Open Access Minireview Article

Impacts of Acquired Iron Deficiency on Adolescent Health

Luiz Antonio Del Ciampo, Ieda Regina Lopes Del Ciampo

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 87-93
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030305

Adolescence is a period of growth and physical and emotional development for which, among other factors, it is necessary to ingest nutrients in sufficient quantity and quality to supply all the demands of the organism. As it is a phase of nutritional vulnerability, adolescents need to have their nutritional status monitored to prevent the lack of micronutrients from interfering with their full growth and development. Iron is a fundamental micronutrient for humans and its lack can lead to several physical and emotional impairments that interfere with good health conditions. This article presents the characteristics of the adolescent's growth and development and the consequences that can be caused by acquired iron deficiency during the second decade of life, with repercussions that can extend throughout adult life. It also proposes measures to prevent or minimize this nutritional problem among adolescents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of the Ripening Stages on Some Biochemical and Nutritional Properties in Carica papaya L. (cv. Solo 8) Pulp, Skin, and Seeds

Edwige Larissa Koffi, Djary Michel Koffi, Hubert Kouassi Konan, Eugène Jean Parfait N’guessan Kouadio

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030297

The present study was aimed at investigating some biochemical properties and mineral contents in pulp, skin, and seeds of Carica papaya cv. solo 8 as a function of ripening stage. C. papaya cv. solo 8 fruits were obtained from a village plantation in Azaguié area’s (5° 38′ 00″ N and 4° 05′ 00″ W) in Côte d’Ivoire. Papaya fruits were harvested at four ripening stages especially unripe, 1/8 advanced, ¼ advanced and advanced. Skin, pulp and seeds were separated, and they were oven dried and ground to obtain the crude flour. Proximate composition and mineral contents were investigated using standard methods. Results showed significant differences in moisture dry matter, protein, carbohydrate, ash, crude fibre, and total sugar contents as a function of the ripening stage, and from a fruit part to another. Pulps exhibited the highest contents of moisture (93.67 %), carbohydrate (96.62 g / 100 g DW), total and reducing sugars (4.28 and 1.10 %, respectively) which increase during ripening. The better ash (0.86 %) and protein (21.52 %) contents were obtained in skin at the advanced stage. The highest crude fibre content was found in seeds at unripe stage (1.86 %) and the pulps recorded the lowest values (between 0.19 and 0.28 %). As concerned mineral elements, there were increase in potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium contents in skin during ripening, while these mineral contents decrease in seeds and pulp. Skin recorded highest content in potassium (2344.80 to 6865.50 mg /100 DW), phosphorus (691.51 to 1958.34 mg /100 DW), calcium (306.32 to 632.27 mg /100 DW), and magnesium (173.86 to 569.82 mg /100 DW) especially at ¼ advanced and advanced stages. Iron and zinc contents (respectively, 15.57 and 14.01 mg/ 100 g DW) were also greater in skin at advanced stages. All the parts of C. papaya cv. solo 8 fruit at different ripening stages, especially the skin would provide significant portion of the Recommended Daily Allowances of several nutrients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate and Microbiological Quality of Roasted Plantain, Its Sauce, Fish and Side Vegetable Sold in Rivers State University and Its Environment

Obinna-Echem, Patience Chisa, Eze, Simeon Christian

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 10-19
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030298

The proximate composition and microbiological quality of roasted plantain, its sauce, fish and side vegetable sold in River State University and its environment were investigated. The samples were purchased from four different locations namely staff club (SCL), shopping complex (SHC), back-gate (BGT) and maingate (MGT). Using standard methods, the samples were analyzed for proximate and microbiological quality. The values for moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fibre, fat and carbohydrate were 53.30 - 57.22 %, 2.94 - 3.73 %, 9.26 - 10.13 %, 2.34 - 3.67 %, 11.62 - 13.41 %, and 15.42-20.07 % respectively. The energy varied from 206.76-229.93 kcal/100g. For all the samples from all locations, aerobic count varied from 5.31 - 7.98 Log10CFU/g for plantain and fish. Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus ranged from 4.06 - 7.42, 5.48 - 7.41 and 5.31 -7.90 Log10CFU/g respectively, while Coliform and fungi count varied respectively from 5.01 - 7.57 and 5.01 - 7.33 Log10CFU/g. The leave had significantly (P ≤ 0.05) the highest microbial load. The microbial load exceeded the acceptable limits for ready to eat foods and can be attributed to poor hygiene practices. Some samples except the leave had no detectable levels of the pathogens and fungi. The presence of pathogens indicates potential hazard to the health of consumers,  hence the need awareness on proper handling and hygiene practices among street food vendors. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Experimental Variables on the Malting Performance of Nigerian Maize Oba Super 2 Variety

A. O. Agbo, F. J. C. Odibo, A. E. Mbachu

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 20-31
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030299

Background: The Nigerian cultivar, Oba Super 2 (OS2) maize is inexpensive but under- utilized owing to poor development of malting technology for brewing.

