Open Access Original Research Article

Lipid Profile of a Population of Jacqueville, Consumer of Palm Oil in Southern Côte d’Ivoire

Nemahiouon Francis Bataï, Marie Louise Ahui Bitty, Assamala Françoise Fossou, Kacou Jules Marius Djetouan, Kollet Yao Aimé Sylvere Zahe, Kouakou Ernest Amoikon

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i230188

Aims: The main aim of this study is to describe the profile of lipids serum in an active and apparently healthy population consuming palm oil in the department of Jacqueville in the south of Côte d'Ivoire

Methodology: We focused on 83 apparently healthy volunteers, which ages ranged between 18 to 50 years old. Within that population, 43 of them were palm oil consumers (67 g / day) while 40 others were considered as population control (30 g / day). We determined the BMI as well as blood pressure. Furthermore, we used conventional enzyme methods to measure the total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides.

Results: Our results shown that, the mean BMI of palm oil consumers did not vary significantly compared to the control population. However, the two groups of subjects were overweight and both  group were in hypotension and the other hand the mean values of the lipid parameters did not vary significantly between the two study groups. In addition, the mean values of the lipid parameters (CT, C-LDL and TG) were normal in the two groups. With the exception of C-HDL, which value was lower than the reference one at the level of the two groups.

Conclusion: This study did not show any influence of palm oil consumption on the mean BMI, blood pressure and lipid profile of the population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Quality Characteristics of Cookies from Sprouted Sorghum, Pigeon Pea and Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Flour Blends

Florence A. Bello, Etoro-Obong E. Akpan, Victor E. Ntukidem

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 11-21
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i230189

The present study was undertaken to produce cookies from readily available but underutilized Nigerian crops such as sorghum, pigeon pea and orange fleshed sweet potato. Different blends of sprouted sorghum, pigeon pea and orange fleshed potato flour were mixed and coded in the ratios (w/w) 100:0:0 (A), 95:5:0 (B), 85:10:5(C), 75:15:10(D), 65:20:15(E) while 100% wheat flour (F) was produced as control. The functional properties of the flour samples were determined while produced cookies were evaluated for their physical, proximate, selected vitamins, anti-nutrients and sensory properties using standard methods. Significant (p < 0.05) increases in water absorption capacity, bulk density and swelling index of flour blends were observed as the level of substitutions increased. Control sample had the highest weight (13.89 g) and spread ratio (1.22) while sample E had the least weight (7.31 g) and least spread ratio (0.92). Moisture, crude protein, crude lipid, ash, crude fibre contents as well as energy value of flour blends cookies were significantly (p < 0.05) higher with increased level of pigeon pea and potato flours addition. Significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the carbohydrate content of the cookies was observed. Vitamin A and C contents of sample E were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the value obtained for sample F. Anti-nutritional factors in the cookies samples were within permissible levels. Sensory ratings showed that sample B compared favourably with sample F based on overall acceptability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Spectrophotometric Methods to Assess the Post Harvest Storage and Processing Changes in Total β-carotene Contents in Selected Nigeria Vegetables

Emeka Felix Okpalanma

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 22-39
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i230190

The aim of this study was to correlate analytical methods (HPLC and spectrophotometric) in assessing the changes in total β-carotene contents in leafy vegetables during ambient temperature storage (29+2°C) and domestic processing (5 min,100°C.) The vegetables analyzed were: Telfairia occidentalis, Amaranethus hybridus, Talinum triangulare,Pterocarpus mildbraedli and Gnetum africanum. Total–carotene was determined spectrophometrically, while HPLC was used for detailed analysis of carotenoides. Lutein, β -cryptoxanthin and β-carotene isomers were identified and quantified. Results indicated that the raw vegetables were rich in lutein (124.03-655.95 µg/gdwt) and total β -carotene (45.42 – 246.93 µg/gdwt). Beta–cryptoxanthin was detected in small quantity (5.05-11 µg/gdwt). However, spectrophotometric result indicated a total–carotene content range (186.10 – 953.78 µg/gdwt). Cooking increased significantly (P< 0.05), the lutein (382. 92 – 1158.83 µg/gdwt), total β -carotene (738.53 – 1756.51 µg/gdwt) contents of the samples, however, it decreased the % trans–β-carotene contents. Storage conditions in the study increased significantly (P< 0.05) the contents of total β -carotene and total–carotene except in the case of Gnetum africanum leaf. A regression model for the two methods of analysis of β -carotene with a coefficient of correlation r = 0.925 and coefficient of determination r2 = 0.856, which allows for the calculation of total β - carotene from total-carotene content was obtained.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Honey on Some Bacterial Isolates from Selected Brands of Sachet Water Sold within Port Harcourt, Nigeria

