in Norway, and lepidopteran pests have not been registered in maize, issues related to resistance evolution in target pests are not relevant at present for Norwegian agriculture.

 Published scientific studies show no or negligible adverse effects of Cry1Ab protein on non-target arthropods that live on or in the vicinity of maize plants. Cultivation of maize MON810 is not considered to represent a threat to the prevalence of red-listed species in Norway.

 Few studies have been published examining potential effects of Cry1Ab toxin on ecosystems in soil, mineralization, nutrient turnover and soil communities. Some field studies have indicated that root exudates and decaying plant material containing Cry proteins may affect population size and activity of rhizosphere organisms (soil protozoa and microorganisms). Most studies conclude that effects on soil microorganisms and microbial communities are transient and minor compared to effects caused by agronomic and environmental factors. However, data are only available from short term experiments and predictions of potential long term effects are difficult to deduce.

 Few studies have assessed the impact of Cry proteins on non-target aquatic arthropods and the fate of these proteins in senescent and decaying maize detritus in aquatic environments. However, exposure of non-target organisms to Cry proteins in aquatic ecosystems is likely to be very low, and potential exposure of Bt toxins to non-target organisms in aquatic ecosystems in Norway is considered to be negligible. 

 Maize is the only representative of the genus Zea in Europe, and there are no cross-compatible wild or weedy relatives outside cultivation with which maize can hybridise and form backcross progeny. Vertical gene transfer in maize therefore depends on cross-pollination with other conventional or organic maize varieties. In addition, unintended admixture of genetically modified material in seeds represents a possible way for gene flow between different crop cultivations. The risk of pollen flow from maize volunteers is negligible under Norwegian growing conditions. 

 In addition to the data presented by the applicant, the VKM GMO Panel is not aware of any scientific report of increased establishment and spread of maize MON810 and any change in survival (including over-wintering), persistence and invasiveness capacity. Because the general characteristics of maize MON810 are unchanged, insect resistance are not likely to provide a selective advantage outside cultivation in Norway. 

 Since MON810 has no altered agronomic and phenotypic characteristics, except for the specific target pest resistance, the VKM GMO Panel is of the opinion that the likelihood of unintended environmental effects due to the establishment and survival of maize MON810 will be no different to that of conventional maize varieties in Norway.

 Overall Conclusion:

 The VKM GMO Panel has not identified toxic or altered nutritional properties of maize MON810 or its processed products compared to conventional maize. Based on current knowledge, it is also unlikely that the Cry1Ab protein will increase the allergenic potential of food and feed derived from maize MON810 compared to conventional maize varieties. The VKM GMO Panel likewise concludes that cultivation of maize MON810 is unlikely to have any adverse effect on the environment and agriculture in Norway.

Open Access Grey Literature

Food/Feed and Environmental Risk Assessment of Insect-resistant and Herbicide-tolerant Genetically Modified Maize 1507 x 59122 for Food and Feed Uses, Import and Processing under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 (EFSA/GMO/NL/2005/15)

Åshild Andreassen, Per Brandtzæg, Merethe Aasmo Finne, Askild Lorentz Holck, Anne-Marthe Jevnaker, Olavi Junttila, Heidi Sjursen Konestabo, Richard Meadow, Kåre M. Nielsen, Monica Sanden, Hilde-Gunn Opsahl-Sorteberg, Rose Vikse

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 255-258
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i430172

In preparation for a legal implementation of EU-regulation 1829/2003, the Norwegian Environment Agency has requested the Norwegian Food Safety Authority to give final opinions on all genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products containing or consisting of GMOs that are authorized in the European Union under Directive 2001/18/EC or Regulation 1829/2003/EC within the Authority’s sectorial responsibility. The Norwegian Food Safety Authority has therefore, by letter dated 13 February 2013 (ref. 2012/150202), requested the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) to carry out scientific risk assessments of 39 GMOs and products containing or consisting of GMOs that are authorized in the European Union. The request covers scope(s) relevant to the Gene Technology Act. The request does not cover GMOs that VKM already has conducted its final risk assessments on. However, the Agency requests VKM to consider whether updates or other changes to earlier submitted assessments are necessary.