Aim: To study the effects of experimental variables on the malting performance of Nigerian maize Oba Super 2 variety.

Study Design: Exploratory.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria, between March, 2018 to September, 2019.

Methodology: Certified Oba Super 2 maize variety was obtained from Premier Seed Limited, Zaria. The grain sample was malted at varying steeping (S) period (S30, S36 and S42 hours), different germination (G) period (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days) and varying kilning (K) temperatures (45, 50 and 55°C) to determine the malting performance. The properties of the un-malted and malted maize were determined using standard methods. Data were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) at P < 0.05.

Results: The malting loss (ML) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at different steeping period, on the fifth day of germination (G5). The cold water extract (CWE) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) on the fourth day of germination (G4) kilned at K50. The values for hot water extract (HWE) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) on the G4 at K45, K55 and K50, respectively, while free alpha amino nitrogen (FAN) values were significantly higher (P < 0.05) on the G4, all kilned at K50. The values for diastatic power (DP) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) on the G5, kilned at K50, while the cold water soluble protein (CWS-P) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) on the G3 kilned at K50.

Conclusion: The results indicated that longer steeping and germination periods as well as moderate kilning temperature contributed maximally in improving the malting properties and high extract yields.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Nutritionally Valuable Mineral Composition of Moringa oleifera Leaf

G. S. Dasat, G. Danjuma, E. S. Chundusu

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 46-53
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030300

Moringa plant parts are edible and considered as a highly nutritive vegetable globally. In this study, the essential nutrient elements, solid organic matter content (SOM) and phenolic compound of Moringa oliefera leaf extract obtained from two different zones of Plateau State, Nigeria was determined using standard laboratory procedures. The results obtained revealed that samples (A and B) of leaves of Moringa oleifera contained various quantities of valuable nutritive mineral elements such as chloride (14.49 mg per g and 13.44 mg per g), sodium (13.07 mg per g and 11.85 mg per g), Sulphate (13.07 mg per g and 11.85 mg per g), potassium (2.57 mg per g and 2.28 mg per g), calcium (2.57 mg per g and 2.28 mg per g), magnesium (5.59 mg per g and 5.67 mg per g), respectively while others such as ammonium, phosphate and iron had varying concentrations of valuable nutritional elements. There is no significant difference in the mineral contents of both samples. It also has high percentages of SOM of 81 and 82% in samples A and B as well as phenolics contents of 701.90 µg per g and 641.34 µg per g, respectively. These minerals are vital in the development and maintenance of the human health because the human body needs both macro and micro elements for its metabolism and proper development. Therefore, the Moringa oleifera plant could be an important source of essential elements of the human diet and could resolve some health-related issues due to high content of phenolics which contained antioxidant, anti-bacterial as well as anti-fungal properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Nutritional Value of Selected Wild Leafy Vegetables Growing in the Roma Valley, Lesotho

Emmanuel B. Tanor, T’sooana Ntlatlapa, Sibusisiwe Magama

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 32-45
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030301

Objective: The study aimed at determining the nutrient content of nine selected wild leafy vegetables growing in Roma Valley of Lesotho as a means to achieve food security, improve nutritional and dietary diversity and address malnutrition in rural communities.

Methodology: The vegetables were analysed for proximate composition, and Ca, Mg, Na, P, K, Fe, Mn, Se, Cu and Zn and vitamin C. Analyses were carried out using standard methods.

