Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Quality Evaluation of Cheese from Soy and Coconut Milk Using Selected Coagulants

Agboola Adebiyi Ayodeji, Dinnah Ahure, Esienanwan Esien Efiong, Israel Okpunyi Acham

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i730243

Cheese was produced from soy milk, cow milk and coconut milk using lime, lemon and rennet as coagulants. The effect of these coagulants on proximate composition, coagulation time, percentage yield, peroxide value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substance (TBA-RS), micro-biological and sensory qualities of the formulated cheese was evaluated using standard methods. Nine samples were designed for this study. The moisture content of rennet coagulated cheese was significantly higher than lime and lemon coagulated cheese, while the protein content of lime coagulated cheese was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than those of lemon and rennet coagulated cheese. The crude fat and total ash contents of cheese made from cow milk were superior to those made from soy milk and coconut milk. The fibre content of lime coagulated cheese was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than lemon and rennet coagulated cheese. The coagulation time and percentage yield of the cheese samples did not follow a definite trend and ranged between 19-147 sec and 12.40-28.70% respectively. Aside samples DSL and HCL, all the other freshly prepared cheese samples fell within the standard value of 10 mEq/kg. However, with an increase in storage time, virtually all the samples became rancid. With an increase in storage time. Similar trend was observed in the TBA-RS of the cheese samples. All the samples were microbiologically safe for human consumption and the cheese samples were organoleptically acceptable, since their sensory scores were above average. The study established that cheese produced from fresh cow milk, soy milk and coconut milk coagulated with lime, lemon and rennet showed to a large extent significant differences in their chemical composition, percentage yield and coagulation time. The peroxide value and TBA-RS determination from this study showed that the cheese could not stay longer than a day on the shelf, unless it is refrigerated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antidiabetic Activity of Aerial Parts and Seeds of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea) on Diabetic Rats

E. G. El- Dreny

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 13-23
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i730244

This study has been proposed to study the effect of aerial parts and seeds of purslane on diabetic rats. Chemical composition, phenolic compounds and fatty acids of purslane and seeds powder were determined. A biological experiment was performed using 30 male albino rats. The rats were divided into six groups (five in group) and the duration of experiment was 8 weeks. Normal control (G1) non- diabetic rats fed on the basal diet, diabetic control (G2) diabetic rats fed on the basal diet only, the other groups of diabetic rats fed on basal diet supplemented with purslane (5 and 10%) and  seeds (5 and 10%). The results of biological experiment indicated that adding of purslane and seeds to basal diet for diabetic rats, led to improvement in liver and kidney functions and an increase in body weight and HDL cholesterol and decrease blood glucose, TC, TG, LDL cholesterol, v-LDL cholesterol comparing to those of diabetic rats fed on basal diet only diabetic control. Purslane (5 and 10%) and seeds (5 and 10%) were added to burger as a replacement of fat. The results of sensory evaluation indicated that all sensory properties of the burger prepared with purslane and seeds were acceptable. Through the results of this study, we recommend the possibility of using purslane and seeds to prevent and reduce the symptoms caused by diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Pearl Millet Based Supplementary Food on Biochemical and Cognitive Profiles of School Children (5-6 Year Old)

S. Arokiamary, R. Senthilkumar, S. Kanchana

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 24-34
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i730245

Aims: To study the effect of pearl millet based supplementary food on biochemical and cognitive profiles of school going girl children.

Methodology: Two groups of 30 girl children in the age group of five to six year each were selected. The total number of children participated in the present study was 60. The first group constituted non supplemented (control); the second group of children (experimental) was supplemented 100 g of pearl millet based supplementary food mix in the form of biscuits along with their home diet for a period of 100 days. The biochemical profiles like haemoglobin, serum protein and serum retinol were analyzed and cognitive test also carried out before and after the administration of supplementary food.

Results: The mean increments in biochemical parameters such as haemoglobin, serum protein and serum retinol was higher in experimental group than the control group. At the end of the experiment the mean increment of Raven’s score was 1.07 in control and 1.36 in experimental group. In Weschler’s scale memory score has increased from 72.15 to 72.83 in control and 74.46 to 76.13 in experimental group. Binet Kamat’s test of mental ability was also observed an increase in the score at the end of the study period. The haemoglobin level was positively correlated with cognitive development of the children in both control and experimental group.