 The insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant genetically modified maize 1507 x 59122 from Dow AgroSciences and Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. is approved under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 for food and feed uses, import and processing since 28 July 2010 (Commission Decision 2010/432/EC). 

 Genetically modified maize 1507 x 59122 has previously been risk assessed by the VKM Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), commissioned by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority and the Norwegian Environment Agency related to the EFSAs public hearing of the applications EFSA/GMO/NL/2005/15 and EFSA/GMO/NL/2005/28 in 2007 (VKM 2007a, 2008a). In addition, 1507 x 59122 has been evaluated by the VKM GMO Panel as single events and as a component of several stacked GM maize events (VKM 2004, VKM 2005a,b, VKM 2007b,c, VKM 2008b,c, VKM 2009a,b, VKM 2012). The risk assessment of the maize 1507 x 59122 is based on information provided by the applicant in the applications EFSA/GMO/NL/2005/15 and EFSA/GMO/NL/2005/28, and scientific comments from EFSA and other member states made available on the EFSA website GMO Extranet. The risk assessment also considered other peer-reviewed scientific literature as relevant.  

 The VKM GMO Panel has evaluated 1507 x 59122 with reference to its intended uses in the European Economic Area (EEA), and according to the principles described in the Norwegian Food Act, the Norwegian Gene Technology Act and regulations relating to impact assessment pursuant to the Gene Technology Act, Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms, and Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 on genetically modified food and feed. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety has also decided to take account of the appropriate principles described in the EFSA guidelines for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed (EFSA 2011a), the environmental risk assessment of GM plants (EFSA 2010) and the selection of comparators for the risk assessment of GM plants (EFSA 2011b). 

 The scientific risk assessment of maize 1507 x 59122 include molecular characterisation of the inserted DNA and expression of novel proteins, comparative assessment of agronomic and phenotypic characteristics, nutritional assessments, toxicology and allergenicity, unintended effects on plant fitness, potential for gene transfer, interactions between the GM plant and target and non-target organisms, effects on biogeochemical processes. 

 It is emphasized that the VKM mandate does not include assessments of contribution to sustainable development, societal utility and ethical considerations, according to the Norwegian Gene Technology Act and Regulations relating to impact assessment pursuant to the Gene Technology Act. These considerations are therefore not part of the risk assessment provided by the VKM Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. 

 The genetically modified maize stack 1507 x 59122 was produced by conventional breeding between inbred lines of maize containing the 1507 and 59122 events. The hybrid was developed to provide protection against certain lepidopteran and coleopteran target pests, and to confer tolerance to glufosinate-ammonium herbicides.

 Molecular Characterisation:

 As conventional breeding methods were used in the production of maize 1507 x 59122, no additional genetic modification was involved. Southern and PCR analyses demonstrated that the recombinant insert in the single 1507 and 59122 events were retained in maize stack 1507 x 59122. Genetic stability of the inserts has been demonstrated in the parental lines 1507 and 59122. Phenotypic analyses demonstrated stability of the insect resistance and herbicide tolerance traits in the hybrid. The expression levels of Cry1F, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 and PAT proteins in seeds and forage were considered comparable with those in the single events.

 Comparative Assessment:

 rative analyses of data from field trials located at representative sites and environments in the USA and Europe indicate that maize stack 1507 x 59122 is compositionally, agronomically and phenotypically equivalent to its conventional counterpart, with the exception of the lepidopteran and coleopteran-protection traits and herbicide tolerance, conferred by the expression of the Cry1F, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 and PAT proteins. Based on the assessment of available data, the VKM GMO Panel is of the opinion that conventional crossing of maize 1507 and 59122 to produce the hybrid 1507 x 59122 does not result in interactions that cause compositional, agronomic and phenotypic changes that would raise safety concerns. 

 Food and Feed Risk Assessment:

 Whole food feeding studies in rats and broilers indicate that maize 1507 x 59122 is nutritionally comparable to conventional maize. Bioinformatics analyses have not disclosed expression of any known ORFs in the parental maize events, and none of the newly expressed proteins show resemblance to any known toxins or IgE allergens. None of the proteins have been reported to cause IgE mediated allergic reactions. Some studies have, however, indicated a potential role of Cry-proteins as adjuvants in allergic reactions.