Results: The proximate analysis revealed a high in moisture (81.15 - 92.23%) statistically similar (p<0.05), some were rich in protein, vitamin C, Cu, Mn, K and Fe. Chenopodium album has the highest protein (31.53±8.65 mg/100 g) fresh weight (FW); and Rorripa nudiscula (51.4% of RDA). Chenopodium album and Rorripa nudiscula were rich in Ca, 1598.21±15.25 mg/100 g FW and 1508.50±25.40 mg/100 g FW and in Mg, 505.14±35.55 mg/100 g FW and 525.18 mg/100 g FW respectively. The vegetables were rich in K, but low in Na, with Na-to-K ratio < 1.0, indicating that the vegetables could be ideal source of balanced sodium and potassium intake in diet. The vegetables were rich in Cu with ranging from 114.4% of RDA in Hypochaeris radicata to 342.2% of RDA in Chenopodium album. Fe was abundant in Rorripa nudiscula 251.7% of RDA and Chenopodium album 187.8% of the RDA. Mn was abundant in Amaranthus cruentus 557.8% of the RDA, in Chenopodium album or 245.7% of the RDA, in Rorripa nudiuscula, 205.5% of RDA, Amaranthus thunbergii (130.9% of RDA), moderate amounts in Amaranthus caudatus (1.94±0.36 mg/100 g FW or 84.4%) and Amaranthus spinosus (83.5% of RDA). The content of Se was moderate: Rorripa nudiscula (38.3% of RDA). Amaranthus thunbergii (20.50±0.27 µg/100 g FW, 37.3% of RDA), Amaranthus spinosus (34.0% of RDA) and Lactuta serriola (20.7% of RDA). Zn was high in Chenopodium album (117.3% of RDA) moderate in Rorripa nudiscula (35.6% of RDA) Lactuta serriola (23.9% of RDA), Amaranthus spinosus (19.6% of RDA), Amaranthus caudatus (15.9% of RDA). Most of the nutrient were statistically similar at p<0.5.

Conclusion: The nutrient composition indicated that the vegetables could be good source of minerals and vitamin C and could be incorporated in rural household diets to improve nutrition, address malnutrition and food insecurity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Quality Evaluation of Yogurts from Composites of Powdered Cow Milk, Soy Milk and Cornstarch

C. U. Obiora, E. C. Igwe, E. C. Udeagha, S. N. Orjiakor, C. S. Anarado

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 54-67
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030302

This research was carried out to evaluate the appropriate levels of substitution of powdered cow milk with soy milk and cornstarch needed to produce yoghurt, evaluating its quality and potential for acceptance. Powdered cow milk was substituted with soymilk and cornstarch up to 30% to produce yogurt and market sample yogurt was used as control. Each composite blend milk samples was homogenized, pasteurized at 75°C for 5 min, cooled and inoculated with a mixed freeze-dried starter culture containing strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus at 45°C, fermented for 6 h and cooled to 4˚C. The proximate, chemical, microbial, functional and sensory evaluation of the composite yogurt samples was determined. The yogurt samples were coded ACS-1 to ACS-13 where ACS-13 represent control. The result of the proximate analysis showed that moisture content ranged from 82.04 – 88.71%, protein ranged 2.05 – 6.48%,  fat ranged from 2.14 – 3.62%,  carbohydrate ranged from 4.30 – 9.91% and ash content ranged from 0.53 – 1.48%. The pH ranged from 3.73 – 4.82. For microbial evaluation, the total viable bacteria count ranged from 1.90x107 – 11.60x107, total coliform count ranged from 0.50x107 – 3.90x107. For chemical and functional evaluation, the total solids ranged from 11.28 – 16.96%, titratable acidity ranged from 0.30 – 1.80%, syneresis ranged from 0.00 – 28.33%, water absorption capacity ranged from 0.00 – 75.53% and apparent viscosity ranged from 1337- 4863 cP. For sensory evaluation, yogurt produced with 100% powdered milk (ACS-1) was the most preferred while yogurt sample produced with 50% powdered milk, 30% cornstarch and 20% soy milk (ACS-10) was the least preferred among other yogurt samples. This study revealed the mix ratios of powdered cow milk, soy milk and cornstarch that were acceptable in accordance with yogurt standard and the extent the quality of yogurt was generally accepted with the use of processing adjuncts (soymilk and cornstarch).

