Open Access Original Research Article

Food Consumption Practices of Men and Women across Rural-Urban Interface of South Indian Megacity Bangalore

K. Geetha, Shilpa Yatnatti, D. Vijayalakshmi, Christoph Dittrich

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i530223

Background: Food consumption practices involving dietary diversity, healthy and unhealthy practices have greater influence on nutritional and health status of the individual. Men and women always behave differently and have different consumption pattern due to various factors. Urbanization gradients along rural-urban interface of Bangalore mega city helps for comparative study of these factors.

Aims: To compare food consumption practices between men and women across rural-urban interface of Bangalore, India.

Methodology: Men (n=150) and women (n=150) from 300 middle income households in the rural-urban interface of Bangalore, were surveyed for dietary diversity score (DDS), healthy and unhealthy dietary practices and response to questions on health and nutrition.

Results: Findings revealed that, least DDS was recorded in transition area among both men (48.0%) and women (47.7%). In rural maximum difference for healthy habit score was existed between men (50.8%) and women (44.0%). Average unhealthy habits score was more among women in rural (33.2%) and transition (35.4%) areas, whereas in urban, men had higher score (41.8%). Health and nutrition aspects indicated, fasting on religious belief was more practiced by women in transition area (56%). Consumption of health supplements was more among women, especially in urban (34%).

Conclusion: It can be concluded that, women have poor food consumption practices compared to men. Even though women are observed to be more health conscious than men, their dietary habits are compounded with various factors such as socio-cultural, occupational and urbanization. In this regard nutrition programmes must be strengthened to decrease risk factors for non-communicable diseases and to improve overall health of the individuals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-cultural Factors Associated with Complementary Feeding in Two Rural Districts in Ghana: A qualitative study involving Health Workers

Christiana Naa Atsreh Nsiah-Asamoah

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 10-24
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i530224

Aim: This study sought to explore the cultural factors that are associated with complementary feeding from the reports of Community Health Workers (CHWs) and Volunteers (CHVs) in two rural districts in Ghana.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional qualitative study that assessed cultural beliefs, norms, superstitions and practices that influence complementary feeding practices of young children under two years in two rural farming districts in Ghana

Study Area: The study was conducted at Kwahu Afram Plains North and South Districts in the Eastern Region of Ghana.

Methodology: The study employed qualitative methods which entailed conducting 9 focus group discussions among CHWs and CHVs working at two rural districts in Ghana. The focus group discussions were conducted with the aid of a validated, interview guide, after obtaining informed consent (written) from the health workers. Ethical clearance for the study was obtained from the Institutional Review Boards of the Dodowa Health Research Centre and the University of Cape Coast. Thematic content analytical procedures were applied to analyze the transcripts, interpret and present findings as a narrative account.

Results: The reports of the health workers indicate a common practice of early introduction of solid foods to infants before they attain six(6) months of age. Cultural beliefs, superstitions, beliefs, food taboos and prohibitions influence mothers’ complementary-feeding practices and result in limiting the food scope and dietary diversity of their young children.

Conclusions: Interventions designed to promote appropriate complementary feeding practices should incorporate an understanding of social context, family, and cultural factors in developing nutrition promotion messages that are tailored to meet the needs of rural populations. More community interventions that draw on the support of key influential persons in the community and fathers are needed to address cultural barriers to appropriate complementary feeding practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Overweight, Obesity and the Dietary Habits of Undergraduate Students of Lagos State University

N. Arisa, D. Anaemene, W. Mekwunye

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 25-34
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i530225

Aims: To determine the prevalence of overweight, obesity and dietary habits of under graduate students of Lagos State University.

Study Design: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey.

Place and Duration of Study: Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria, between June 2016 and July 2016.

Methodology: 150 undergraduate students were selected through multistage random sampling. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, dietary habit and physical activity was obtained using structured questionnaire. Weight, height, Percentage Body Fat (PBF), waist and hip circumferences were measured according to standard procedures to compute Body Mass Indices (BMI), Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) and finally determine nutritional status. The data were presented as frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviations. Chi square was used to test for significant differences and level of significance set at 0.05.