 Acute and repeated toxicity tests in rodents have not indicated toxic effects of the newly expressed proteins. However, these tests do not provide any additional information about possible adverse effects of maize 1507 x 59122.  

 Based on the current knowledge, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that 1507 x 59122 maize is nutritionally equivalent to conventional maize varieties, and that it is unlikely that newly expressed proteins introduce a toxic or allergenic potential in food and feed derived from maize 1507 x 59122 compared to conventional maize.

 Environmental Risk Assessment:

 The scope of the application EFSA/GMO/NL/2005/15 includes import and processing of maize 1507 x 59122 for food and feed uses. Considering the intended uses of maize 1507 x 59122, excluding cultivation, the environmental risk assessment is concerned with accidental release into the environment of viable grains during transportation and processing, and indirect exposure, mainly through manure and faeces from animals fed grains from maize 1507 x 59122. 

 Maize 1507 x 59122 has no altered survival, multiplication or dissemination characteristics, and there are no indications of an increased likelihood of spread and establishment of feral maize plants in the case of accidental release into the environment of seeds from maize 1507 x 59122. Maize is the only representative of the genus Zea in Europe, and there are no cross-compatible wild or weedy relatives outside cultivation. The VKM GMO Panel considers the risk of gene flow from occasional feral GM maize plants to conventional maize varieties to be negligible in Norway. Considering the intended use as food and feed, interactions with the biotic and abiotic environment are not considered by the GMO Panel to be an issue.

 Overall Conclusion:

 The VKM GMO Panel has not identified toxic or altered nutritional properties of maize 1507 x 59122 or its processed products compared to conventional maize. Based on current knowledge, it is also unlikely that the Cry1F, Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins will increase the allergenic potential of food and feed derived from maize 1507 x 59122 compared to conventional maize varieties. The VKM GMO Panel likewise concludes that maize 1507 x 59122, based on current knowledge, is comparable to conventional maize varieties concerning environmental risk in Norway with the intended usage.

Open Access Grey Literature

Food/Feed and Environmental Risk Assessment of Insect-resistant and Herbicide-tolerant Genetically Modified Maize 1507 x NK603 for Food and Feed Uses, Import and Processing under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 (EFSA/GMO/UK/2004/05)

Åshild Andreassen, Per Brandtzæg, Merethe Aasmo Finne, Askild Lorentz Holck, Anne-Marthe Jevnaker, Olavi Junttila, Heidi Sjursen Konestabo, Richard Meadow, Arne Mikalsen, Kåre M. Nielsen, Monica Sanden, Ville Erling Sipinen, Hilde-Gunn Opsahl-Sorteberg, Rose Vikse

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 259-262
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i430173

In preparation for a legal implementation of EU-regulation 1829/2003, the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) has been requested by the Norwegian Environment Agency (former Norwegian Directorate for Nature Management) and the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) to conduct final food/feed and environmental risk assessments for all genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products containing or consisting of GMOs that are authorised in the European Union under Directive 2001/18/EC or Regulation 1829/2003/EC. The request covers scope(s) relevant to the Gene Technology Act. The request does not cover GMOs that VKM already has conducted its final risk assessments on. However, the Agency and NFSA requests VKM to consider whether updates or other changes to earlier submitted assessments are necessary.

 The insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant genetically modified maize 1507 x NK603 from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. og Mycogen Seeds (Unique Identifier DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 x MONØØ6Ø3-6) is approved under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 for food and feed uses, import and processing since 24 October 2007 (Commission Decision 2007/703/EC). 

 Genetically modified maize 1507 x NK603 has previously been risk assessed by the VKM Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), commissioned by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority related to the EFSAs public hearing of the application EFSA/GMO/UK/2004/05 in 2005 (VKM 2005a). In addition,  maize 1507 x NK603 has been assessed by the VKM GMO Panel commissioned by the Norwegian Environment Agency and NFSA in connection with the national finalisation of the procedure of the notification in 2008 (VKM 2008). 1507 x NK603 has also been evaluated by the VKM GMO Panel as single events and as a component of several stacked GM maize events (VKM 2004, VKM 2005b, VKM 2007a, VKM 2009, and VKM 2012a).   The food/feed and environmental risk assessment of the maize 1507 x NK603 is based on information made available on the EFSA website GMO Extranet, and relevant peer-reviewed scientific literature.