Open Access Original Research Article

Potentiality of Fractionated Extracts from Hemizygia welwitschii Rolfe-Ashby (Lamiaceae) Leaf to Protect Maize against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Storage

T. G. Fotso, T. Gangue, D. J. Langsi, M. N. Lakane, M. C. Zourmba, N. Tchao, W. F. G. D. Kapche, E. N. Nukenine

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 68-80
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030303

Laboratory tests were conducted in order to assess the potential insecticidal effect of hexane, acetone and methanol fractionated extracts from Hemizygia welwitschii leaves against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, important stored maize pest. The three extracts used individually were applied at four different concentrations (2, 4, 6 and 10 g/kg of maize) against the weevil. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated by recording adult mortality after 1, 3, 7 and 14 days of infestation, and the F1 progeny emergence. Population increase, grain damage, and seeds germination were also assessed after three months of storage. The results showed that, among the three fractionated extracts, hexane extract was the most effective with 100% mortality recorded within 14 days after infestation at the concentration of 10 g/kg of maize, followed by acetone extract with 83.75% and methanol extract with 79.21% of mortality. The LC50 values decrease with the increase of exposure periods. The 14-day LC50 values were 0.78 g/kg, 1.58 g/kg and 3.10 g/kg respectively for hexane, acetone and methanol extract. The three extracts achieved significant inhibition of F1 progeny at all the concentrations. Among them, the hexane and methanol extracts induced complete inhibition of F1 progeny emergence at 10 g/kg of maize, acetone extract recorded 82.33% of inhibition. Significant reductions of insect population growth and percentage of seed damage were recorded after three months of storage on the maize treated with each extract at all the concentrations compared to negative control. Furthermore, no alive insects was recorded in maize seeds treated with the three extracts at the concentration of 10 g/kg. It is noticed that, percentage of gain damage were similar (0.15%) in maize treated with hexane and methanol extracts at 10 g/kg, while acetone extract recorded 0.76% of grain damage. In general, these extracts had no negative effect on the germination capacity of maize grains at the end of storage. Overall, the results obtained indicate that the use of these fractionated extracts could serve as an alternative to synthetic insecticides.

Open Access Original Research Article

Total Levels of Mercury Concentrations in Marine Fish - Kumasi, Ghana

Charles Afriyie- Debrah, Priscilla Francisco Ribeiro, David Baah

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 81-86
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030304

Fish is an excellent source of high biological value protein, is low in saturated fat, and contains polyunsaturated fatty acids and some vitamins. Mercury occurs naturally in the environment as a result of human activities. In aquatic environments, inorganic mercury is converted into methylmercury (the most common form of organic mercury) by microorganisms present in sediment through accumulations in the aquatic food chain, including in fish and shellfish. Fish absorb methyl mercury from water as it passes over their gills and as they feed on organisms. The objective of the study is to determine mercury pollution levels in fresh fish in Central Market, Kumasi, Ghana. A total of 42 fished were sampled randomly in separate labelled zip lock bags and stored in cold ice chest at different periods comparing of 27 different species after identification. Individual edible fish dorsal muscle tissue was taken and wet dried and analyzed using Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (CV-AAS) method which is really simple, accurate and rapid. The concentration of mercury in fish samples from the marine sea were determined with a mixture of HNO3, HClO4 and H2SO4 for complete oxidation of the organic tissue. The results showed that there was substantial amount of mercury in the fish samples ranged from 15.29 - 981.99 ng/g or ppb wet weight which is less than the FAO/WHO limits of 0.5 ppm wet weight. The study showed low concentrations of mercury in the fish species which do not appear to contribute any significant mercury exposure to the general population. It suggests that a relatively clean marine environment due to minimal industrial activity in the region that has not yet been significantly impacted by mercury contamination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Benefit, Acceptability and Safety of Cookies from Blanched Coconut and Wheat Flour

Abiodun Omowonuola Adebayo-Oyetoro, Jane A. Okereke, Ebunoluwa I. Ogunnub, Anita A. Ukwenya, Flora O. Ogundipe, Oluwafunmilola Abiodun

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 94-102
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030306

Cookies were made from wheat and blanched coconut flour blends in ratios 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, 75:25, 70:30, 60:40 and 55:45 respectively with 100% wheat as control. Proximate, sensory and microbial analysis of the cookies were assessed using standard methods and established level of significance difference (p<0.5). Results showed that moisture, crude fibre, fat and calorific value ranged between 5.72%-7.80%, 5.77%-7.80%, 9.81-17.21% and 197.08-312.85 Kcal/100g respectively showing increased parameters with increased substitution levels. Carbohydrate and protein ranged from 49.27%-78.21% and 12.69%-15.66% respectively. Mean sensory score for colour, crunchiness and flavor ranged between 7.30-8.50, 7.01-8.02 and 6.30-8.50 respectively while sample 70:30 was the most acceptable in most of the parameters assessed. Total viable count ranged from 1.4x104 cfu/g- 2.5x104 cfu/g between 2nd -5th week of storage while most samples had no fungi growth for the five weeks except for sample 60:40 and 55:45 with growth ranging from 4.0-7.1x104 Cfu/g. Safe and nutritious cookies can be made from wheat-blanched coconut flour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protein Quality Evaluation of Raw and Processed Seeds of Cadaba farinosa Forssk and Growth Performance of Albino Rats Fed with the Products

