Open Access Original Research Article

Protectant Effect of Vegetable Oils against Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) on Stored Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp]

Kennedy Poloma Yoriyo, Garba Usman, Ezra Abba, Michael Mamman Degri

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1230330

Cowpea is one of the common edible annual herbaceous legume. Callosobruchus maculatus is one of the common post-harvest pest of cowpea.This work was aimed at determining the protectant effect of five vegetable oils; coconut oil, cotton seed oil, groundnut oil, palm oil and sesame oil for the protection of stored cowpea against cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus).The study was conducted in Gombe State University between October, 2018 and April, 2019. Black eye seeds were used for the experiment. A completely randomized design with five replicates per treatment was used.Black eyed seeds (susceptible variety) used for the experiment were subjected to different oil treatments namely: coconut, cotton, groundnut, palm and sesame oils applied at 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 ml/100 g of cowpea equivalent to 4, 8 and 12 kg. Effect of the oils on weight lost and seed germination was also tested.Percentage adult mortality at 12 ml/Kg revealed that all the five oils killed 100% of the insects. Among the different edible oils evaluated, cotton seed oil was more effective killing 95% of the insect at 4 ml/kg and 100% at 8 ml/kg. The lowest mortality was recorded in the treatment with palm oil with 60 and 91.67% mortality at 4 and 8 ml/kg dose treatment respectively. Minimum percentage weight loss after 90 days of storage was observed in grains treated with cotton seed oil (1.95%) followed by sesame oil (2.00%) and groundnut oil (2.38%) at 12 ml/kg grains. Cotton seed oil, groundnut oil and sesame oil at doses between 8 and 12 ml/kg could be effective for protecting cowpea in storage against cowpea weevil for 90 days of storage.All the treatments indicated minimal effect on the germination of cowpea. The 8 ml/kg of cotton seed, groundnut and sesameoils investigated are promising bio friendly preservatives that could serve as an alternative formulations to synthetic chemical based insecticides for storage of cowpea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical Characterization of Solutions from Cooked Beans and Their Comparison with Human Urine: Fertilizer and Food?

J. C. Fopoussi Tuebue, I. N. Tchinda, P. D. Djiotsa

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 9-27
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1230331

The present paper aims to highlight the chemical characteristics of solutions from cooked beans and to compare them with human urine. Solutions of cooked beans were produced by cooking variety of Phaseolus vulgaris L. known as “Meringue” without salts. After this stage, samples of those solutions and samples of the water used for the cooking process were collected for laboratory analysis. A solution from cooked beans is rich in mineral salts, particularly major macro elements (N and K) and minor macro elements (Ca, S, Mg). Concerning the third major macro element, notably the phosphorous, it is present in low amounts. The advantage of this fluid consists in its low amounts of sodium and chlorides, coupled to its low electric conductivity. This fluid has a pH of 6.31. It is made of about 90% of water. A deep parallelism can be established between the human urine and solutions from cooked beans. In fact, these two fluids are rich in nitrogen and potassium, and mainly made of water. But, in the detail, some particularities are present. Human urine has high amounts of sodium and chlorides, this coupled with a high electric conductivity. Concerning solutions from cooked beans, it has high amounts of calcium and magnesium, and a quite nil electric conductivity. The solutions from cooked beans do not require a dilution, but a ridging directly after its application in other to avoid the loose of sulfur and nitrogen through gas emanation. Moreover, the numerous nutrients contained in solutions from cooked beans can be gainfully recycled as soup after flavoring.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrient Composition and Sensory Properties of Wheat Bread Substituted with Defatted and Undefatted Cashew Kernel (Anacardium occidentale Linn.) Flours

N. J. T. Emelike, L. I. Barber, M. D. Deebom

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 28-39
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1230332

