Open Access Original Research Article

The Anti-nutritional Effect of Phytate on Zinc, Iron and Calcium Bioavailabilities of Some Cereals Staple Foods in Zaria, Nigeria

A. Amos, A. Alvan, A. Florence

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i130178

Aim of Study: To evaluate the effect of phytate on the bioavailabilities of zinc, iron and calcium of some cereals staple foods in Zaria, Nigeria.

Study Design: Experimental.

Place of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.

Methodology: Tuwon surfafen masara (TSM) was prepared by first milling the processed maize. Tuwon masara (TM) and Pap were prepared using standard local preparation methods. Phytic acid content was determined according to the method described by Reddy; The minerals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry; AOAC 1990. Data was analysed with one way ANOVA and differences were considered significant at P = .05.

Results: The ratios of Phytate:Ca, Phytate:Fe, Phytate:Zn for Tuwon surfafen masara were found to be 0.0026, 0.197 and 0.429 respectively. While that of Tuwon masara was 0.0044, 0.127 and 0.376 respectively. Accordingly pap showed a phytate to mineral ratios of 0.0025, 0.043 and 0.162 for Phytate:Ca, Phytate:Fe and Phytate:Zn respectively. The ratios of Phytate:Ca, Phytate:Fe and Phytate:Zn for local rice (LR) was found to be 0.0075, 0.110 and 0.625 respectively. While that of foreign rice (FR) was 0.0031, 0.046 and 0.266 respectively. The phytate to mineral ratios of all the staple foods in the present study falls below the critical values of >0.24, >1 and >18 for Phytate:ca, Phytate:Fe and Phytate:Zn respectively which indicate good bioavailability.

Conclusion: The result obtained showed that the bioavailability of Ca, Fe and Zn in TSM, TM, Pap, LR and FR in Zaria, Nigeria is not affected by their phytic acid contents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integration of Oyster and Milky Mushroom Flour to Underutilized Pulses for the Development of Mushroom Analogues

T. R. Thirumuruga Ponbhagavathi, S. Kanchana, G. Hemalatha, S. Vellaikumar, K. Kalpana

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 7-15
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i130179

Mushrooms are considered to be a healthy food as they are low in fat, high in protein with good biological value and antioxidant properties. Mushrooms also contain appreciable amounts of dietary fiber. But their quality starts deteriorating immediately after the harvest. On the other hand, horse gram and cowpea have limited utilization due to the presence of anti nutritional factor. In order to extend the shelf life of mushrooms with added value and breakdown the limit of utilization of horse gram and cowpea, extrusion processing has been carried out to develop mushroom analogues through the combination of mushrooms with those underutilized pulses. A formulation comprising 50-75% of pulses and 25-50% mushrooms was made up and extruded with feed moisture content of 12%, an extrusion temperature of 120°C and a screw speed of 150 rpm. The developed products had protein content ranging from 23.01 to 24.56% with increased antioxidant and in-vitro- digestibility properties. Addition of mushroom flour increased the Water Absorption Index (WAI) and decreased the Water Solubility Index (WSI). Incorporation of oyster mushroom powder at 25% and 50% along with cowpea and horse gram flour was found most acceptable in terms of texture and other organoleptic attributes. Developed mushroom analogues can act as a novel vegetarian protein rich convenience product in the market to improve nutritional status of the population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Wet and Dry Seasons on the Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Selected Vended Street Foods in Parts of Port Harcourt Metropolis

G. I. Oyet, D. B. Kiin-Kabari, M. O. Akusu, S. C. Achinewhu

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 16-29
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i130180