Results: The mean BMI, PBF and WHR of the participants were 23.4 ± 2.3 kg/m2, 23.1 ± 5.0% and 0.83 ± 0.09, respectively. Majority of the participants (86.7%) were of normal weight while 8% (10.4% males and 5.5% females) and 5.3% (5.2% males and 5.5% females) were overweight and obese, respectively. Using WHR, more number of students were overweight/obese (34%) compared to BMI (13.3%) and PBF (8.7%), all indicated higher abnormal status among males than females. Few students exhibited poor eating (15%) and physical inactivity (16%) habits. Majority of the students (75.3%) skipped breakfast and the least daily consumed food group was legume/nut group (0.5%). Snacks (42%) and processed (20%) foods were consumed more than roots/tubers (14%) which are staple foods.

Conclusion: Central obesity was high among undergraduate students of Lagos State University. Breakfast skipping and low legume meal consumption were major dietary problems. Healthy lifestyle should be promoted among the university students to prevent overweight/obesity and its associated diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fatty Acids Composition, Variation and Distribution in Different Accessions of the West African Pear (Dacryodes edulis) and Potential Health Benefits

Godwin Oju Igile, Henrietta Nkechi Ene-Obong, Godwin Eneji Egbung

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 35-47
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i530226

The pulp of Dacryodes edulis is eaten raw, cooked or roasted by West and central Africans. The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid composition, type, variation and distribution among different accessions of D. edulis purchased from different locations of Eastern Nigeria, using GC-MS data. The results showed that D.edulis is rich in ω-3,6,9 unsaturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids namely, pentadecanoic, tetradecanoic (myristic), tridecanoic, hexadecanoic (palmitic), undecanoic and octadecanoic (stearic) acids were common to all accessions. Unsaturated fatty acids identified in the four accessions included, Oleic, linoleic, linolenic, linoelaidic and several other polyunsaturated fatty acids including brassidic and vacennic acids, and 19,19-Dimethyl-Eicosa-8,11-dienoic acid (6.83±0.37%) a derivative of oleic acid which was found only in Nsukka samples. Two novel polyunsaturated fatty acids namely; Methyl,9,12-Heptadecadienoic acid and 2,6,10,14-Hexadecatetraenoic acid were identified in the present study. The ratio of saturation to unsaturation was calculated to be approximately 1:2. The concentration of TSFAs fell in the range of 27.07±1.75-39.87±1.72%, while TMUFAs was 3.14±0.22-10.77±0.55%, and TPUFAs was 46.81±1.22-58.71±2.33% respectively. We concluded that, the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids in D. edulis may provide cardio-protective benefits in terms of human nutrition and could be substitutes for olive oil in healthy normo-cholesterolemic human diets. We further concluded that the differences in fatty acid composition, distribution, variation and concentration between the locations studied may be affected not only by their biogenetic origin but also by soil type and climatic conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Utilization of Dairy By-product for the Development of Whey Ice Candy

D. S. Chavan, S. M. Lokhande, D. D. Patange, R. C. Ranveer, A. K. Sahoo

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 48-59
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i530227

Background: Whey is by product of dairy industry and contained about 6% milk solids. It may coause environmental problem if not utilized properly.

Aims: The present study aim to utilize whey in the preparation ice candy enriched with fruit pulp.

Methodology: Whey candy mix was prepared by combination of fruit pulp, sugar and stabilizer in clarified paneer whey followed by homogenization, heating and cooling. Mix was poured in mold and passed through contionues blast freezer to harden. Hardened candies were wraped in aluminium foil and stored in deep freezer at - 20 ± 2ºC. The sutability of fruits i.e. kiwi, orange and pineapple in whey based ice candy was determined by organoleptic quality. The level of selected fruit and sugar were optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimized product was evaluated for sensory and physico-chemical qualities. Also the storage stability, consumer acceptability and economical feasibilities of the product were tested.