I. M. Inuwa, M. K. Atiku, J. A. Mashi

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 103-111
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030307

Cadaba farinosa Forssk is a wild shrub whose seeds are eaten as a famine food in North Eastern Nigeria when there is poor harvest of conventional crops. This research was carried out in order to evaluate the protein quality of the seeds and to carry out the growth performance of experimental animals fed on seeds processed by different methods. The processed methods include cooking, cooking with the addition of potash, fermentation and sprouting. PTH-Amino acid analyzer was used to determine the amino acid profile and milk reference protein was used for scoring the essential amino acids. The products were fed to weaning albino rats for 28 days growth performance studies. The determination of nitrogen content of the feed, faeces, urine and the carcass of the animals were carried out by Kjeldahl method. Protein quality evaluation of the processed products was carried out by calculating the Biological Value (BV), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), Net Protein Utilization (NPU) and The Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acids Score (PDCAAS). Results of Amino acid analysis showed that the sample cooked with addition of potash contain higher levels of amino acids. Glutamic acid was found to the most abundant amino acid with a value of 11.96 g/ 100 g and 13.96 g/ 100 g in the sprouted and raw seeds respectively. Chemical score of amino acids revealed higher score for protein of seeds cooked with addition of potash except tryptophan which was 219.29% for seeds cooked without potash. The highest PDCAAS (49.84%) was found in the diet cooked with potash, however, it showed lower biological value (95%) and protein efficiency ratio (0.32). The group fed with sprouted diet showed significant increase (P=.05) in body weight (52.13%). Though cooking with addition of potash showed higher distribution of amino acids, but sprouting and fermentation were more promising in terms of promoting the growth of the experimental animals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Consumers’ Knowledge and Perception towards Organic Foods: A Cross-Sectional Study

Rabie Y. Khattab, Welayah A. Al Ammar, Tunny S. Purayidathil

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 112-124
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030308

Aims: This study was conducted to investigate the consumer perception towards organic foods in the Saudi market and to scrutinize factors influencing the purchasing decision.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Clinical Nutrition, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, between February 2020 and May 2020.

Methodology: We included 406 Saudi adults from both genders. A valid and reliable questionnaire was distributed in different regions. Data were statistically analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics software.

Results: Results showed that 71.40% of participants consume organic foods with insignificant differences among regions, genders, education levels or health status. Participants above 50 years old reported significantly higher consumption (p<0.05). Moreover, 87% of the participants who were not purchasing organic foods showed future eagerness to buy these foods and were willing to pay up to 100% price increase. The major drives to buy or consume organic foods were consumers’ health perception (43.86%), nutritive primacy (22.35%), sensory attributes (12.69%) and environmental friendly characteristics (6.66%) of these foods. The major limiting factors, however, were the higher prices (50%) and limited availability (30%).

Conclusion: Saudi consumers are knowledgeable about organic foods and are keen to include them in their shopping lists. Organic farming should be encouraged for an adequate availability and reasonable prices of such foods in the local markets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enzyme-Assisted Extraction of Anthocyanin from Kokum (Garcinia indica Choisy) Rinds

R. C. Ranveer, A. S. Nanadane, P. M. Ganorkar, A. K. Sahoo

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 125-133
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030309

Background: The kokum rind consists of high amount of anthocyanin. The traditional methods are not capable to extract anthocyanin completely.

Aims: The present study was focused on the optimization of enzyme pretreatment for extraction of anthocyanin from Kokum rind.

Methodology: A central composite design was used to optimize the enzyme-assisted extraction of anthocyanin from the Kokum rinds. Kokum rinds was pretreated with food-grade pectinase and cellulase enzymes separately and then subjected to acidified ethanol extraction. The factors investigated included enzyme concentration (0 – 2%), Incubation time (1-5 h) and pretreatment temperature (15–55ºC).

