Open Access Study Protocol

Vegetables with High-Nitrate Content Significantly Increase Plasma Nitrate and Nitrite Concentrations but Do Not Significantly Reduce Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Healthy Men

Ann Ashworth, Anni Vanhatalo, Jamie R. Blackwell, Giles M. Hayward, Andrew M. Jones

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 67-82
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i630239

Aims: To investigate the effects of supplementation with high-nitrate and low-nitrate vegetables on plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations, blood pressure and the oxygen demand of moderate-intensity exercise.

Study Design:  A randomized, cross-over design.

Place and Duration of Study: Sport and Health Sciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, between January 2011 and March 2012.

Methodology: 15 non-smoking, physically active healthy men (age 25 ± 6 years, BMI 24 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomized to receive a 2-week supply of high-nitrate or low-nitrate vegetables, with a 2-week ‘wash-out’ period in between. Clinic blood pressure, plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and physiological responses to moderate-intensity exercise tests were measured before and after each 2-week intervention. Nitrate intake was calculated using nutritional analysis of reported vegetables consumed.

Results: Participants consumed significantly more dietary nitrate on the high-nitrate diet (417 ± 139 mg/day) than the low-nitrate diet (26 ± 11 mg/day). The high-nitrate diet supplied 5.5 mg nitrate/kg body weight, exceeding the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 3.7 mg nitrate/kg body weight. Supplementation with high-nitrate vegetables significantly increased plasma nitrate concentrations (baseline; 30 ± 20 µM, after high-nitrate vegetables; 129 ± 87 µM) and plasma nitrite concentrations (baseline; 119 ± 35 nM, after high-nitrate vegetables; 227 ± 89 nM) but did not significantly change systolic blood pressure or the physiological response to moderate exercise. There were significant correlations between diastolic blood pressure and plasma nitrite concentrations (low-nitrate diet; r = 0.63, high-nitrate diet, r = 0.56).

Conclusion: Supplementation with high-nitrate vegetables above the ADI significantly increased plasma nitrate and nitrate concentrations but did not significantly reduce systolic blood pressure or the physiological response to moderate exercise. Plasma nitrite concentrations significantly correlated with diastolic blood pressure after high-nitrate and low-nitrate diets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aflatoxins and Moisture Levels in Edible Oils Produced in Burkina Faso

Souleymane Zio, Isaac Dembele, Raoul Sylvain Bazoin Bazié, Abel Tankoano, François Tapsoba, Fatoumata Hama-Ba, Laurencia Toulsoumdé Songre-Ouattara, Fulbert Nikiéma, Driss Elothmani, Yves Traoré, Aly Savadogo

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i630233

Aim: The study aim was to assess aflatoxin and moisture levels in edible oils produced and consumed in Burkina Faso to know the impact on consumer health.

Methodology: A total of 61 samples of refined cottonseeds oils and crude peanut oils were collected from Ouagadougou, Bobo Dioulasso and surrounding areas. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) were determined by HPLC and moisture by differential weighing after oven drying.

Results: The moisture content of peanut oils were ranged from 0.06 to 0.18% and cottonseeds oils from 0.02 to 0.17%. The moisture average is 0.13% for peanut oils and 0.08% for cottonseeds oils (P<0.05). The moisture of all oils is lower and conform to the Codex Alimentarius standard. AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were identified in 86.89% of the oil samples analyzed. The proportion of samples contaminated with AFB1 is 57.38%, 59.02% for AFB2, 42.62% for AFG1 and 65.57% for AFG2. The AFB1 average of peanut oils is 6.21 ng/g while that of cottonseeds oils is 0.03 ng/g. The AFB2 average of peanut oils is 0.89 ng/g against 0.04 ng/g for cottonseeds oils (P<0.05). The AFG1 average of peanut oils is 0.54 ng/g and 0.08 ng/g for cottonseeds oils (P<0.05). The AFG2 average of peanut oils was 0.66 ng/g against 0.64 ng/g for cottonseeds oils. AFG2 had the highest proportion of all oils while AFB1 has the highest concentration and proportion in peanut oils. The 72.13% samples analyzed in this study comply with the European Community standard for aflatoxin B1 level maximum in oilseeds.