This study was undertaken to investigate the nutrient composition and sensory properties of wheat flour bread substituted with defatted and undefatted cashew kernel flours. Cashew kernel was processed into flour and thereafter divided into two portions. One portion was left undefatted while the other portion was defatted using a hydraulic press. Bread was prepared from the blends of wheat and defatted/undefatted cashew kernel flours using 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, of wheat flour to defatted cashew kernel flour (DCF) and wheat flour to undefatted cashew kernel flour (UCF), and 100% wheat flour as control. Bread samples were subjected to sensory evaluation within 30 minutes of production. Proximate analysis and amino acid profile of the bread samples were carried out using standard methods. Result of the proximate analysis of the bread samples revealed a significant (p<0.05) increase in ash (1.05-2.19%), protein (8.46-34.22%) and crude fibre (1.85-6.20%) with a corresponding decrease in moisture (11.05-21.28%) and carbohydrate contents (57.21-36.37%) as substitution of wheat flour with DCF and UCF increased. Amino acid analysis revealed that wheat/DCF composite breads were significantly (p<0.05) higher in lysine (7.00 g/100 g), phenyl alanine (3.99 g/100 g), tryptophan (0.89 g/100 g), valine (4.33 g/100 g) and methionine (1.47g/100 g) than the wheat/UCF composite bread. Similarly, wheat/DCF composite breads were significantly (p<0.05) higher in proline (3.45 g/100 g), arginine (5.68 g/100 g), tyrosine (3.78 g/100 g), alanine (4.25 g/100 g), glutamic acid (11.81 g/100 g), glycine (3.06 g/100 g), serine (4.00 g/100 g) and aspartic acid (7.32 g/100 g) indicating higher protein quality in the wheat/DCF composite breads than in wheat/UCF composite breads. Bread samples substituted with 10% UCF and 20% DCF compared favourably with the control wheat flour bread for taste, crust, colour and general acceptability. Therefore, it is recommended to use a level of substitution of 10% UCF and 20% DCF for the production of bread of adequate nutritional and sensorial qualities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Calcium Lactate and Tripotassium Citrate on the Production of Stable and Acceptable Calcium-Enriched Soymilk

Victor Christian Kaharso, Bertrand Muhoza, Steven Suryoprabowo, Yufei Hua, Caimeng Zhang

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 40-52
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1230333

In the current study, calcium lactate (ca-lactate) was used as a calcium source and tripotassium citrate (TPC) as chelating agents to produce calcium-enriched soymilk with calcium content equivalent to cow’s milk (120 mg/100mL). Physicochemical properties of calcium-enriched soymilk, including nutritional composition, pH, titratable acidity, particle diameter, sedimentation, viscosity, ion conductivity, and sensory evaluation were investigated. Our results showed significant differences (P<.05) in moisture, ash content, titratable acidity, and ion conductivity after calcium and TPC were added. Moreover, the addition of calcium decreased the pH of soymilk from 6.69 to 6.21-6.51. The higher concentration of calcium also increased the calcium content, particle diameter, sedimentation, and viscosity, while the reverse results were shown when TPC was added. The intensities perceived of mouthfeel, visual appearance, and overall acceptability were greatly varied among calcium-enriched soymilks. The exact proportion of ca-lactate and TPC were able to produce calcium-enriched soymilk regarding higher stability during storage and great acceptability of the final product.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on the Effect of Graded Levels of Locust Beans (Parkia biglobosa) Seed Meal on the Performance of “Broiler” in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto Teaching and Research Farm Nigeria

Abubakar Yusuf Kakagida, Bello Abubakar Anka, Isa Musa Mabu, Audu A. Mohammed

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 53-63
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1230334

The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding locust bean (Parkia Biglobosa) seed meal (LBSM) at graded levels on the performance of broilers. Two hundred and forty broilers were used which were randomly allotted to four treatment groups, each replicated four times in a completely randomized design. The diets contained 0% level of LBSM which served as the control, while other three diets contained 5, 10 and 15% levels of LBSM. The experiment lasted for 28days. Significant differences of (P<0.05) were observed in feed intake (g/b/d) water intake ml/b/d, final body weight (g/b), body weight gain (g/b) averaged daily gain (g/b/d) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). While no significant effect of locust bean seed meal (LBSM) in broilers diets provide effective mechanism for better performance. But live weight was significantly influenced (P<0.05) by LBSM. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine significant difference between treatment groups in term of performance parameters. Where significant difference existed, Duncan’s multiple range test was applied to separate the means. Data analysis was carried out using (SPSS (SPSS, 2013version 20.0).It is concluded that LBSM can be included in the diet of broilers at starter phase from 5-15% inclusion levels while at finisher phase, diets containing 10 and 15% level of inclusion would be used for better performance without any deleterious effect on the growth performance. It could be recommended that, diets containing 10 and 15% LBSM level of inclusion would be used for better performance and economic benefit with better feed conversion ratio.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Antibiogram of Salmonella Species Isolated from Snail (Archachatina marginata) Sold in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

V. Daminabo, D. N. Ogbonna, N. N. Odu, `, L. O. Amadi

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 74-82
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1230336