V. N. Agi, C. P. Aleru, C. A. Azike, O. A. Ollor, D. U. Alonyenu

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 40-46
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i230191

Background: The present study was carried out to assess the antimicrobial effect of honey on bacterial isolates from sachet water sold within Eligbolo Community in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Methodology: Five brands of sachet water commonly consumed by the people living in Eligbolo Community of Port Harcourt, Nigeria were purchased from different Vendors in the community. Nutrient and MacConkey agar plates were used for culturing of water samples using spread plate method. Ten-fold serial dilution and Most Probable Number (MPN) were among the methods used and the samples analyzed were according to standard procedures. Natural honey purchased from Ogbokolo in Benue State, Nigeria was used for susceptibility testing. Quality control, ant inhibition and water test methods were performed using the honey to confirm its originality before use. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done using the agar well diffusion method.

Results: Results obtained showed the bacterial isolated from the 5 sachet brands of water. These include Bacillus species 5 (62.5%), Enterococcus faecalis 1 (12.5%), Staphylococcus epidermidis 1 (12.5%), and Escherichia coli 1 (12.5%). All of the 5 sachet water samples analyzed failed to meet the WHO drinking water standard of zero coliform per 100 ml making them unsuitable for human consumption. Faecal coliform was isolated from sample C indicating faecal contamination of the drinking water. The sensitivity of the isolates to the honey sample showed higher zone of inhibition compared to the standard antibiotic used as control. Staphylococcus epidermidis showed the highest zone of inhibition (39 mm), followed by Escherichia coli (37 mm), Bacillus species (35 mm) and Enterococcus faecalis (32 mm) respectively.

Conclusion: The results revealed that honey has a broad antimicrobial spectrum against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and could provide alternative agent to overcome the problem of increasingly bacteria resistance to synthetic antimicrobial agents. It is therefore, recommended that further work should be encouraged for the extraction of the crude components of honey and their use for antibiotic production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fresh Vegetables and Ready-to-eat Salads: Sources of Parasitic Zoonoses in Mampong-Ashanti, Ghana

Papa Kofi Amissah-Reynolds, Denis Dekugmen Yar, Isaac Gyamerah, Ofosuhene Yaw Apenteng, Sophia Sakyi

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 47-55
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i230192

This study assessed parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables and ready-to-eat salads from Mampong Municipality in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Water and soil samples from various farms were also assessed for possible sources of contamination. Fresh vegetables and ready-to-eat salads were examined for parasites using saline as floatation medium, stained with Lugol’s iodine and Ziehl Neelsen and observed under X40 objective lens. Data gathered were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Of the 271 fresh vegetables examined, Ascaris lumbricoides recorded the highest prevalence (26.94%), followed by Giardia lamblia (19.93%). However, of the 120 salad samples examined, Giardia lamblia was most prevalent (24.17%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (19.17%).  Fasciola spp., Moniezia, Toxocara spp., Trichuris trichiura and Entamoeba histolytica, were other parasites recovered from both fresh vegetables and salads and also from soil and water on the farms. Fresh vegetables and ready-to-eat salads were contaminated with parasites of both human and animal origin, similar to those recovered from soil and water on the farms. Farm soils and water are potential sources of parasitic infestations on vegetables. Consumers of fresh vegetables and ready-to-eat salads are at risk of diarrheal diseases and parasitic zoonoses. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Impacts of Adding Rye, Sorghum and Their Mixtures on the Quality of Untraditional Egyptian Kishk