Results: Overall, 107.17- to 63.71 - fold increase in anthocyanin recovery when treated with pectinase and cellulase, respectively was observed compared to the untreated rinds. From a response surface analysis of the data, a second-degree polynomial equation was developed which provided the following optimal extraction conditions i.e. enzyme concentration 0.5%, Incubation time 2.0h and temperature 35ºC for pectinase pretreatment. Whereas, in case of cellulase the optimum conditions was enzyme concentration 1.42%, Incubation time 4.0h and temperature 32ºC. The obtained results strongly support the idea of using cell-wall degrading enzymes as an effective means for recovering anthocyanin from Kokum rinds. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Gamma Radiation Applied in Euterpe oleraceae Pulps

Lucia Maria Jaeger de Carvalho, Bruno Paranhos, Edgar Francisco Oliveira de Jesus, José Luiz Viana de Carvalho

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 134-145
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030310

Aims: The aim of this work was to evaluate the optimal radiation dose to maintain the antioxidant capacity of conventional and organic acaí freeze-dried pulps.

Study Design: All analyses were conducted in sextuplicate for each experiment.

Place and Duration of Study: Were conducted at the LATAIA and the irradiation processes at the Laboratory of Nuclear Instrumentation, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was carried out from July, 2018 to March, 2020.

Methodology: Frozen acaí pulps from two commercial brands, one of them organic and other conventional were used and purchased in the city of Rio de Janeiro, packed in plastic bags containing 1 kg. For each brand, frozen pulps (5 kg) were thawed at 4ºC, opened and homogenized. Samples were subdivided into aliquots ranging from 20 to 300 g for the assays and frozen inside the plastic bags until analyses. A Cobalt 60, Gammacell irradiator was used and doses of 1.25. 2.5. 3.75 and 5 kGy were applied in the in natura pulps. Antioxidant capacity was performed by the ORAC and DPPH methods and, phenolic compounds by Folin Ciocalteau method and, total anthocyanins and majority anthocyanidins by HPLC.

Results: Anthocyanins increases at irradiaton dose up to 3.75 kGy in organic açaí but it was not significant in conventional acaí irradiated at low doses (1.25 to 3.75 kGy). Our results suggested that irradiation doses up to 5 kGy do not decrease total phenolic or anthocyanin contents nor the pulp antioxidant activity compared with non-irradiated pulps. The results showed irradiation did not reduce these analytes, and even increased in the organic acaí.

Conclusion: The study evidenced that gamma irradiation can be an alternative safe process for fruit pulps preservation. We conclude that irradiation doses up to 5 kGy can be used in acaí without harming its antioxidant properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Safety Evaluation of Fermotein: Allergenicity, Mycotoxin Production, Biochemical Analyses and Microbiology of a Fungal Single-cell Protein Product

Marjolein van der Spiegel, José J. van den Driessche, Elisa Leune, Lucie Pařenicová, Wim de Laat

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 146-155
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1030311

Aim: Single-cell proteins (SCPs) are considered as innovative and sustainable alternatives to animal-based products. Fermotein is an innovative SCP obtained from fermentation of the filamentous fungus Rhizomucor pusillus. The toxicity, capability to produce secondary metabolites and allergenic potential of this fungus has never been assessed before. Like other filamentous fungi, there is a lack of information on this species to assess its safety for human consumption. The objective of the current study was to investigate the safety of Fermotein and its source Rhizomucor pusillus regarding toxicity, capability to produce secondary metabolites and allergenicity. In addition, possible contaminants were also examined.

Methodology: The genome of Rhizomucor pusillus was sequenced and annotated in order to screen for production of common mycotoxins, antibiotic synthesis pathways, mucormycosis-related virulence factors and in silico potential cross-reactivity with known food allergens. The presence of mycotoxins and allergens were validated by laboratory analysis. The level of RNA, heavy metals and microbiological contaminants were also determined.  

Results: No mycotoxin production-related genes were identified in the genome of Rhizomucor pusillus nor were mycotoxins found in Fermotein. Six proteins present in Fermotein showed high homology with five known food allergens. No gene clusters were found that corresponded with antibiotic synthesis pathways. Although 10 proteins in the genome of Rhizomucor pusillus may represent mucormycosis-related virulence factors, no cases of mucormycosis after oral intake are reported. The level of heavy metals and microbiological contaminants were below legislative limits, whereas RNA content was 4.9 ± 0.2% of dry matter.

Conclusion: No safety concerns were identified for Fermotein or its source Rhizomucor pusillus, except the potential for cross-reactivity with five known food allergens. This should be taken into account for communication with consumers. Information from the current study contributes to the body of evidence for determination of Qualified Presumption of Safety status of Rhizomucor pusillus.