Results: Amongst the three different fruits, the whey candy prepared by using pineapple fruit pulp was recived higest sensory score. The RSM results shows that, increase in pineapple pulp and sugar level resulted in higher sensory score for color and appearance, taste and flavor. Optimized level of pineapple pulp and sugar were 14.23% and 21.80%, respectively. This combination obtained 7.7, 7.6 and 7.65 sensory score for color, flavor and overall acceptability respectively whereas, melting rate was 42.19%. The whey candy subjected to study consumer accapetability and It was found that 58% of the consumers rated experimental candy as excellent (score 5) and 20.5% rated on very good. The whey candy was in acceptable up to 60 days at refrigerated storage condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Standardisation and Quality Evaluation of Peanut Milk by Different Processing Methods

T. Siva Sakthi, V. Meenakshi, S. Kanchana, S. Vellaikumar

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 60-72
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i530228

Peanut (Araches hypogea) is an important oilseed crop originated from South Africa, while India representing one of its leading producer nearly 14% of world peanut production. Now a days some of the lifestyle changes and medical issues like cow’s milk allergy, lactose intolerance and hypercholesterolemia people were shifted into plant based nondairy beverages. Peanut milk was developed from two different peanut varieties viz., TNAU CO-6 and local variety. Proximate composition of local and TNAU CO 6 variety of peanut was analyzed and the carbohydrates, protein, fat was high in TNAU CO 6 peanut variety and its value was 26.7 (g/100g), 27.8 (g/100g), 38(g/100g) when compared to local variety, its value was 25.2 (g/100g), 24.7 (g/100g), 39(g/100g) respectively. Peanut milk was extracted by five different processing method: fresh soaking, blanching, roasting and germination methods in both local and TNAU CO 6 variety. Peanut milk prepared without any treatments and processing was considered as a control peanut milk. Among the different treatment, the best treatment was selected based on sensory scores in each processing methods of both peanut varieties. Among these different treatments blanching method B1 (2mins) was best in local variety, B2(3 mins) was best in CO 6 variety. In roasting method R2 (roasting for 5 mins and soaking for 3 hrs), soaking method S2(3 hrs soaking), germination method G1(8 hrs germinated) was best treatment in both the selected peanut varieties. Based on the observation and sensory evaluation, the result showed that among these five processing methods roasting method was the best method for the peanut milk extraction and its physiochemical properties were analyzed in both the varieties of prepared peanut milk among these CO 6 variety peanut milk had good result and better acceptability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Functional Calcium Rich Beverage Mix for Lactose Intolerance People

J. Girija, S. Kamalasundari, G. Hemalatha, T. Uma Maheswari

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 73-81
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i530229

Lactose intolerance is the most common digestive disorder caused by the inability to digest the lactose in milk. Lactose intolerance may lead to reduced bone density when accompanied by avoidance of dairy. The only treatment ever known for lactose intolerance is lactose-free food. Thus keeping this in view the objective is to develop the plant based beverage mix for lactose intolerance people using functional ingredients viz., ragi (Eleusine coracana) milk powder, green banana and ginger. The techniques used for processing the ragi milk powder are soaking, extraction of milk, dehydration, milling and roasting. Control was developed by using skimmed milk powder, green banana and ginger and in test treatment ragi milk powder was added. The developed product was analyzed for microstructure, physical, functional and sensory evaluated. The developed beverage mix was allowed for proximate nutrient analysis. The result revealed that the ragi milk powder containing treatment was acceptable in terms of all sensory attributes when compared to control. The microstructure analysis result revealed that the structure of test sample was very small and polygonal in shape whereas the control sample had large particle size and round smooth surface. The beverage mix had good protein, high calcium, low fat and no lactose. It may be concluded that the developed beverage mix is a lactose free functional food which is suitable for lactose intolerance and also calcium deficient people with improved nutritional content and reduced phytochemical content without any negative impact on sensory attributes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation and Quality Assessment of Pancakes Produced from Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Germinated Tiger Nut (Cyperus esculentus) Composite Flour