Increase in microbial population especially Salmonella species in food due to improper handling, storage and exposure to contaminants can raise public health concerns when consumed without adequate processing. This study evaluates the prevalence and antibiogram of Salmonella species associated with the giant land Snail (Archachatina marginata) sold in markets around Port Harcourt metropolis. A total number of seventy two (72) samples of land snail were collected from three markets; Creek Road, Mile one and Rumuokoro. The samples were labelled and transported in an ice packed coolers to the laboratory for analyses. Standard microbiological protocols were employed to determine the microbial load and species of the various parts (intestine, meat and fluid) of the snail samples after shucking. Antibiotics sensitivity profile testing of the isolated and identified Salmonella species were carried out as recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) and statistical analyses using one way ANOVA and all pairs Turkey-Kramer. Results from the study showed that the highest total heterotrophic bacteria count (THBC) of 8.6x106CFU/g was obtained in the snail intestine sourced from Creek road market while THBCs  of 8.2x106 CFU/g and 7.3x106 CFU/g were from Mile one and Rumuokoro markets respectively. THBCs of meat from the markets ranged from 4.3-5.4x106 CFU/g and 3.7-4.9x106CFU/ml in fluid with Rumuokoro having the least occurrence respectively. Mean Salmonella counts (MSCs) ranged from 0.4-3.6 x103 CFU/g, with least count obtained from Rumuokoro and Mile 1 markets. Similarly, least MSCs in fluid and intestine were obtained from Rumuokoro and Mile 1 whereas Creek road Market had the highest respectively. Three species of Salmonella; S. arizonae, S. gallinarum and S. typhi were predominant in addition to other species such as Vibrio spp,, Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Shigella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacter spp., E. coli, Micrococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. and Listeria spp identified using both conventional and molecular method. Antibiogram profile revealed that all the identified Salmonella species were susceptible to Ofloxacin and Ciprofloxacin but strongly resistance to Cetazidime and Gentamicin. The diversity and elevated microbial load observed from this study calls for caution in handling and processing of snails since most of these bacteria may become aetiologic agents of several food-borne diseases and other pathological conditions. As a necessity, good quality control measures and proper chemotherapy should be administered to patients with signs and symptoms of food borne illness emanating from consumption of snail.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extraction, Purification and Characterization of Lycopene from Tomato (Cv Vijeta) Processing Industry Waste

R. C. Ranveer, N. B. Rathod, P. P. Debaje, A. K. Sahoo

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 83-90
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1230337

Aim: The present study focused on extraction of lycopene from tomato processing industry waste, its purification and characterization by different methods. Lycopene is major carotenoid found in tomato.

Methodology: Different tomato parts like whole tomato, tomato peel and waste generated druing processing were also screened for lycopene content. The extracted lycopene was purified by crystallization method. The purified lycopene was characterized by the different methods live UV- spectroscopy, HPLC, FT-IR and NMR.

Results: Among the different parts of tomato the peel (377.19±1.13 µg/g) contain highest amount of lycopene than industrial waste (175.15±1.09 µg/g) and whole tomato (82.82±0.79). The crystallization method significantly purify the lycopene content which was clearly resulted in UV-spectroscopy, HPLC, FT-IR and NMR results.

Conclusion: This will be beneficial to the industry for purification and characterization of lycopene from tomato processing industry waste.

Open Access Original Research Article

What’s in the Kitchen: Conventional Household Practices during Minor Health Problems

Yamini Bhatt, Kalpana Kulshrestha

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 104-111
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1230349

Objective: The Food habits of the people are the outcome of the general beliefs and are deep-rooted in the minds of the people of any community. Home remedies coming from the kitchen are the basis of treating commonly occurring illnesses for a long time. The present study was aimed to study the long-established household practices that are followed for the cure of minor health problems in North India (Uttarakhand) and assess their usage trends over three generations.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Methods: The study was done in three districts of Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, namely Dehradun, Tehri Garhwal and Haridwar. The respondents were categorized in three age group range as- 20-34 years, 35-55 years and above 56 years. A structured diet recall interview schedule was prepared for the collection of data. The subjects were asked about the previous and current practices followed for the cure of minor health problems.

Results: A list of local food items used during various ailments like Cold/ Cough, Fever, Constipation, Vomiting, Diarrhea, Jaundice was prepared. A number of commonly used spices were used for the treatment along with few special recipe preparations. Among the age group above 56 years and 35-55 years, the percentage of respondents following traditional household practices during minor health problems and considering them better than medicine was more in rural areas while among 20-34 years of age group, the percentage was more for the urban population. It was noticed that the number of respondents following these practices slightly decreased through the generations, and are still practiced among the youngest age group interviewed (60.53% of rural and 66.67% of urban subjects).