The distribution patterns of PAHs in selected ready-to-eat street foods in parts of Port Harcourt metropolis was investigated during wet and dry seasons in 3 locations (Makoba-station 1, Elekahia-station 2 and Rivers State University-station 3). The study was carried out using a complete randomized design in three factorial experiments (Factors A, B and C). Factor A represented Season, B Location and C Street Vended foods samples. The selected food samples were Roasted plantain (RP1-3), Roasted Fish (RF1-3), Roasted Yam (RY1-3), Meat Pie (MP1-3), Suya (SY1-3) and Doughnut (DN1-3). The foods were sampled twice each season and the mean results recorded. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometer (GC-MS) was used for the identification and evaluation of the presence of 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs). Percentage distribution of PAHs in street vended foods during the wet and dry season showed naphthalene value of RY1:57.6% dry and RY1 Not Detected (ND) wet season, MP2: 10.7% dry and MP2: 3.4% wet. Higher naphthalene values distribution during dry season (DN1: 59.6%) was observed, with corresponding lower values recorded during the wet season (DN1: 43.3%). RP1: 10.4% wet and RY1: 19.4% wet while RP1: 9.6% dry and RY1: 2.6% dry showed lower percentage of Flouranthene values during the dry season compared with higher values obtained for the wet season. Chrysene values (RP1: 10.9% wet, RP1: 10.0% dry, SY2: 69.2% wet, SY2: 71.4% dry, MP2: 69.8%, MP2: 22.7% wet) were detected in street vended food as low molecular weight hydrocarbons, with higher degree of distribution during dry season than the wet season. Higher molecular weight Benzo(a)anthracene was detected for all food samples. For RY2: 86.1% dry and 81% wet, RF3:71.3% dry and RF3: 52.0% wet, RF2: 69.0% wet, RF2: 61.4 dry, (DN1-DN3: 28-71.5% wet) and (DN1-3: 21.9-76% dry) seasons for Benzo(a)anthracene. The study showed that Benzo(a)anthracene had the highest percentage distribution during dry season in roasted fish and doughnut (DN2). Benzo(k)fluoranthene (RP1: 2.5% wet, 2.6%dry), Benzo(b)fluoranthene (RY2: 9.9% wet, 1.7% dry, MP2: 8.9% dry and 2.7% wet) and Benzo(a)pyrene (RP1: 5.5% wet, 4.5% dry) were detected in all vended foods during wet and dry seasons, with higher percentage values observed during the dry season. Benzo(a)anthracene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene and Benzo(a)pyrene were detected in all vended foods. The study showed that the wet and dry seasons have imparted on the distribution levels of Lower Molecular Weight (LMW) and Higher Molecular Weight (HMW) of PAHs in ready-to-eat vended street foods. The patterns of distribution established the presence of these PAHs in selected ready-to-eat vended street foods. PAHs found in street vended foods is of public health concern to consumers and call for urgent attention for the review of the PAHs sources in food preparations, handling and storage in Port Harcourt metropolis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Standardization and Stabilization of Millet Milk by Enzyme and Its Physicochemical Evaluation

K. Shunmugapriya, S. Kanchana, T. Uma Maheswari, R. Saravana Kumar, C. Vanniarajan

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 30-38
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i130181

Millets are nutritionally rich and occupy an important place in the diet of people in many regions of the world.  Although millets are nutritionally  superior  to  cereals, their  utilization  as  a  food  is   mostly confined  to  the traditional consumers. So, the present study was undertaken to standardize millet milk from barnyard millet, little millet, kodo millet and finger millet by enzymatic extraction method. Aqueous extract of millet milk was treated with α amylase and pasteurized at 75ºC for 15 minutes. The pasteurized millet milk was evaluated for physical and nutritional parameters. Results showed that the physical properties of developed millet milk have met the requirement of plant-based milk in terms of viscosity (2.32±0.02 to 2.82±0.03). Protein content of millet milk varied from 1.38±.0.03 to 1.12±.0.02 g. Total polyphenols (205.72±0.13 mg/100 ml) and total antioxidant activity (81.64±1.77%) were high for finger millet milk and total flavonoid content was high for barnyard millet milk (96.25±1.88 mg/100 ml). Enzymatic treatment significantly reduced the anti-nutritional factor (phytic acid, tannin and trypsin inhibitor activity) content in millet milk. The enzymatically developed product had high In vitro protein (69.28±0.28 to 85.57±1.39%) and starch digestibility (69.75±0.56 to 63.36±0.12 mg maltose/g). From the results, it was concluded that the current approach provides a convenient way for the production of nutritionally sound millet milk at the household and industrial level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification and Biochemical Characterization of Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Raw Beef Sold in Otuoke Market, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

C. G. Ikimi, F. I. Omeje, C. K. Anumudu

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 39-43
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i130182

Meat and meat products are a very important category of food consumed widely to meet the nutritional requirements of humans. Due to the high nutrient and moisture content of meat, they readily support the growth of diverse microorganisms. The consumption of these products, when contaminated by pathogenic microorganisms can pose a risk to health leading to possible food poisoning, with Escherichia coli being the most implicated organism. Thus, this research focused on the isolation of Escherichia coli from raw beef (Bos taurus) retailed in Otuoke market, its biochemical identification, pathogenicity testing and antibiogram. A total of 90 raw beef samples were collected from three retail points (30 samples per point) over 3 months and cultured on Eosin-Methylene Blue (EMB) agar for the elucidation of E. coli. Conventional biochemical tests were performed on isolates to identify E. coli. The isolates were subjected to Congo-red assay to test for pathogenicity and the agar-diffusion assay to test sensitivity to commonly utilized antibiotics. A total of 51 samples (56%) were contaminated with E. coli of which 24 samples (26.6%) had mean aerobic bacteria counts greater than 5.0 Log CFU/gm which is above the European Commission Regulation No. 2073/2005 guideline for fresh beef. All E. coli isolates tested positive to the Congo-red assay, thus indicating their potential pathogenicity. Antimicrobial sensitivity assay indicates the resistance of isolates to Tetracycline (60%), Erythromycin (80%) and Amoxicillin (85%). However, the isolates were sensitive to Nitrofurantoin (90%), Gentamicin (78%) and Ciprofloxacin (82%). The results obtained highlights the high level of contamination by potentially pathogenic E. coli in retailed fresh meats which are highly resistant to some of the commonly used antibiotics. The results obtained from this study is of public health significance as it indicates possible risks of infection to people through the consumption of inadequately cooked meat or the cross-contamination of other food items by the meat products which may lead to outbreaks of food poisoning. 