 The VKM GMO Panel has evaluated 1507 x NK603 with reference to its intended uses in the European Economic Area (EEA), and according to the principles described in the Norwegian Food Act, the Norwegian Gene Technology Act and regulations relating to impact assessment pursuant to the Gene Technology Act, Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms, and Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 on genetically modified food and feed. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety has also decided to take account of the appropriate principles described in the EFSA guidelines for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed (EFSA 2011a), the environmental risk assessment of GM plants (EFSA 2006, 2010), selection of comparators for the risk assessment of GM plants (EFSA 2011b) and for the postmarket environmental monitoring of GM plants (EFSA 2011c). 

 The scientific risk assessment of maize 1507 x NK603 includes molecular characterisation of the inserted DNA and expression of novel proteins, comparative assessment of agronomic and phenotypic characteristics, nutritional assessments, toxicology and allergenicity, unintended effects on plant fitness, potential for gene transfer, interactions between the GM plant and target and non-target organisms, and effects on biogeochemical processes. 

 It is emphasised that the VKM mandate does not include assessments of contribution to sustainable development, societal utility and ethical considerations, according to the Norwegian Gene Technology Act and Regulations relating to impact assessment pursuant to the Gene Technology Act. These considerations are therefore not part of the risk assessment provided by the VKM Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. 

 The genetically modified maize stack 1507 x NK603 was produced by conventional breeding between inbred lines of maize containing the 1507 and NK603 events. The hybrid was developed to provide protection against certain lepidopteran target pests, and to confer tolerance to glufosinate-ammonium and glyphosate herbicides.

 Molecular Characterization:

 Southern blot and PCR analyses have indicated that the recombinant inserts in the parental maize events1507 and NK603 are retained in the stacked maize 1507 x NK603. Genetic stability of the inserts has previously been demonstrated in the parental events. Protein measurements show comparable levels of Cry1F, PAT and CP4 EPSPS proteins in the stacked maize 1507 x NK603 and the parental lines. Phenotypic analyses also indicated stability of the insect resistance and herbicide tolerance traits. 

 The VKM Panel on GMO considers the molecular characterisation of maize 1507 x NK603 and its parental events 1507 and NK603 as adequate. 

 Comparative Assessment:

 Comparative analyses of the compositional, agronomic and phenotypic characteristics of maize stack 1507 x NK603 and near-isogenic comparators were performed during multiple field trials in Chile and Europe in 2002/2003. With the exception of small intermittent variations, the results show no indications of unwanted unintentional effects, and that maize stack 1507 x NK603 is compositionally, agronomically and phenotypically equivalent to its comparators, with the exception of the introduced insect resistance and herbicide tolerance traits.

 Food and Feed Risk Assessment:

 Whole food feeding studies on rats have not indicated any adverse effects of the parental maize lines 1507 and NK603. No rodent whole food feeding study has been performed on the stacked maize 1507 x NK603; the applicant has however provided a nutritional feeding study performed on broilers. No adverse effects were observed in the study. Bioinformatics analyses have not revealed expression of any known ORFs in the parental maize lines, and none of the newly expressed proteins show resemblance to any known toxins or IgE allergens. Nor have the newly expressed proteins been reported to cause IgE mediated allergic reactions. Some studies have however indicated a potential role of Cry-proteins as adjuvants in allergic reactions.

 Acute and repeated dose toxicity tests in rodents have not indicated toxic effects of the Cry1F, PAT or CP4 EPSPS proteins. However, these tests do not provide any additional information about possible adverse effects of maize 1507 x NK603.

 Based on current knowledge, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that the stacked maize 1507 x NK603 is nutritionally equivalent to conventional maize varieties, and that it is unlikely that the newly expressed proteins introduce a toxic or allergenic potential in food and feed derived from maize 1507 x NK603 compared to conventional maize.

 Environmental Risk:

 Considering the intended uses of maize 1507 x NK603, excluding cultivation, the environmental risk assessment is concerned with accidental release into the environment of viable grains during transportation and processing, and indirect exposure, mainly through manure and faeces from animals fed grains from maize 1507 x NK603. 