Conclusion: Supplementation with pearl millet based supplementary food mix has improved the biochemical and cognitive development of the selected children. Long term feeding trials with supplementary food mix could improve the cognitive development. Incorporation of the green leafy vegetables powder and carrot powder in different type of foods has positive effect on the cognitive development of school children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant, Mineral and Microbiological Properties of Wine from Blends of Roselle Calyces Extract and Pineapple Juice

M. T. Ukeyima, B. O. Idoko, L. O. Moghalu

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 49-57
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i730249

Wine was produced from must formulated by mixing roselle calyces hot water extract with pineapple juice at ratios of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 for A, B, C, D, E and F respectively. Must were pitched with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fermented at room temperature for 8 days followed by racking, pasteurization and ageing at room temperature for 31 days. The antioxidant capacity, mineral content and microbiological analyses were carried out on the musts and wine samples using standard procedures. There was a significant (p<0.05) difference between must and wines as fermentation was observed to increase its antioxidant capacity (2, 2-diphenyl -1- picrylhydrazylradical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant properties, trolox equivalent antioxidant properties and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity). Fermentation decreased the mineral contents (manganese, zinc and magnesium) of wines except for sodium that increased significantly. Values ranged from 3.81 – 7.77 mg/L for Manganese, 162.38 – 166.66 mg/L for sodium, 2.71 – 4.71 mg/L for zinc and 35.45 – 40.67 mg/L for magnesium. Microbial count was done at different stages of production and there was no detectable growth on cultured wine samples. The result of this study showed that wines of nutritionally high quality can be produced from blends of roselle hot water extract and pineapple juice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Levels of Heavy Metals and Their Risk Assessment in Kolanuts (Cola nitida Schott & Amp; Endl.) Collected from Cote d’Ivoire, West Africa

Kouadio Rodrigue, Deigna-Mockey Viviane, Ake Assi, Nyamien Yves, Coulibaly Adama, Sidibe Daouda, Biego Henri

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 58-68
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i730250

Background: Kolanut represents a significant economic interest for this country as well as many African households and public authorities. Despite its obvious importance, the sector of the kolanut is facing a delicate sanitary quality of the marketed product. The majority of the production (90%) of kola is consumed daily fresh by people and could cause a serious health problem for consumers if the toxicity due to heavy metals were proven.

Aims: This study aimed to determine the heavy metals levels in kolanuts and estimate the risks of nuts consumption on population health in Côte d'Ivoire.

Study Design: Samples were collected from farmers, rural collectors, urban stores in districts (Mountains, Comoe, Lagoons, Down-Sassandra) and big storage centers of Anyama and Bouake.

Methodology: Concentrations of 3 heavy metals were measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The analysis of lead and cadmium was performed in flame mode (Air / nitrogen), with an AAS type VARIAN SPECTRAA 110 provided the furnace GTA 110. While, the analysis of mercury was carried out in hydride mode with a SAA system equipped with a vaporization unit (VGA 77).

Results: Results showed the presence of the 3 heavy metals in kolanuts samples, with concentrations ranging from 5.37 μg/kg to 11.21 μg/kg, 17.49 μg/kg to 51.01 μg/kg and 19.99 μg/kg to 40.35 μg/kg for lead, cadmium and mercury, respectively. Based on the concentrations and the daily consumption of kolanuts estimated at 0.6 g/person in Côte d'Ivoire, the intakes values estimated by heavy metals were 4.8.10-3 ± 4.9.10-4 µg/j, 1.3.10-2 ± 9.07.10-4 µg/j and 1.7.10-2 ± 1.99.10-3 µg/j for lead, cadmium and mercury, respectively. The exposure daily doses (EDD) are all lower than the toxicological reference values. Thus, the occurrence of a toxic effect from Pb (HQ = 1.94.10 -5 <1), Cd (HQ = 1.9.10 -4 <1) and Hg (HQ = 3.4.10 -4 < 1) after Kolanuts consumption is very unlikely since the HQ are all less than 1.

Conclusion: Consumption of kolanuts from Côte d’Ivoire would not present any health risk for the consumer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Traditional Processing Methods on the Nutritional Composition of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolour L. Moench) Flour

T. Tamilselvan, Archana Kushwaha

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 69-77
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i730252

Sorghum is a drought-resistant crop grown widely in various parts of India. It has low protein content, highly deficient in essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan and high anti-nutritional content. Therefore, keeping in view the present study aimed to determine the effect of traditional processing methods such as fermentation, malting and roasting on the proximate composition, anti-nutritional factors, protein digestibility and lysine content of sorghum. The results showed that ash content increased from 1.73 to 1.89% during roasting. Fermentation increased crude protein content from 8.27 to 8.98% and in vitro protein digestibility from 13.62 to 69.63%. Malting decreased the crude fat content from 1.87 to 1.22% while it shows a significant increase in crude fiber content from 3.34 to 4.26% and carbohydrate content from 84.77 to 86.15%. Total phenol content reduced from 92.62 to 48.40 mg GAE/100 g, and tannin content reduced from 8.46 to 1.25 mg TAE/100 g during fermentation. The lysine content increased significantly during fermentation (1.88 g/16 g of N) and malting (1.94 g/16 g of N). Natural fermentation of sorghum flour found to have improved nutritional quality than other processing methods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Ginger and Cinnamon on the Proximate Composition and Sensory Properties of Corn Ogi

N. J. T. Emelike, A. E. Ujong, S. C. Achinewhu

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 78-85
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i730253

Objective: Ogi is a fermented cereal gruel produced from maize, sorghum or millet. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of ginger and cinnamon on the proximate composition and sensory properties of corn ogi.