Conclusion: Documentation and validation of these household remedies is required so that they can be used for the low-cost treatment of many common ailments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Flaxseed Oil Inclusion and Extrusion Cooking Parameters on Extruded Snack-food Physical and Functional Properties

Pravin M. Ganorkar, Preyash K. Desai, Rahul C. Ranveer, Anil S. Nandane

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 112-122
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1230371

Aims: Attempts were made to study flaxseed oil incorporated extruded snack by adopting response surface methodology (RSM) approach.

Study Design: Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Processing Technology, A.D. Patel Institute of Technology, Po Box 52, New Vallabh Vidya Nagar, Anand.

Methodology: Feed moisture (12 -16%, wb), flaxseed oil (3-7%), extruder barrel temperature (115-145C and screw speed (345 – 375 rpm) were selected as independent variable at three levels. The Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was employed to study linear, interactive and quadratic effect of selected independent variables on measured responses (expansion ratio ER, breaking strength BS, overall acceptability score OAA, starch-lipid complexing index CI).

Results: The physical properties of extrudate (ER at 0.05 and BS at 0.10 level) and functional properties (OAA at 0.05 and CI at 0.01 level) were significantly influenced by flaxseed oil inclusion level. The quadratic effect of feed moisture and barrel temperature were found to be significant on each response (p<0.01). After numerical optimization, flaxseed oil of 6%, feed moisture content of 14.5% (wb), barrel temperature of 1300C and screw speed of 355 rpm were optimized.

Open Access Review Article

Nutritional and Consumers Behavior towards Street Foods

Ruchi Verma, Sunita Mishra

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 64-73
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1230335

Street foods plays vital role for low and middle income group of urban peoples of developing countries, street foods meets food and nutritional requirements at very affordable prices for peoples all over the world. Mostly street foods are unhealthy foods, which is increased by high risk of contamination through physical, chemical and biological components which occurs a grave concern in the form of food safety and security. Street foods are nutritionally rich and these are rich source of carbohydrates and fats, eating which increases the risk of chronic non communicable diseases. Street foods may the increases risk of foodborne illnesses, which is the reason of food contamination through the microorganisms and so that food poisoning are developed. Due to lack of facilities, cheap raw materials, also lack of education and insufficient knowledge (GMP) of street food handlers, can cause foodborne diseases and chronic non-communicable diseases, and with which strongly influence on Food Safety, Nutritional Value and  health of school children’s and all  urban peoples of developing countries. To troubleshoot all these problems proper health authorities should regulate the marketing of street food products and start a proper training program for the urban street food handlers and school based street food handlers, which is related to food safety, food security, foodborne diseases and non communicable diseases. In addition, the inclusion of food safety and food security in school courses will provide opportunities for all peoples and school children’s to becomes aware about food safety, food security and nutrition. however, street foods are oftentimes an unhealthy diet and notwithstanding, street foods meet peoples dietary needs. Street food vending have occurred a vital public health issues and a major consideration to everybody. The objective of this study to describe nutritional issues of street foods to the diet, Nutritional Value of Street Foods, consumers eating habits and its impact on Health. It is necessary that, the standards suggested by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and WHO should be included, to contribute to nutritional security of street foods and public health.

Open Access Review Article

Nutritional Quality of Formulated Complementary Foods and their Biological Effects for Tackling Malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) Countries

Wilfred Damndja Ngaha, Richard Aba Ejoh, Edith Nig Fombang, William Dzusuo Tedom

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 91-103
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2020/v12i1230339

Toddlers malnutrition is a health problem in developing countries like those found in Sub-Saharan Africa. Owing to prevalence of poverty, families are generally not able to afford the commercial complementary foods available in the market stalls, since such complementary foods are imported and made from non-local foodstuffs. In order to overcome these issues, FAO/WHO recommends the use of local foodstuffs in formulation of complementary foods and defines the virtues that the complementary foods should possess. In this light, researchers in Sub-Saharan Africa have proposed several formulations of complementary foods. The present work reviews these research findings on complementary foods available in the Sub-Saharan Africa utilizing the local food materials, the treatment that is required to be meted to such food ingredients, nutritional quality of formulated complementary foods and ultimately their biological effects. The limitations of the research work, if any, has been highlighted and the means to take such research forward that would be helpful in the production and commercialization of cost-effective complementary foods possessing requisite nutritional quality and biological effects as per dietary norms laid down by competent authorities.