Open Access Original Research Article

Survival Pattern and Toxin Production of Pathogens in Spiced and Non Spiced Fried Rice

Afolake Atinuke Olanbiwoninu, Oluwatooni Oluwaniran, Faidah Oladosu, Kolawole Banwo, Sunday Odunfa

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i430213

Aims: There is no data regarding the survival rate of pathogens in party foods held at different temperature and time interval in Nigeria. Hence, the need to study the survival rate of selected food borne pathogens in Fried rice (spiced and non – spiced) served at parties, monitor toxin production and the rate at which it is produced with respect to time and holding temperature as well as determine the effect of spices on the survival of food pathogens.

Place and Duration of Study: Lagelu and Ibadan North Local Government Authority Area of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, between May 2017 and September 2017.

Methodology: We obtained 10 fried rice samples (5 spiced and 5 non- spiced) from different parties inside sterile food warmers and transferred to the Food Microbiology Laboratory. Pathogens inoculated were obtained from the culture collection unit of the Food Microbiology laboratory and they were Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli. Inoculum size of the pathogens was determined prior to inoculation. Initial temperature of the fried rice sample was taken and after inoculation, samples were taken at an interval of 2 hours to determine the survival rate of the pathogens. Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL) assay was used to determine the level of toxin produced.

Results: The microbial load of all pathogens inoculated increased from its initial size as the holding temperature reduces and holding time increases. For E. coli, there was an increase from 5.3 log10CFU/g to 9.3 log10CFU/g and 8.3 log10CFU/g in non–spiced fried rice and spiced fried rice, respectively, initial load for S. typhi also increase from 4.1 log10CFU/g to 9.1 and 8.4, for B. cereus and S. aureus there was an increase form 6.3 log10CFU/g to 9.0 and 8.4 for non-spiced and spiced rice respectively. Toxicity test shows that the lethal dose was high at 8 hours (LC50:1.5) which connotes that the toxicity was high at this holding time.

Conclusion: Holding cooked foods at ambient temperature for 6 h or longer without appropriate reheating constitute a major critical control point for party food. Keeping foods at the right temperatures is an essential food safety practice. Adequate knowledge and application of this by caterers will reduce the rate of food borne illness in the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Features and Qualitative Detection of Adulteration along with Physicochemical Characteristics of Sweetened Yoghurt

Md. Ashikur Rahman, Arzina Hossain, Mahfuza Islam, Md. Shakhwat Hussain, Roksana Huque

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 9-16
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i430214

Background and Objective: Food adulteration is of major public health concern worldwide. The food safety situation in Bangladesh is at an alarming stage due to food adulteration, microbiological contamination and fraudulence. Consumption of milk and milk product are increasing because of their health benefit effect. However, milk and milk products are being currently adulterated by substituting ingredients with cheaper materials. The aim of this study was the qualitative detection of adulterants along with physico-chemical and microbial features of sweetened yoghurt.

Methodology: Sixteen sweetened yoghurt samples (Ten locally available and six commercial brands) were collected from different area in Bangladesh. All the sweetened yoghurt samples were subjected to urea, starch, ammonium sulphate, hydrogen peroxide analyses. Physico-chemical analysis of sweetened yoghurt was also done. Moreover, yoghurt samples were also microbiologically assessed.

Results: Acidity content of all sweetened yoghurt was found to be ranges from 0.66 ±.05% to 0.77±0.05 which was lower than the standard level of (0.8 to1.2). In both cases (Commercial) branded and (Local) unbranded yoghurt had lower moisture content and higher total solid content compared to standard level (13.5%). Those measurements indicated that sweetened yoghurt samples were adulterated with starch. Meanwhile, both branded and unbranded sweetened yoghurt samples had fat contents ranging between 1.56 ±0.09% to 2.63 ±0.2% which were below the standard level (3%). On the other hand, protein content ranged between 3.71±0.02% to 4.33±0.15%, which was higher than standard level of 3.2%. These results revealed that all sweetened yoghurt samples were highly adulterated with urea, starch and ammonium sulphate. From the microbiological point of view, all sweetened yoghurt samples had good quality. For instance, L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were found to be under acceptable range, and there were no pathogenic coliform bacteria were found in any of the samples.