Methodology: Ogi slurry was prepared from corn and fortified with 5% ginger, 5% cinnamon, 5% ginger: 5% cinnamon and 2.5% ginger: 2.5% cinnamon spices and 100% corn ogi as control. The samples were analyzed for proximate composition and sensory properties using standard methods.

Results: The results obtained from this study indicated that there was an increase in the moisture, ash, protein and fat contents of corn ogi spiced with ginger and cinnamon and a decrease in carbohydrate content. These increases were observed to be significant (p<0.05) with corn ogi samples spiced with ginger than for cinnamon except for crude fiber which was higher in ogi spiced with cinnamon. Moisture content of the ogi samples ranged from 8.53-9.79%, crude protein 5.13-6.37%, ash 0.19-0.30%, crude fiber 0.29-0.81%, carbohydrate 78.93-81.64% and energy contents 387.77-391.98 kcal. The inclusion of cinnamon and ginger had no significant (p<0.05) effect on the sensory properties of the unsweetened spiced ogi samples. Mean scores obtained for unsweetened ogi samples were low. Upon sweetening with sugar, these scores were increased for all sensory attributes. Sensory evaluation of sweetened ogi samples showed that the control sample was more preferred for all sensory attributes and this was followed closely by sample ogi spiced with 5% ginger.

Conclusion: This study recommends the use of ginger at 5% for the fortification of corn ogi which will result in ogi with sensory properties similar to 100% corn ogi. It also showed the potential of fortifying corn ogi with ginger and cinnamon, either singly or as a blend, to enhance the nutritional quality of corn ogi.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Establishment of Nutrient Profiles for Solid Pre-packaged Food in China

Jing Zhu, Xuesong Xiang, Xin Wang, Hans Verhagen, Yuexin Yang

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 86-96
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i730254

Objectives: To provide scientific and practical criteria for Nutrient Profiles (NP) in China in order to evaluate the overall nutritional quality of solid pre-packaged food according to their nutrient composition.

Methods: Based on data obtained from a survey of experts’ grading of foods available in China, a NP model was established, which covered scope of application, choice and balance of nutrients, choice of benchmarks and algorithm used. 

Results: A NP model for solid foods was established as a scoring model, the reference amount was 100 g. The recommended intake standards were Nutrient Reference Value (NRV) in labeling regulation. Nutrients taken into account included qualifying nutrients (dietary fiber, vitamin C) and disqualifying nutrients (total fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA), sodium). A total score was calculated as (score of dietary fiber + score of vitamin C) – (score of total fat + score of SFA + score of sodium). Foods with a total score ≤-5were qualified as "less healthy", a score of -4 ≤ total score ≤ 2 was "intermediate" and a total score ≥3 indicated "healthier".

Conclusion: A NP model for pre-packaged foods in China was established that can be used to assess and compare the impact of different foods on diet, and help decide which pre-packaged foods are qualified to carry nutrition and health claims.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Socio-demographic Comparison of Malnutrition and Malaria Prevalence among Primary School Children in Gombe State Nigeria

Mela Danjin, Solomon O. Adewoye, Henry O. Sawyerr

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 97-109
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i730255

Background: Despite the complex nature of inter-relationship between malnutrition and malaria, there has been continued emphasis and need to further re-examine the twin issues side-by-side with a view to forging an integrated public health care strategy.   

Objective: This study aimed to make comparison and possibly add to the increasing body of evidence on the relationship between malnutrition and malaria among apparently healthy primary school children in Gombe state, Nigeria.

Methodology: Between the months of March and June 2019, a total of 745 school children aged 6 to 15 years were studied using a cross sectional design. Selection of the children was done by means of a multi-stage sampling technique, from 12 public and 6 private schools in 6 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of the state. Levels of malnutrition among the subjects were measured using three anthropometric indices, namely; stunting (Height-for-age Z-scores, HAZ), underweight (Weight-for-age Z-scores, WAZ) and wasting (Weight-for-height Z-score, WHZ); while screening for malaria infection was done using rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kits. The WHO AnthroPlus and IBM SPSS version 21 statistical software packages were used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics was employed to summarize research findings, while chi square statistics was used to compare proportions at 0.05 alpha significance level.