Jehan B. Ali, T. T. El-Sisy, A. F. Abdel-Salam

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 56-72
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i230193

Kishk is a dried mixture of fermented milk and cereal, widely consumed in Upper Egypt. The aim of this study was to study the effect of rye, sorghum with wheat grains compared with traditional wheat kishk (control) on physical properties, chemicals composition, microbiological and sensory analysis. Untraditional kishk was prepared with rye, sorghum and four groups of mixtures Mix1 (50% wheat and 50% rye), Mix 2 (50% wheat and 50% sorghum), Mix3 (50% rye and 50% sorghum) and Mix4 (mixed of wheat, rye and sorghum in ratio of 1:1:1) compared with traditional wheat kishk. The chemical composition analysis of different untraditional kishk was in the following ranges: moisture content of kishk samples ranged from 8.00 to 12.72% for M 2 and M 1, respectively. M 2 had the highest total solid of untraditional kishk samples value 84.66% while Mix 1 had the lowest value 76.18%. For protein content, wheat had the highest protein 27.11% followed by M 1 (26.02%), while sorghum (22.90%) had the lowest protein content. On other hand nitrogen free extracts (NFE) % range from 65.76% (rye) to 80.55% (wheat). Additionally Sorghum had lower fat (2.50%) than other samples and wheat was lower in ash content 6.64% in completely in other untraditional kishk. The results of fiber showed that rye had significant highest value of 8.12% while wheat had lowest value of 1.80%. M 3 was the lowest total caloric values 325.13% of kishk samples and tannic acid was under detection safe limit 0.185%. Data also indicated that as a result of pH of different prepared kishk samples. Microbiological analysis of kishk from wheat, rye, sorghum and their mixture were determined. M1 kishk is white and yellow colored than other untraditional kishk samples. Differences in sensory attributes were associated with different grain kishk and their mixed but there were no significant differences between wheat kishk control and M 1 in mouth feeling, and consistency. Sensorial, M1 kishk is more acceptability than other treatment after the traditional kishk control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation of Nutraceutical Enriched Fruits and Nuts Spread

C. Rohini, P. S. Geetha, R. Vijayalakshmi, M. L. Mini

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 73-78
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i230194

The growing trend of healthy and nutritious food eating among consumer is expected to be a major driver for the growth of global fruits spreads market. There is an increasing demand for food products, incorporated with fruits, vegetables and nuts with no or less preservatives. The innovations in improving the flavor and nutritional value of fruits spreads are expected to boost the growth of global fruits products markets. The hard coating nature of the pumpkin and cucumber seeds made it underutilized. Keeping this in view, the present study was formulated to produce nutraceutical enriched fruits and nuts spread. The pumpkin and cucumber seed powders were blended with fruits like mango, papaya and muskmelon. The seeds are rich in nutraceutical compounds such as β carotene, tannin, flavonoids, polyphenols and antioxidant properties. The 25% of pumpkin seeds are incorporated with 75% of each fruits and 25% of cucumber seeds are incorporated with 75% of each fruits. Based on the organoleptic evaluation, the fruit spread made with seeds and mango pulp was highly acceptable. The proximate values of pumpkin seeds incorporated mango spread had 33.34% moisture, 23.62 g protein, 26.73 g fat, 5.21 g fiber and 24.32 g of carbohydrate. The mango and cucumber seeds had 33.70% moisture, 15.21 g protein, 29.18 g fat, 6.82 g fiber and 21.46 g carbohydrate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Processing Methods on the Quality of Ackee Fruit Arils

Jerry Ampofo-Asiama, Angela Abla Zebede, Bernard Abakah, Bright Quaye

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 79-84
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i230195