Conclusion: Results obtained from this study might help the consumers to be more aware when they purchase yoghurt from local market.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antioxidant Activities of Hydroethanolic Extract of Defatted Wonderful Kola (Buchholzia coriacea) Seeds and Its Safety Evaluation in Murine Models

Ayokanmi Ore, Regina Ngozi Ugbaja, Abideen Idowu Adeogun, Oluseyi Adeboye Akinloye

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 17-29
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i430215

Introduction: Buccholzia coriaceaseed possesses a vast number of therapeutic applications in African traditional medicine. However, there are still limited information on its bioactive constituents, pharmacological actions and safety profile. This study was designed to prepare hydroethanolic extract of (defatted) Buccholzia coriacea seeds (HEBCS), evaluate its total phenols and flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity and its safety in rats and mice.

Methods: Seeds were defatted with hexane and the residue extracted with 80% ethanol (EtOH). The total phenols and flavonoid content of the lyophilised HEBCS was determined followed by in vitro antioxidant activity against stable free radicals (DPPH, ABTS+) and reactive oxygen species (OH, NO and H2O2). Limit test (at 5000 mg/ kg body weight (bw) and acute toxicity test (at doses of 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg bw) was carried out in rats followed by sub chronic toxicity study (at doses of 125 and 250 mg/ kg bw) in mice. Biomarkers of hepatic function (ALT, AST, ALP and total bilirubin) and renal function (urea and creatinine) were assessed.

Results: The total phenols and flavonoids content of HEBCS was found to be 31.76 μg GAE/ mg and 22.82 μg QE/ mg respectively. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value for HEBCS when tested against DPPH, ABTS+, OH, H2O2 and NO were found to be 257.85, 496.73, 883.68, 475.68 and 1786.42 μg/mL respectively. The Median Lethality Dose (LD50) for HEBCS in rat was greater than 5000 mg/ kg body weight. HEBCS did not show any significant (P = .05) hepatic or renal toxicity.

Conclusion: Data obtained from the present study highlight the safety of HEBCS and its potential role as a source of natural antioxidants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Quality Evaluation of Short Bread Biscuit Using Wheat and Fermented Unripe Plantain Flour

Johnson Akinwumi Adejuyitan, Ezekiel Tejumola Otunola, Mary Oluwatosin Adesola, Olawumi Esther Onaolapo

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 30-42
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i430216

The utilization of plantain flour has increased in recent years as a result of its industrial potential and health benefits; hence the more quests for its application in food product development. In this study, short bread biscuit was formulated from wheat and plantain flours mixed in the ratios 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 and 100% wheat flour was indicated as control. The flours and the short bread biscuits were analyzed for their proximate, physico-chemical properties of the mixes and physical attributes and consumer acceptability of the short bread biscuit by sensory evaluation using standard methods. The result showed that the proximate composition values ranged from 12.41 to 14.54, 9.06 to 11.38, 1.11 to 1.51% for moisture, protein, fat, crude fibre, ash contents and carbohydrate respectively. The mineral ranged from 2.28 to 2.67 mg/100 g, 8.38 to 9.44 mg and 276 to 296.50 mg/100 g for iron, calcium and phosphorus respectively. The physiochemical properties ranged from 0.609 to 0.615 g/ml and 0.63 to 0.64 g/ml, 119.50 to 134.00 g/g, 15.25 to 17.40 g/g for loose and packed bulk densities, water absorption capacity, swelling capacity respectively. The amylose and amylopectin value ranged from 24.05 to 31.55 and 68.45 to 75.95% respectively. The value for vitamin C and B1 ranged 3.04 to 3.58 and 0.22 to 0.24 μg/100 g respectively. The proximate content of the short bread biscuit ranged from 8.65 to 9.94, 6.93 to 7.73, 65.96 to 66.74, 1.02 to 1.75, 2.25 to 2.63 for moisture, protein, carbohydrate, crude fibre, ash and carbohydrate respectively. The sensory attribute shows that short bread biscuit produced from 90:10% was well accepted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Standardization of Recipe of Barbados Cherry Pickle

Arghya Mani, Venkata Satish Kuchi, Surajit Mitra, A. K. Banik, Ivi Chakraborty, Satyabrata Das, F. K. Bauri

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 43-50
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i430217

Aim: Barbados cherry is a fruit with magical amount of Vitamin C in it. But the main problem with the fruit is a very low ambient storage life of just 1-2 days. After which the fruit start decaying. Even the loss in nutrients and phytochemicals commence 4-5 hours after harvest. Hence there is a need to preserve the fruit for availing long term benefits of the fruit. Among all processed product, pickling is a very important and stable method of preservation.

Design: Completely Randomized Block Design.

Methodology: Till now recipe standardization of Barbados cherry pickle is not yet                  documented. In our products prepared with 4 recipee, 2 each with pickling in oil and pickling in water.