Conclusion: Aside from the moisture content that comply with the standard, aflatoxins are present at varying levels and can negatively impact the consumer health. It is important to strengthen the monitoring and production system in order to have quality oil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Storage on Sensory Acceptability and Oxidative Rancidity of Wheat Biscuits Fortified with Asparagus racemosus Root Powder

Priyanka Rani, Varsha Rani, Renuka Jandu, A. Lavanya, Reena ., Josephine John

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 13-22
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i630234

Aims: Asparagus racemosus is locally known as shatavari in India and possess a strong antioxidant and galactogogue activities. This study was aimed to reduce the bitterness of Asparagus racemosus root powder (ARRP) and to analyse the effect of storage on acceptability and oxidative rancidity of ARRP fortified biscuits.

Study Design: Biscuits were developed substituting whole wheat flour with 5, 7.5 and 10 per cent of ARRP.

Methodology: ARR were blanched to eliminate the bitterness in developed powder. Developed biscuits were analyzed for sensory characteristics using 9-point hedonic scale by 25 semi-trained panelists. Biscuits were packed in plastic zipper bags and stored in an airtight plastic container at room temperature for 90 days. Effect of storage period on sensory acceptability, fat acidity and peroxide value of biscuits was observed.

Results: Blanching of A. racemosus roots at 80ºC temperature for 3 minutes reduced the bitterness of developed powder considerably. Results showed that biscuits were found to be ‘liked moderately’ on 9-point hedonic scale. During storage period of 90 days, the scores of sensory characteristics were decreased gradually for colour, appearance, aroma, taste, texture and overall acceptability, however biscuits were found acceptable by panellist. The increase in oxidative rancidity with the advancement of storage period was observed in terms of fat acidity (mg of KOH/g) and peroxide value (meq of O2/kg) in control as well as ARRP biscuits however, this increase was witnessed less in A. racemosus fortified biscuits than control.

Conclusion: ARRP upto 10 per cent can be successfully used in the development of products with increased shelf life along with galactogogue activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimizing Conditions for Enzymatic Extraction of Juice from Jackfruit (Koozha) Using Response Surface Methodology

P. S. Bensi, Suma Divakar, K. S. Meena Kumari, C. Mini, Brigit Joseph, U. Krishnaja

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 23-31
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i630235

The central composite design of Response surface methodology, statistical tool was used in this study for analyzing the effects of enzymatic treatment conditions namely; incubation time, incubation temperature and enzyme concentration on the percent yield. The jackfruit koozha pulp was treated with the pectinase enzyme at different incubation time (1- 5 hours), incubation temperature (30-45°C) and at various level of enzyme concentration (0.1-0.8 per cent). The effect of these independent variables on percent yield of juice was evaluated. Based on response surface and contour plots, the optimum condition for jackfruit koozha juices obtained were: incubation time 2.75 hours, incubation temperature 42.3°C and the concentration of enzyme 0.5 percent with desired yield of 82 percentages. Enzymatic extraction, as a pretreatment condition in koozha type results in higher yield recovery. Statistical analysis showed that percent yield of juice was significantly correlated with the incubation time, incubation temperature and level of enzyme. The most significant variable enhancing the juice yield is enzyme concentration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Status and Its Determinants among Fulani Children Aged 6-24 Months in a Rural Community of Kaduna State, Northwest Nigeria

Mustapha Abdulsalam Danimoh, Suleiman Hadeja Idris, Hussaini Garba Dikko, Abdulhakeem Abayo Olorukooba, Amina Mohammed, Olawepo Olatayo Ayodeji

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 32-41
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i630236

Background: Nutritional status of young children is an important measure of their health status, growth, and development. There is a knowledge gap in the nutritional status of Fulani children aged 6 – 24 months in Nigeria. Our study, therefore, aims to assess the nutritional status of Fulani children (6 – 24 months old) and its determinants.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of 209 children were selected using a multistage sampling technique. Anthropometric measurements were obtained from the children and converted to Z-scores to determine nutritional status. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Bivariate analysis was conducted to examine the relationships between respondents’ socio-demographic factors and nutritional status. Statistical significance was determined at a p-value of ≤0.05.