 Maize 1507 x NK603 has no altered survival, multiplication or dissemination characteristics, and there are no indications of an increased likelihood of spread and establishment of feral maize plants in the case of accidental release into the environment of seeds from maize 1507 x NK603. Maize is the only representative of the genus Zea in Europe, and there are no cross-compatible wild or weedy relatives outside cultivation. The risk of gene flow from occasional feral GM maize plants to conventional maize varieties is negligible. Considering the intended use as food and feed, interactions with the biotic and abiotic environment are not considered to be an issue.

 Overall Conclusion:

 The VKM GMO Panel has not identified toxic or altered nutritional properties in maize 1507 x NK603 or its processed products compared to conventional maize. Based on current knowledge, it is also unlikely that the Cry1F protein will increase the allergenic potential of food and feed derived from maize 1507 x NK603 compared to conventional maize varieties. The VKM GMO Panel likewise concludes that maize 1507 x NK603, based on current knowledge, is comparable to conventional maize varieties concerning environmental risk in Norway with the intended usage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Compositions and Bioactive Compounds of Cultivated and Wild Auricularia auricular from Northeastern China

Hong Shan, Xiang dong Sun, Huan Chun Yang, Fang Yuan Liu, Bing Wang, Li Chai, Jun Luan

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 175-186
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i430160

Auricularia auricular is a traditional Chinese edible and medicinal fungus containing several bioactive compounds that have been proven to possess various healing effects. Around 98% of the global yield is provided by China and Heilongjiang province produces more than 52% of the total yield for the country. Meanwhile, Auricularia auricular harvested in this province is very famous for its superior quality. However, chemical compositions and bioactive compounds of Auricularia auricular grown in this region have not yet been investigated.

Proximate compositions and bioactive compounds in 36 cultivated and wild Auricularia auricular samples collected from Northeastern China were compared and analyzed. The average contents of protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture, polysaccharide, total saccharide, and total flavonoid were determined to be 11.42%, 1.46%, 5.45%, 3.85%, 13.30%, 38.91%, 47.37%, and 2.18 mg 100 g-1, respectively. Amino acid compositions and nutritive element contents were also detected. Results showed that no significant difference exists for protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture, polysaccharide, and total saccharide contents between wild and cultivated A. auricular samples. While wild A. auricular samples contained over three times more content than cultivated samples. Some varieties with high calcium and iron contents were found in this study. White A. auricular was determined to have a very high fiber content of 16.39%.

This study reveals proximate compositions and bioactive compounds of cultivated and wild Auricularia auricular from Northeastern China and people will benefit from our results due to the special nutrition and bioactive compounds of Auricularia auricular harvested in this region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Volatile Compounds, Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Centaurea albonitens and Centaurea balsamita Seeds Growing in Van, Turkey

Sümeye Peker, Ayhan Baştürk

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 187-199
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i430161

Aims: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the potential of Centaurea albonitens and Centaurea balsamita seeds as alternative raw materials for edible oil production and natural antioxidant sources.

Study Design: C. balsamita and C. albonitens were harvested from the district of Van province during harvest-maturity period in August-September 2017. The plants were identified by a biologist, Prof. Dr. Murat ÜNAL. The Voucher specimens (B5495, MÜ68611) were deposited at the Virtual Herbarium of Lake Van Basin, Van Yüzüncü Yil University, Faculty of Education.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out between June 2017 - January 2019 in Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Engineering, Food Engineering Department laboratory.

Methodology: This study consists of two parts. In the first part, crude oil, moisture, ash, protein content, total phenolic content (TPC), volatile components and antioxidant activities of Centaurea albonitens and Centaurea balsamita seeds were determined. In the second part, fatty acid compositions, tocopherol contents, peroxide values (PV), free fatty acidity (FFA) and color values of seed oils obtained by cold extraction were determined.