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on the Effect of Storage of Betel Leaves at Ambient Temperature

Srujana Shrunkala, M. Ramachandra, K. Venkatachalapathi, R. Chandru, R. Munirajappa, V. Palanimuthu

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 44-52
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i130183

A research study was conducted for studying the storage of Madras and Kolkata varieties of betel leaves under ambient temperature with different diffusion storage systems were observed for different treatments. In the treatment T1, the concentration of oxygen, O2 reduced to a minimum of 14.27 per cent and carbon dioxide, CO2 concentration increased to 4.80 per cent on the 14th day of storage in ambient condition (28°C). It was also reported that by the 14th day, betel leaves stored at ambient condition maintained satisfactory quality in the entire diffusion channel chambers. For the Kolkatta leaves the treatment T2, the concentration of O2 was reduced to 12.0 per cent and CO2 concentration increased to 7.87 per cent on the 18th day of storage. Compared to other treatments, the O2 concentration was found to be very low and CO2 concentration was high on the 18th day of storage in T2 diffusion channel. Similarly, on the 18th day, betel leaves stored at ambient condition maintained satisfactory quality in all the treatments. Hence, it is clear that from this present study, different varieties of betel leaves will have different rates of respiration for a particular size of the diffusion channel and temperature. In other words, varietal variation occurs concerning respiration rate under identical condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sesame Meal and Moringa oleifera Leaves Ready to Cook Curry Mix: An Ethnic Food of Godavari Districts in Andhra Pradesh, India

Gopinath Mummaleti, Nikhila Prasaram, Narender Busani, Manikya Rao Badugu, Ch. V. V. Satyanarayana

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 64-75
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i130185

Sesame meal was widely consumed in Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh, India which was not known to most of the people and under-utilized. Moringa leaves were another nutritious food that is also under-utilized and not available in urban areas. The aim of this work was to develop the sesame meal and dried Moringa leaves as a ready to cook curry mix by assessing the ratio of sesame meal and dried Moringa leaves as to determine the best closer fresh leaves and sesame meal blend. The Moringa leaves were treated with citric acid, and potassium meta bisulphite to retain the colour and dried by different techniques such as shade drying, solar drying and drying in Ezidri food dehydrator at 60, 50, 35ºC. The leaves dried in Ezidri food dehydrator retained more colour and nutrients. The dried leaves were used to prepare curry with sesame meal taking fresh leaves as a control in the ratio 1:2. The dried leaves and sesame meal were taken in the ratio 0.1:1, 0.12:1 and 0.14:1, prepared samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics and compared with the control sample. The curry prepared in the ratio 0.12:1 is best accepted and close to the control sample. The nutritive value shows Sesame meal and Moringa leaves were the best cheapest sources of protein, calcium, iron, potassium and vitamin A.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Nutritive and Preservative Impact of Enriching Zobo (Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx) Drink with Moringa Extract

Stella Oyom Bassey, Essien David-Oku, Mary Ehumile

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 76-84
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i130186