Results: The oil picked fruits were having highest amount of vitamin C was retained in Recipe 2 (T2) and Recipe 1 (T1) even after 6 months of storage. Total plate count after 6th month of storage was also low in Recipe 2 (T2) and Recipe 1 (T1). In terms of organoleptic property the best pickle with good flavour, remarkable taste, outstanding texture, brilliant consistency and high overall acceptability was in Recipe 2 (T2) and Recipe 1 (T1).

Conclusion: Hence Recipe 2 (T2) can be successfully used for commercial preparation of Barbados cherry pickle.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Citric Acid Treatment and Fermentation on the Chemical Composition of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) and Sensory Evaluation of Its Gruel

Lilian C. Aburime, Henrietta, N. Ene-Obong, Essien David-Oku

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 51-65
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i430218

Aims: Legumes, (especially indigenous/ underutilized legumes), have been found to make substantial contributions to nutrient intakes of the populace especially in low resources environments. The African yam bean (AYB) is one of such indigenous legumes with utilization constraints such as hard-to-cook phenomenon, beany flavour, bitter taste and some anti- nutritional factors that limit its utilization. The aims of this study were to determine effect of citric acid treatment and fermentation on the chemical composition of African yam bean (Sphenostylisstenocarpa) and sensory evaluation of its gruel.

Methodology: Cream coloured AYB seeds were purchased in Enugu, Enugu State Nigeria. Sorted AYB seeds were washed and fermented in citric acid medium (0.25%, 0.5% and 1%) for 24 h 48 h and 72 h at room temperature (28°C) in a seed water ratio of 1:4 (w/v). The control seeds were fermented without citric acid for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. After fermentation, each batch of the fermented seeds was divided into two. The first half was dehulled and the other half was left as whole. The fermented seeds were separately dried and milled into flour for further use. Standard methods were used for proximate, mineral and anti-nutrient analyses. Gruels were produced from all the flours and subjected to sensory evaluations using a nine-point hedonic scale. Data obtained were analyzed using a Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compute the mean and standard deviations. Means were compared using the least significant difference (LSD) and significance accepted at P<.05.

Results: Chemical compositions of AYB flour fermented in 0.5% citric acid solution showed that protein contents increased by 50%, dietary fibre decreased by 0.02%. Raffinose, stachyose, lectins, trypsin inhibitors, tannins, oxalates, phytates and saponins were all significantly reduced to safe levels. Gruels made from raw and dehulled AYB seeds fermented for 24 h with 0.5% citric acid had higher scores for aroma (7.30 & 7.35, respectively) and general acceptability (7.32 & 7.22, respectively). Dehulled AYB fermented for 24 h in 1% citric acid had the highest score (7.99) for colour. Based on the sensory evaluation results, gruels made from the AYB seeds fermented in 0.5% citric acid compared with the gruels made from AYB seeds that were fermented in tap water. The results showed that gruels made from the AYB seeds that were fermented in 0.5% citric acid for 24 h had higher score for aroma (7.70), colour (7.10) and overall acceptability (7.52). Utilization of AYB in food formulation could be improved by fermenting in 0.5% citric acid solution for 24 h.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Wheat-Margarine-Avocado Cake Blends

G. O. Eteng, N. I. Olaitan, T. T. Iombor, F. Z. Igbua

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 66-74
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i430219

The nutrient contents of wheat-margarine used in the preparation of cakes in Nigeria is low with high fat leading consumers to several nutritional and health challenges such as overweight, obesity and cardiovascular diseases. This research was aimed at determining physicochemical and sensory properties of wheat-margarine- avocado cake blends. Cake blends of margarine and avocado were prepared in the proportions of 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100. The chemical composition and physical properties of the cakes were determined using standard methods. The cakes were assessed for their sensory characteristics using 9 point hedonic scale. The physical properties of wheat, margarine and avocado cake blends showed that the replacement of margarine with avocado fruit pulp in cake production increased the cake weight with no increase in volume and height of the cakes. The proximate composition of the cakes showed that 100% wheat/avocado cake contained higher moisture (11.65±0.00), crude protein (16.85±0.00), crude fiber (2.10±0.09), ash (2.52±0.0) and carbohydrates (57.86±0.78) contents than 100% wheat/margarine which were 6.99, 12.33, 1.44, 2.10 and 54.62 respectively. However, the fat content of 100% wheat/margarine cake (29.51±0.00) was rather higher than that of the wheat/avocado cake (20.67±0.00). The mineral contents of the cakes significantly increased with increase in avocado fruit pulp. Colour, aroma, taste, texture and general acceptability decreased with the addition of avocado but were all accepted by the panelists.