Results: The antioxidant capacities were determined by the 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. Results were 26.60 and 27.12%, and 80.61 and 95.99 mmol Trolox eq/g for C. balsamita and C. albonitens seeds, respectively. The total phenolic content of the seeds were determined to be 9019 and 11501 mg GAE/kg, respectively. The average α-tocopherol content were found to be 1186 and 1689 mg/kg oil. Oil yields of the seeds were found to be 19.36 and 17.65 %, for C. balsamita and C. albonitens seeds, respectively. In fatty acid profiles; linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids were determined as the most dominant fatty acids. 22 volatile compounds were detected in C. balsamita seed while this was 26 volatile compounds in C. albonitens seed.

Conclusion: In this study, it was concluded that C. albonitens and C. balsamita seeds may be considered as alternative raw materials for edible oil production, and these seeds can be used in the formulation of functional foods due to their high level of α-tocopherol, natural antioxidants and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Dose and Duration of Administration of Potassium Bromate on Selected Electrolytes and Hepatorenal Parameters in Male Albino Wistar Rats

Samuel Y. Gazuwa, Jonathan D. Dabak, Kiri H. Jaryum, Ige Oluwa

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 214-220
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i430163

Aim: To monitor the effects of dosage and duration of administering KBrO3 on some electrolytes and hepatorenal parameters in male albino Wistar rats.

Study Design: 24 rats, mean weight of 181.3 g were grouped into 4 with 6 rats of each. Experiment spanned over 12 days. In the control group, animals were fed standard diet. Animals in the test groups were fed diet containing 67, 100 and 167 mg/kg dose of KBrO3 according to body weight. 2 rats from each group were sacrificed on the 4th, 8th and 12th days.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Jos; 1 month including writing the report.

Methods: Spectrophotometric and titrimetric techniques were applied. InStat3 statistical software was used to analyse the data obtained. P≤.05 was considered significant.

Results: on the 4th day at 67mg/kg dose, showed raised serum activities (IU) of ALT, 41.0±9.6, and AST, 130.2±31.53, (P=.05). At 100 mg/kg dose, serum activities of ALT, 52.12±1.12, AST, 180.0±0.41, and level (g/L) of Total Proteins, TP, 67.77±0.35, were elevated (P=.05).On the 8th day at 67mg/kg dose, there were no significant increases (P>.05). At 100 mg/kg dose, only AST activity, 98.0±43.86, increased (P=.05). Levels of urea (UR) and creatinine (CR) were lower than the control at both 60 and 100 mg/kg dose. At 167mg/kg dose, level of TP and activities of ALT, and AST increased (P=.05) relative control. On the 12thday, treatments at 67 mg/kg dose raised the activities of ALT and AST (P=.05).At 100 mg/kg dose, level of creatinine, 106±19.2 µmol/L, was significantly (P=.05) elevated. For urea, mmol/L, test groups results (4.26±1.39; 6.70±2.01; 21.07±2.21) were higher (P=.05) relative control group. Activities of AST and ALP were raised (P=.05). On the 12th day at 167 mg/kg dose, TP, ALT, AST and ALP significantly (P=.05) elevated implying toxicity of KBrO3 is both dose and duration of exposure-depended. On 4th and 8th day of treatment, mean level of Cl- was significantly (P=.05) raised whereas HCO3- was not significantly (P>.05) increased. 12th day of experimentation resulted in dose, and duration of exposure dependent increase concentration of Cl- (P=.05).

Conclusion: This compound could potentially cause injury to, especially hepatocytes and nephrons. It can also perturb the redox status of the cell with its attendant metabolic consequences; hence, moderate use is imperative.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Nutritive Value of Commonly Consumed Processed and Unprocessed Vegetables in South-Southern Nigeria

Lilian C. Aburime, Onot O. Ekpe, Gift O. Okpuruwu, Chidera T. Nweke

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 263-273
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i430174

Aim: The nutritive value, proximate, vitamin and mineral compositions of seven commonly consumed vegetables in South-Southern Nigeria were determined.

Methodology: Pods and leaves of vegetables were divided into two parts. One part was analyzed raw and the remaining part was cooked by boiling. The raw vegetable leaves and okro pods were separately washed and dried using a food dehydrator (40ºC) for 24hrs. After drying, it was milled into fine flour using an electric blender. The second part of the vegetables were processed by boiling using variable time, after boiling, they were separately drained and dried using a food dehydrator at a temperature of about 50ºC for 48 hrs. Chemical analyses were carried out using standard laboratory methods. Means and standard deviations were calculated using the statistical package for social science. The least significant difference (LSD) was accepted at P = .05 significance.