O. I. Ola, O. A. Amoniyan, S. O. Opaleye

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 82-89
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i530230

This study was aim to evaluate the physical properties of wheat-tiger nut flour mixes and physical, proximate and sensory attribute of pancakes developed from wheat-tiger nut flour mixes. Fresh yellow variety of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) tubers and other ingredients used for this research were purchased from the Isara market, Saapade, Ogun State, Nigeria. The tiger nut seed were sorted, soaked and germinated for 48 hrs, dried and processed into flour. Pancakes were prepared after incorporation of 10, 20, and 30% of germinated tiger nut flour.

The water absorption capacity and solubility values ranged from 44.66 g/ml – 53.00 g/ml and 3.96-8.06% respectively. The result of the swelling power and bulk density varied from 295.00-337.66% and 497.51 kg/m3 - 555.55 kg/m3. The result of the proximate composition of the pancake showed that the protein, moisture, fat, ash and crude fiber increased significantly (p = 0.05) while the carbohydrate contents decreased significantly with an increase in the germinated tiger nut flour substitution. The protein values ranged from 11.91 – 21.75 with sample D having the highest value of protein at substitution level of 30% germinated tiger nut flour compared to the control sample A. The physical properties of the pancake viz thickness, diameter and spread factor ranged from 2.10-10.00 mm, 111.33-158.66 mm, 111.00-757.14 mm respectively. Sensory data indicated that the pancake produced from germinated tiger nut flour with 30% was acceptable. In conclusion, this study has shown that the use of tiger nut can be considered as a potential ingredient in baking and production of high protein and high fiber products. Nevertheless, it is important to consume snacks with other protein-rich diets to supplement the reduction resulted from substitution.

Open Access Review Article

Microbiology and Safety of Ogi Fermentation: A Review

Abosede Margaret Adisa, Victor N. Enujiugha

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 90-100
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i530231

Ogi a widely consumed breakfast cereal in Nigeria and other West African countries plays an important role in the nutrition and economy of many of the populace, especially among the under-privileged as its consumption cut across all age groups. It is significant for its application as a cheap and convenient weaning food for children, breakfast and soft meal for adult, convalescents, pregnant and nursing women. This paper is aimed at reviewing the production of ogi from different cereals, which maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (Penisetum glaucum). The microflora of ogi is mainly dominated by lactic acid bacteria which are generally regarded as safe with Lactobacillus plantarum dominating and certain beneficial fungal species which belong to the genus Saccharomyces and Aspergillus niger. The safety of the potential microorganisms which are responsible for the fermentation of the product from the various substrates is also of vital importance.  The importance of good hygiene practice to reduce post production re- contamination of the product which could possibly lead to food poisoning especially at the grassroot level is also considered. The widespread use of ogi as a weaning food for children in sub-Saharan Africa makes this review very significant and relevant.

Open Access Review Article

Sorghum Grains: Nutritional Composition, Functional Properties and Its Food Applications

C. R. Abah, C. N. Ishiwu, J. E. Obiegbuna, A. A. Oladejo

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 101-111
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i530232

This review work is on the composition, functional properties and food applications of sorghum grains. The review shows that this cereal grains is a rich source of carbohydrate and starch, with little of proteins, fat, vitamins and other nutrients. The functional properties of sorghum were also explored and the findings gotten from various authors shows that sorghum has good functional properties in terms of its bulk density, oil absorption capacity, water absorption capacity, least gelatinization temperature and host of others. The food applications of the grains such as sorghum ball “Fura”, tuwo, gruel, alcoholic beverages such as pito, burukutu and non-alcoholic beverages such as “kunu zaki” were extensively explored to understand and appreciate the profound benefit of sorghum as a diversely rich and nutritious source of food especially in Africa.