Results: A majority (62.2%) of the children were aged 6 – 12 months. The prevalence’s of stunting, wasting and underweight were 44.9%, 9.6% and 16.3% respectively. A higher proportion (55.3%) of male children were stunted compared to females. Most (51.1%) of the children aged 6 – 12 months were stunted compared to those aged 13 -24 months. There was a statistically significant association between stunting and age (p = 0.004). Children aged 6 -12 months (OR = 2.5, CI: 1.3 – 4.8) were at higher risk of developing stunting compared to those aged 13 – 24 months.

Conclusion and Recommendation: The proportion of children that were stunted and those that were underweight was high. Therefore, there is a need for health authorities to ensure continuous growth monitoring practices of young children among the Fulani people to detect growth failure early in life and institute interventions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Assessment of Weaning Food from Blends of Sorghum, Mung Beans and Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Blends

H. T. Olaleye, T. O. Oresanya, E. O. Temituro

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 42-52
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i630237

Prevalence of Malnutrition continues to be a plague ravaging children all over the world especially in developing countries such as Nigeria. Development of inexpensive, nutritious and readily available foods can mitigate against the challenges of malnutrition.

Objective: To investigate the effect of different formulations of sorghum, mung beans and orange fleshed sweet potato flour blends on the proximate, functional, pasting properties and the sensory attributes of the weaning food blends.

Methodology: Weaning foods were formulated from Sorghum grains (S), Mung beans (M) and (O) Orange fleshed sweet potato in ratios 40:45:15, 40:30:30, 25:35:45, 25:45:30 and 55:30:15 respectively. The blends of the weaning food were analyzed for the proximate, functional, pasting properties and sensory evaluation using standard methods. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance and means were separated using Duncan’s multiple range test p<0.05.

Results: The proximate analysis of the blends had moisture content (8.15-9.58%), crude fat (1.47-2.76%), crude protein (14.00-18.04%), crude fibre (0.34-0.82%), total ash (1.86-2.52%) and carbohydrate (68.02-73.62%). Functional analysis: Bulk density 0.55-0.65 (g/cm3), swelling power (4.64-7.13%), solubility index (4.00-16.50%), water absorption capacity 1.58 (g/gcm3). Pasting: Peak viscosity: (87-214), Break-down viscosity (64-142), Trough viscosity (16-72), Final viscosity (50-175), Set back (28-103), Peak time (4.4.6 min), Pasting temperature (70.83°C). Blend S:M:O- 40:30:30 was rated most acceptable for all the parameters accessed.

Conclusion: The blends of the weaning food showed that it can be a good source of carbohydrate, crude protein, minerals with low bulkiness and good reconstitution properties which can be used to solve malnutrition challenges in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Partial Replacement of Peanut Paste with Sesame Seed Paste on the Nutritional and Anti-nutritional Components of Butter Made from the Blends

Onyale V. Oduma, Ufot E. Inyang, Okema N. Okongoh

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 53-66
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i630238