Results: For the raw vegetables the results were as follows: Moisture 71.2 – 91.2%, ash 0.9- 2.9%, dietary fibre 9.2 – 13.1%, fat 0.3 -1.4%, protein 2.1 – 8.2%, available Carbohydrate 1.0 – 8.7%, phosphorus 8 -52 mg/100 g, potassium 263- 1152 mg/100 g, sodium 3-23 mg/100 g, calcium 183-815 mg/100 g, magnesium 67-217 mg/100 g, iron 0.26-1.27 mg/100 g, zinc 0.26-1.10 mg,  folate 3-13 mcg/100 g. The results of the boiled vegetables were: moisture 80.9– 93.8%, protein 1.7 – 3.2%, fat 0.2 – 0.5%, ash 0.5– 1.1%, dietary fibre 3.9 – 9.3%, available carbohydrate 3.8 – 9.9%, phosphorus 7 – 35 mg/100 g, Potassium 0.33 – 300 mg/100 g, sodium 0.3 – 20 mg/100 g, magnesium 45 – 132 mg/100 g, calcium 82 – 200 mg/100 g, iron 0.21 -0.60 mg/100 g, zinc 0.13 – 0.30mg/100g. Folate 3 – 6 mcg/100 g. The range of the percentage contributions of the vegetables that are consumed raw to the recommended nutrient intake or recommended dietary allowance of adults are as follows: protein 5-18%, fat 1-3%, carbohydrates 1-6%, dietary fibre 3-52%, iron 2-14%, zinc 6-36%, calcium 26 -116%, phosphorus 8-31%, sodium 0.3-1%, Potassium 8-32%, Magnesium 26-99%, Folate 3-4%.

Conclusion: Boiling significantly reduced most nutrient studied. Bitter leaves are more nutrient dense than other studied vegetables. Knowing the food compositions of these vegetables will promote their use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Iodine Content of Commercially Available Table Salts at the Retailer Level in Selected Areas of Bangladesh

Mohammad Rahanur Alam, Moumita Dey, Md. Kobirul Islam, Sompa Reza, Sumaiya Mamun, Abduz Zaher

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 284-288
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i430177

Aims: Iodine deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies in Bangladesh. To combat iodine deficiency disorders, universal salt iodization is mandatory in Bangladesh. The aim of our study was to determine the iodine content of both packaged and open edible table salts sold at the retailer level in different areas of Bangladesh.

Study Design: The study is an experimental cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The present study was conducted in the food analysis laboratory of Department of Food Technology and Nutrition Science, Noakhali Science and Technology University from March 2019 to June 2019. A total of 90 salt samples were collected from ten retailers selected based on convenience sampling from two districts: Dhaka and Noakhali. Among the samples, 45 were packaged salts from Fifteen different brands and the rest of the 45 samples were non brand open salt.

Methodology: The iodine content of iodized salt samples was determined by the iodometric titration method.

Results: The mean iodine content of both types of salts is 17.801±1.973 ppm. The mean iodine contents of packaged salts and open salts are 30.691±2.679 ppm and 4.912±1.008 ppm, respectively. Only 42% of the total salt samples are adequately iodized (>20 ppm). 75% of packaged salt samples are adequately iodized and only 8% of open salt samples are adequately iodized.

Conclusion: As iodine content in open table salts doesn’t meet the criteria set by the government, the sale of open salt for human consumption should be stopped. 

Open Access Review Article

Bio-preservation of Foods: A Review

Vaishali ., Punit Jhandai, Vijay J. Jadhav, Renu Gupta

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 164-174
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i430159

Biopreservatives are commonly used in food products to satisfy the increasing demand of consumers with increasing advancement in food and technology. The foods with chemical preservatives are now being neglected by the people and they prefer products which are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Thus, as a result food industry is using naturally produced preservatives to increase the shelf life of product without any new technology. The most commonly used bio-preservatives are bacteriocins, essential oils, herbs and spices, vinegar, fermentation and sugar and salt. They exhibit growth inhibition of various microorganisms when added at different concentrations so as to preserve food products. These preservatives have been tested under laboratory conditions to know their apt use. This review provides an overview of the importance of bio-preservatives as per the increasing demand of consumers.