This study was aimed to determine the nutritive and preservative potential of enriching Zobo drink with Moringa leaf extract. Hot water extraction of Zobo drink produced with ginger and garlic gloves was separated into four different samples M0, M10, M20 and M30. To samples M10, M20 and M30 40 g, 80 g and 120 g of Moringa leaf powder respectively, were added. Samples analyzed in triplicate for their sensory characteristics, vitamins, minerals and microbial content. Sensory evaluation showed no significant difference in flavour, colour, tartness and sweetness amongst the samples. Overall acceptability was significantly (p<0.05) higher in sample M30 (6.90±2.36) probably due to high levels of tartness. Vitamin C was significantly (p<0.05) higher in sample M30 (4.50±0.10), compared to M0 (4.00 ±0.01), M10 (4.00 ±0.02) and M20 (4.20 ±0.01) samples. Vitamin A content (mg/100 mL) of M30 (0.13±0.300) was also significantly (p<0.05) higher than values obtained for M0 (0.1 0 ±0.20), M10 (0.12 ±0.30) and M20 (0.12 ±0.10) samples. pH differed significantly (p<0.05) amongst the different samples, i.e. M0 (2.70 ±0.00), M10 (2.80±0.00), M20 (3.00±0.00) and M30 (3.20±0.00). Microbial load result revealed the presence of coliform, total viable count, total aerobic, Salmonella typhi, Aspagillus niger and Strep. Spp. which was absent in sample M0 but were present in significantly (p<0.05) higher levels in sample M30 (867.00±0.20, 982.00±0.10, 982.00±0.10, 28.00±0.10, 7.00±0.10 and 93.00±0.10 respectively). Significantly (p<0.05) higher levels of iron (1.30 ±0.12 mg/100 mL) in M30 compared with M10 (0.34±0.02), M20 (0.83±0.02) and M30 (1.30 ±0.12) and magnesium was highest in M20 (0.05 ±0.03 mg/100 mL) compared with M0 (0.00 ±0.00), M10 (0.00±0.00) and M30 (0.02±0.31) samples, In conclusion, this study has revealed that Moringa improve the nutritive and overall sensory characteristics of Zobo drink but result in a limited shelf life.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Soybean, Sorghum and African Breadfruit Flours on the Proximate Composition and Sensory Properties of Chin-Chin

Ruth Ginika Ugwuanyi, John Ikechukwu Eze, Ebele Christiana Okoye

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 85-98
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i130187

This work investigated the proximate and sensory properties of chin-chin from the flour blends of wheat, African breadfruit, soybean, and sorghum. Chin-chin was produced from the blends of wheat: African breadfruit (BWF), wheat: soybean (SWF) and wheat: sorghum (SGW) in the ratios of 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40 for each blend and coded as BWF1, BWF2, BWF3 and SWF1, SWF2, SWF3 and SGW1, SGW2, SGW3 respectively. The control was 100% wheat flour (100:0) coded as WF. The proximate composition and sensory properties were determined. The results obtained show that partial substitution of wheat flour with breadfruit, soybean and sorghum flours caused a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the proximate composition of the samples. The crude protein content of samples BWF, SWF and SGW ranged from 15.73 to 19.34%, 19.2 to 24.62% and 9.11 to 10.73% respectively. The ash content of the samples ranged from 0.68 to 1.27%, 0.95 to 2.16% and 1.06 to 1.26% respectively and the crude fiber content ranged from 0.42 to 0.91%, 0.25 to 0.91% and 0.43 to 3.73% respectively. While the control sample (WF) had 13.08% of protein, 1.96% of ash and 0.80% of crude fiber. In terms of the overall acceptability, the control sample (WF) had the highest score (8.10) when compared with fortified samples followed by BWF3 (7.00). Although the control sample (WF) had the least nutrient contents compared to the fortified samples, yet, it was the most preferred by the panelists.

Open Access Review Article

Golden Rice to Eradicate the Vitamin A Deficiency in the Developing Countries

Umar Shahbaz, Xiao-Bin Yu, Wasim Akhtar, Regis Ndagijimana, Husnain Rauf

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 53-63
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i130184

The development of Golden Rice recently has taken longer than foreseen. Vitamin deficiency is a major medical issue that influences millions of people worldwide. UN Cartagena protocol for biosafety delayed particularly by deferring the determination of phenotypes developed in the open field. In this way, Golden Rice has not possessed the capacity to help with combatting vitamin an insufficiency as golden rice demonstrates fighting hidden hunger, as rice is the dominant crop in most of the Asian countries also staple food so people mostly rely on rice as energy source. Iron, zinc and vitamin A dearth are more dominant in rice consuming countries its named hidden hunger and it affects two billion people worldwide. VAD affect 190 million children and 19 million pregnant women worldwide, 100 grams of uncooked Golden Rice are able to supply up to 57 percent of the estimated average requirement (EAR) for vitamin A of pre-school children and from 38-47 percent of the EAR for pregnant and lactating women so far so good Golden rice passed rigorous biosafety assessment in Philippine. To get a working pro-vitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway in rice endosperm, we presented in a solitary, joined change exertion the cDNA coding for phytoene synthase (psy) and lycopene b-cyclase (b-lcy) both from Narcissus pseudonarcissus and both under the control of the endosperm-particular glutelin promoter together with a bacterial phytoene desaturase (crtI, from Erwinia uredovora under constitutive 35S promoter control). This blend covers the necessities for beta-carotene union and, as trusted, yellow beta-carotene-bearing rice endosperm was acquired in the T0-age.