The present study was conducted to see the effect of replacement of peanut paste with different levels of sesame seed paste on the nutritional and anti-nutritional components of butter made from the blends. The peanut: Sesame seed pastes were used in the ratios of 100:00, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 and 00:100 with 100% peanut and sesame seed pastes as control samples. The results showed that all the parameters determined varied with the proportion of sesame seed paste in the blends. The crude protein, ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate progressively decreased with increase in the level of sesame seed paste substitution. On the contrary, fat and caloric value increased progressively with increase in sesame seed paste in the blends. The total amino acids decreased from 88.24 g/100 g protein while the total essential amino acids increased from 35.30 g/100 g protein in 100% peanut butter to 87.36 g/100 g protein and 37.71 g/100 g protein respectively in 50% sesame seed paste substituted butter. Methionine and cystine increased while lysine decreased with increase in sesame paste substitution. Majority of essential amino acid chemical scores were above 100% except lysine (63.45 – 98 – 28% for samples that contained sesame seed paste) and sulphur containing amino acids (78.00% and 92.40% for 100% peanut butter and 10% sesame paste supplemented butter respectively). The contents of K, Na, saponin and tannin in the butter decreased while Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, oxalate and phytate increased with increase in sesame seed paste substitution. The values for anti-nutrients were low and may not have serious effect on nutrients bioavailability. The result has shown that production of butter from blends of peanut and sesame seed paste would enhance the essential amino acids composition and other nutrients and could lead to increased utilization of sesame seed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Bajra (Pennisetum glaucum) Based Supplementary Food on Anthropometric Parameters of School Children (5-6 Year Old)

S. Arokiamary, R. Senthilkumar, S. Kanchana

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 91-98
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i630241

Aims: To study the effect of bajra (Pennisetum glaucum) based supplementary food on anthropometric parameters of school going girl children.

Methodology: Two groups of 30 girl children in the age group of five to six year each were selected. Total number of children participated in the present study was 60. First group constituted non supplemented (control); the second group of children (experimental) was supplemented 100 g of bajra based supplementary food mix in the form of biscuits along with their home diet for a period of 100 days. The anthropometric parameters like height, weight, mid-upper arm circumference and waist hip ratio were measured before and after the administration of supplementary food. The data obtained from the study subjects were quantified, classified, tabulated and expressed in percentages. The paired ‘t’ test was used for pre and post treatments comparison.

Results: Among the two groups studied, highest increment in weight was recorded by the children on experimental group (0.7 kg) followed by an increment of 0.62 kg in control. After the supplementation for a period of 100 days, the mean height of the experimental group children increased slightly by 0.34 cm, whereas in the control group the mean height increase was only 0.12 cm for the same period. The mean increment in mid upper arm circumference of the selected children was 0.1 cm (control group) and 0.21 cm (experimental group). The presence of moderate malnutrition grade was decreased from 63 to 53 per cent and 44 to 40 per cent in control and experimental group, respectively. Normal children in control and experimental group increased after intervention from 3.0 per cent to 7.0 per cent and 20 to 23 per cent, respectively.

Conclusion: Supplementation with bajra based supplementary food mix has improved the anthropometric and clinical symptoms of the selected children. Long term feeding trials with supplementary food mix could improve the nutritional status of the children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Nutritional Properties and Heavy Metal Composition of African Giant Land Snails (Archachatina marginata) and Clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) from Ekowe Community

Odangowei Inetiminebi Ogidi, Eruom Esther Charles, Adubazi Momohjimoh Onimisi, Ruth Amugeh

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 99-108
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i630242

Aims: This research was aimed at assessing the nutritional properties and heavy metal compositions of African giant land snails (Archachatina marginata) and clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) from Ekowe community.

Methodology: Mineral and vitamin contents were analyzed using the standard method of Association of Analytical Chemist. While standard wet digestion procedure was adopted in the sample preparation, heavy metals were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer technique.

Results: Moisture contents were 76±0.63% & 78.4±0.06%, ash content, 1.37±0.01% & 3.45±0.01%, crude protein, 18.62±0.74% & 12.74±0.01% and lipid, 1.34±0.01% & 0.07±0.01% for Archachatina marginata and Mercenaria mercenaria respectively. Mineral contents were in this order: Ca > K > PO4> Mg > Na > Fe >Mn for Archachatina marginata while Mercenaria mercenaria was Ca> K > PO4 > Mg > Fe >Mn> Na. Vitamins profiles in Archachatina marginata were 5.20±0.198%, 0.144±0.004%, 0.05±0.003% and 0.78±0.035% for vitamin A, B1, B2 & E respectively. While Mercenaria mercenaria was 3.93±0.070%, 0.13±0.0025%, 0.075±0.001% & 0.84±0.01% for vitamins A, B1, B2 & E respectively. Heavy metal results in Archachatina marginata was in order of Zn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Cr while for Mercenaria mercenaria was Zn > Cu > Cd > Cr > Ni.