Ackee (Blighiasapida) fruit has a nutritional composition comparable to other commonly consumed fruits although its consumption is limited by the presence of anti-nutrients. This study investigated the effect of processing on some anti-nutrients (oxalate and phytate) as well as on ascorbate, carotenoids and phenolic compounds in ackee arils. Changes in physicochemical (pH, titratable acidity, brix and color) were also analyzed. Ackee fruit was cut into arils and cooked for 15 min either by boiling in water at 100°C or steamed or fried in oil at 180°C. The unprocessed ackee aril had a pH, titratable acidityand brix of 5.79, 0.52% and 2.70, respectively. Significant changes in these physicochemical properties were only observed in the boiled arils while the highest change in color was observed in the steam fruits. Significant reductions in ascorbate levels of 49.27, 32.86 and 56.29% were observed after boiling, steaming and frying, although these processing methods did not significantly affect carotenoid and phenol levels. The levels of the anti-nutrients reduced significantly with oxalate reducing by 22.37, 26.67 and 37.42% and phytate levels reducing by 62.50, 66.67 and 54.17%, after boiling, steaming and frying, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Antioxidant Evaluation of Varieties of Pepper Fruits in Akpan Andem Market in Uyo Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

O. T. Umoh, V. E. Uyoh, A. P. Ette, E. E. Eyibio, A. O. Oghenekevwe, E. P. Osaro-Odin, S. A. Ikotidem

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 85-93
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i230196

The results of this research showed significant difference in the phytochemical contents of Capsicum baccatum L. (Yellow), Capsicum baccatum L. (Red), Capsicum Chinese Jacq., Capsicum annuum L. (Cayenne), Capsicum annuum L. (Bell) in terms of total Saponin, Tanins and Cardiac glucosides. The concentrations of flavonoids, Alkaloids and Anthraquinones were similar in the five species of Capsicum studied and it could be attribute to cultivation, ripeness, storage and soil salinity, among other factors. Reducing power assay is one of established method for evaluation of antioxidant potential of a test sample which was employed in the course of this work. Basically, it involves reduction of Fe3+ into Fe2+ with the formation of Perl’s Prussian blue colour complex wherein absorbance is read at 700 nm. This reducing ability varies with respect to various concentrations of antioxidant present in the samples. The Different fruit composition of the five pepper species indicates that apart from the evident morphological differences in terms of fruit shape and appearance, they also differ in their content of phytochemicals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metals Contamination of Some Food Materials from Markets in South Eastern Nigeria

C. A. Anukwuorji, R. N. Okigbo, A. E. Chikwendu, C. L. Anuagasi, J. U. Anukwu

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 94-101
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i230197

This research work aimed at assessing the metal composition of the cotyledons of Citrullus colocynthis (egusi) and Irvingia wombolu (ogbono) as well as cassava chips sold in open markets in the five states of the South-Eastern Nigeria. These food materials were sampled from 135 stores and markets in three waves (Wet season, Harmattan and Dry season) between February, 2015 and March, 2016 in each of the five states in south eastern Nigeria (Enugu, Anambra, Imo, Abia and Ebonyi). The food materials were analyzed for Zinc, Lead, Copper and Iron using the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) method. The concentrations of these metals were not higher than the maximum permissible limit set by NAFDAC in Nigeria except for Lead in Enugu State ((0.042±0.068 mg/g). The highest quantity of Lead was detected in Citrullus colocynthis (0.039±0.006 mg/g) while the least concentration was detected in Cassava chips (0.009±0.005 mg/g). Lead was detected in samples collected across all the seasons (Wet season, Dry season and Harmattan). The high concentration of Lead in the sampled food materials from Enugu state across all the waves of sample collection that violated the permissible limits of lead set by WHO and NAFDAC is of public health concern. Lead exposure has been shown to cause severe health challenges thus regular monitoring of these toxic heavy metals from foods sold in markets is essential, to prevent their excessive build-up in the food chain. The inference of this study reveals that these food materials sold in the open market are not completely safe for consumption as a result of lead contamination due to poor handling and processing. Findings from this study will be of great help to all stakeholders in this area of interest such as researchers and environmental regulators, relevant government agencies saddled with the responsibility of ensuring the safety of foods consumed in Nigeria.