It was concluded that substitution of margarine with avocado fruit pulp in cake production significantly increased the cake weight, the moisture, protein, fibre, ash, carbohydrate, mineral elements and a decrease in fat content as well as a mean scores of sensory attributes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Storage on Moisture, Free Fatty Acid and Peroxide Value of Products Developed by Incorporating Modified Rice Starch

Gopika C. Muttagi, Usha Ravindra

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 75-85
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i430220

Products were prepared by incorporating modified starch extracted from selected traditional rice varieties. The products were standardized by incorporating modified rice starch served as test product group and without incorporating modified rice starch served as control product group. The developed products such as sweet cookies, masala cookies and khakhra were stored up to 90 days at room temperature (25-30°C) and 40 to 60 per cent of relative humidity. The packaging material used was 300 gauge low density polyethylene (LDPE). Samples from sweet cookies and masala cookies were drawn in triplicates for evaluation when fresh and after 15, 30, 45, and 60 days of storage, whereas samples from khakhra were drawn when fresh and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage duration. The products were evaluated for their microbial load, moisture content, free fatty acid (FFA), and peroxide value (PV). Total bacterial colony count increased as the storage duration increased. No colony counts for E.coli were detected. The fungi colony counts were detected at 60 and 90 days of storage duration in sweet cookies and masala cookies respectively, whereas no fungi counts were detected in product Khakhra. Moisture, free fatty acid (FFA) and peroxide value (PV) of stored products significantly increased as the storage duration increased. The products such as sweet cookies, masala cookies and khakhra, developed by incorporating modified rice starch were acceptable up to 45, 60 and 90 days respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Various Mycorrhizae-based Products on Growth and Phytotoxicity Characteristics of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Kufri Sindhuri

Trivikram ., B. K. Singh, Ajay Kumar Tiwari, Pankaj Kumar Singh, A. K. Singh

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 86-90
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i430221

Mycorrhiza refers to the symbiotic association between fungus and plant root. The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis auguments the growth and plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses by enhancement through certain nutritional, biochemical, physiological as well as morphological plant responses thus it has gained a high degree of impetus in recent years. In this context, a study was conducted to study the effect of various mycorrhizae based products on growth and phytotoxicity characteristics of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Kufri Sindhuri during Rabi 2016-17 at Vegetable research farm, Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, BHU, Varanasi to evaluate the effect of various mycorrhizal products at different concentrations on growth and phytotoxicity characteristic of potato. The field experiment consisted of 8 treatments involving different mycorrhizal products including the control (untreated). From the experiment it was found that soil application with Myc100 at 250 g/ha (treatment T2) had very promising results for the investigated characters viz., number of leaves/hill (62.20), Plant height at 30 Days after planting (65.40 cm), Plant height at 60 Days after planting (98.24 cm) as compared to other treatment followed by T8- soil application with Bolt Gr at 10 kg/ha. The maximum number of haulms per plant was observed in treatment T6- soil application with Rhizomyxo 100 at 250 g/ha (4.35). No symptoms of phytotoxicity was observed in all treatments during crop growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea dumetorum (Bitter Yam) Commonly Cultivated in South Eastern Nigeria

E. N. Uhuo, C. P. Nwuke, O. J. Mba

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 91-97
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i430222

Standard procedures were used to investigate proximate, mineral, amylose content, gelatinization temperature and phytochemical composition of Dioscorea dumetorum (Both cooked and fresh samples). Significant increase (p< 0.05) of protein, fats and oil, moisture and crude fibre contents was observed in the fresh sample as against cooked sample. A value of (43.80%) was recorded in the cooked sample while in the fresh sample the carbohydrate value was 23.15%. There is a significant increase (p< 0.05) of Fe, Mg, Na and P concentration of the fresh sample compared with the cooked sample. Inversely, significant decrease (p> 0.05) of, Mn, Ca. and K contents in the cooked sample was recorded in comparison with the fresh plant sample. Gelatinization temperature increased significantly (p< 0.05) in the cooked sample as against fresh. Non- significant increase (p> 0.05) of the amylose content was documented in the fresh sample compared with cooked sample. Phytochemical screening revealed alkaloid, saponin glycosides were steadily present, flavonoid, tannin and phenol were moderately present in the cooked sample. In the same vein, similar observation was made in the fresh sample. Steroids were not detected in both samples. Medicinal use of the tuber is hereby justified by the results and suggests it could contribute to the nutrition of man and animals. It could be recommended to diabetic patients and obedience owning to its low starch contents.