Open Access Review Article

Potential Health Benefits of Conjugated Linoleic Acid: An Important Functional Dairy Ingredient

Chaudhari Kalpeshkumar Virsangbhai, Ankit Goyal, Beenu Tanwar, Manvesh Kumar Sihag

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 200-213
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i430162

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a class of positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid (cis-9, cis-12 octadecadienoic acid) having conjugate double bond system. CLA are synthesized in rumen of the ruminants by biohydrogenation of dietary fatty acids; and thus, can be obtained from dairy products as well as from the meat of sheep, lamb and other ruminants. Among the several isomers, c9, t11-CLA isomer is the most biologically active form and accounts approximately 80% of total isomers. A number of clinical and epidemiological studies have demonstrated the role of CLA as anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-carcinogenic, etc. Several researchers have suggested the positive association of CLA in weight management, hypercholesterolemia, immunomodulatory functions, and improved bone metabolism.

Open Access Review Article

Evolution of Merchantability during Storage of Maize Triple Bagged Containing Biopesticides (Lippia multiflora and Hyptis suaveolens)

Yao Vanessa Gaël, Konan K. Constant, Niamketchi G. Leonce, A. Aka Boigny Ange, Adama Coulibaly, Henri Marius G. Biego

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 274-283
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2019/v11i430175

The aim of study was to evaluate merchantability quality of stored maize in triple bagging with biopesticides. Maize grains were collected in March 2016 in the north of Côte d’Ivoire. The fresh leaves of Lippia multiflora and Hyptis suaveolens were collected and dried in sunlight for 7 days in the center of Cote d'Ivoire. Triple bags were bought in Abidjan market. All this material was sent to the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Sciences, Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, Côte d’Ivoire, to perform the experiment. Ten treatments were obtained for the experimentation. The first treatment was conservation of 50 kg of maize grain in a polypropylene bag. The second treatment was conservation of 50 kg of maize grain in a PICS bag. The other eight treatments were carried out with PICS bags each containing 50 kg of maize grain and different proportions of chopped leaves Lippia multiflora and Hyptis suaveolens. A central composite design was used for sample constitution. Thus, a control group with polypropylene bags (TPPB0), a control group in PICS bags without biopesticides (TPB0) and 8 experimental lots of triple bags noted TB1 containing 0.625 kg L. multiflora and 0.625 kg H. suaveolens, TB2 with 0.40 kg of L. multiflora and 1.60 kg of H. suaveolens, TB3 with 1.60 kg of L. multiflora and 0.40 kg of H. suaveolens, TB4 with 0.10 kg of L. multiflora and 0.40 kg of H. suaveolens, TB5 with 0.40 kg of L. multiflora and 0.10 kg of H. suaveolens, TB6 with 2.5 kg of L. multiflora and 2.5 kg of H. suaveolens, TB7 with 1.25 kg of L. multiflora and TB8 with 1.25 kg of H. suaveolens have been used. Changes in moisture, damages and weight losses were studied. The results show moisture levels (from 09.02±0.11% to 12.07± 0.06%), weight loss (from 0.49±0.02% to 2.54±0.07%) and damage (from 0.99±0.02% to 3.96± 0.01%), corn stored in triple bagged bags with different proportions of biopesticide were significantly lower than those recorded in the Polypropylene woven sample bag (TPPB0) and in the triple bagged control bag during the storage period. The results obtained indicate stability in the quality of maize stored for 18 months in triple bagged bags containing different proportions of leaves of L. multiflora and H. suaveolens. A proportion of 5% of the mixture of leaves of L. multiflora and H. suaveolens (2.5 kg of L. multiflora and 2.5 kg of H. suaveolens) in triple bagged bags is recommended for a better preservation of the merchantability of the stored maize grains kernels.

Storage of maize grains in PICS bags with the leaves of L. multiflora and H. suaveolens appears as a method of effective and inexpensive conservation to ensure the merchantability quality of maize.