Results: About half (50.9%) of the subjects were boys while girls constitutes the rest 49.1%. The overall prevalence of stunting was 22.5% (19.6 - 25.6), underweight 20.9% (18.1 - 23.9), and wasting, 16.8% (13.7 - 20.4). Furthermore, malaria infection prevalence among the subjects was 13.6%. Age group and sex were found to be significantly associated with malnutrition (underweight or stunting or both) but they weren’t with malaria. On the other hand, while place of residence and level of education were significantly associated with malaria, they were not associated with malnutrition. Overall, both malnutrition and malaria were found to be significantly associated with type of school, senatorial district, tribe, religion, occupation of father, occupation of mother and level of education of mother. On the whole, malnutrition and malaria were significantly associated.

Conclusion: In light of the above epidemiological pattern of distribution and associations between the two public health problems, the design of intervention programmes should integrate approaches targeted at the two issues among primary school children.   

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Socioeconomic Profile on Nutritional Status of School Children

S. Arokiamary, R. Senthilkumar, S. Kanchana

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 110-120
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i730270

Objectives: To study the effect of socioeconomic factors such as birth order, family size, family type, parent’s education level and family income on nutritional status of school children.

Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Madurai district, Tamil Nadu to assess the effect of socioeconomic factors on nutritional status of school going children age of 5-6 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. The interview schedule was used to collect the background information regarding caste, type of family, family size, number of children and educational status of parents, occupation and income. Body Mass Index in relation to WHO reference child growth standard was used for assessing nutritional status.

Results: Out of 60 children 30.00, 53.33 and 5.00 per cent children had mild, moderate and severe malnutrition respectively. Majority of malnourished children belonged to 3rd (51.66%) and 4th (30%) order of birth. The mild (28.33%) and moderate malnutrition (51.67%) children belonged to medium size family. The severely malnourished belonged to medium and large size family are 3.33 and 1.67 per cent respectively. Majority of the Mild (8.33%) moderate (23.33%) and severe (3.33%) malnutrition children belonged to mothers who were illiterate. Five per cent of children were severely malnourished and 18.33 per cent of children were moderately malnourished from the income range of ₹ 6000 to 7000.

Conclusion: The present study shows that the prevalence of malnutrition was significantly higher in school children age of 5-6 years. Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, women’s education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor nutritional status of children (p<0.05).The malnutrition is higher in children of illiterate mothers because of lack of knowledge on importance of healthy diet.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Ethno-botany, Virucidal Activity, Phytochemistry and Toxicology of Solanum genus: Potential Bio-resources for the Therapeutic Management of Covid-19

Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Clement M. Mbadiko, Aristote Matondo, Gedeon N. Bongo, Clement L. Inkoto, Benjamin Z. Gbolo, Emmanuel M. Lengbiye, Jason T. Kilembe, Domaine T. Mwanangombo, Etienne M. Ngoyi, Clarisse M. Falanga, Damien S. T. Tshibangu, Dorothee D. Tshilanda, Pius T. Mpiana

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 35-48
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i730246

Background and Aim: Condiment plants are not only a source of food, flavors or food additives but also antivirals. The aim of the present work consisted in compiling ethno-botanical, phytochemical, toxicological and biological activities literature data reported on some species of the Solanum genus, precisely their antiviral potential.

Methodology: The literature review was based mainly on the usual databases such as PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct, SCIELO, DOAJ, Science alert and Google scholar.

Results: The ethnobotanical studies show that Solanum species are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several ailments, particularly those affecting the respiratory system. With regard to studies on their bioactivity, the literature indicates that the Solanum genus is full of species used in food and/or traditional medicine, in most cases presenting several biological properties such as antiviral potential. Among the viruses sensitive to extracts from Solanum species, are: Herpes virus type 1 or 2, viral hepatitis virus and HIV. Some phytochemical studies identified several compounds responsible for the antiviral activity, but polyphenolic compounds precisely glycoalkaloids have been shown to interact with SARS-CoV-2 protease such as quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin in some Solanum species (S. melongena, S. nigrum and S. torvum). Furthermore, the immunostimulant, haematopoietic or antioxidant potentials of some species of Solanum genus would be an asset for the management of Covid-19. There is little or no information in the literature on the toxicity of Solanum species used as food or drugs in traditional medicine.

Conclusion: The antiviral activity of Solanum species is linked to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. It is advisable to consume these Solanum species which are less toxic during this pandemic as they are considered to be nutraceuticals. Molecular docking study of the interaction of these compounds with SARS-CoV-2 protease is in progress.