Conclusion: These metal values were low and within the WHO permissible limits. The result shows that snail could complement the required micro and macro nutrients and vitamins needed for proper growth and development in human and hence recommended for regular consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Safety Assessment of the Presence of Heavy Metals and Organic Pollutants in Vended Street Foods from Selected Locations in Lagos State Nigeria

G. I. Oyet, C. B. Samuel

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 109-120
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i630251

This study was aimed at investigating the presence of heavy metals and volatile organic pollutants in street-vended foods sourced from three selected locations in Lagos State, Nigeria, to ascertain their safety level. The study was carried out using complete randomization design and Cluster sampling technique to source vended street foods from three locations (Marina, Yaba and Apapa). The eight Food products studied were roasted (plantain, fish, yam, corn), suya meat, meat pie, egg roll and doughnuts. Lead, Cadmium, Copper, Mercury, Iron, Zinc and organic pollutants in Foods and particulate matter in Environment were examined. Heavy metals detected in vended street foods from Marina, Yaba and Apapa Lagos were; iron, copper, lead and zinc, at level ranging from 0.14 mg/kg–2.80 mg/kg, 0.08 mg/kg – 0.27 mg/kg, 0.01 mg/kg – 0.18 mg/kg, and 0.01 mg/kg – 0.04 mg/kg, respectively. Mercury and Cadmium were below detectable limit. Significantly (P<0.05) higher iron presence of 2.80 mg/kg and 1.99mg/kg were respectively, noticed in suya from Apapa and roasted fish also from Apapa. Significantly (P<0.05) higher lead (Pb) content of 0.18 mg/kg was observed in dough nut from Yaba, however, roasted plantain, roasted fish and meat pie all sourced from Yaba gave significantly (P<0.05) lower lead content of 0.01mg/kg. The Zinc content of roasted fish, suya and egg roll sourced from Marina, Yaba and Apapa were all significantly (P<0.05) difference, with particular respect to food type. Higher iron content of 2.80 mg/kg was noticed in suya from Apapa. Volatile organic compounds (TPH, PAHs, Phenol) were observed to be below detectable limit (<0.001 mg/kg) in all the vended street food samples. Particulate matter in air; SPM, PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and VOCs ranged from 0.34 – 0.84 mg/m3, 0.32 – 0.56 mg/m3, 0.32 – 0.68 mg/m3, 0.33 – 0.79 mg/m3 and <0.001 – 0.24 mg/m3, respectively. PM1 and PM25 from the three locations were not statistically significant (P>0.05). All the vended food samples had lead (Pb) content above the CODEX permissible limit of 0.01 mg/kg. The presence of high lead content in Vended Street food is a major source of occupational health hazards.

Open Access Review Article

Emergence of Viral Infections through Food Supply Chain: A Review

Rafiya Munshi, Afsah Iqbal

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 83-90
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i630240

All living organisms may act as host to a wide range of viruses, and can infect the human body causing severe illness or even death. Viruses have often been important in burdening infections and other illnesses and require special attention because of their different behaviour as compared to bacteria. Two highly pathogenic corona-viruses—severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)—supposed to be emerged from an wet market in china resulted in a global epidemic which took a tool on human lives and currently also the world is fighting a deadliest viral infection caused by a small pathogen possibly transmitted through the food chain in a wet market again in china. The environment is the reservoirs for many of these viruses and any human handling of animals carrying such viruses finds an easy route into human body. Besides, there had been various food borne outbreaks throughout the world due to contaminated agricultural produce, packaging, processed foods or through infected food handlers. Such incidents have prioritized the need for effective control measures, intensified research and risk assessment measures in controlling such outbreaks. This review highlights a brief description of viral transmissions, virus and human gut response and preventable strategies in the food chain to contain such infections.