Open Access Grey Literature

Food/Feed and Environmental Risk Assessment of Herbicide-tolerant and Insect-resistant Genetically Modified Maize NK603 x MON810 for Import, Processing, Food and Feed Uses under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 (EFSA/GMO/UK/2004/01)

Åshild Kristin Andreassen, Per Brandtzæg, Askild Lorentz Holck, Olavi Junttila, Heidi Sjursen Konestabo, Richard Meadow, Kåre Magnus Nielsen, Rose Vikse, Ville Erling Sipinen, Anne Marthe Jevnaker, Arne Mikalsen, Merethe Aasmo Finne, Hilde-Gunn Opsahl Sorteberg

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 75-78
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i230377

In preparation for a legal implementation of EU-regulation 1829/2003, the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) has been requested by the Norwegian Environment Agency (former Norwegian Directorate for Nature Management) and the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) to conduct final food/feed and environmental risk assessments for all genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products containing or consisting of GMOs that are authorized in the European Union under Directive 2001/18/EC or Regulation 1829/2003/EC. The request covers scope(s) relevant to the Gene Technology Act. The request does not cover GMOs that VKM already has conducted its final risk assessments on. However, the Agency and NFSA requests VKM to consider whether updates or other changes to earlier submitted assessments are necessary.


The herbicide-tolerant and insect-resistant genetically modified maize NK603 x MON810 (Unique Identifier MON-ØØ6Ø3-6 x MON-ØØ81Ø2-6) from Monsanto Company is approved under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 for food and feed uses, import and processing since 24 October  2007 (Commission Decision 2007/701/EC). 


VKM participated in the 90 days public consultation of the application for placing on the market of maize NK603 x MON810 for food and feed uses, import and processing (EFSA/GMO/ UK/2004/01) in 2005, and submitted a preliminary opinion in June 2005 (VKM 2005a). Maize NK603 x MON810  has also been assessed as food and feed by the VKM GMO Panel, commissioned by the Norwegian Environment Agency and the Norwegian Food Safety Authority in connection with the national finalisation of the application in 2008 (VKM 2008a). In addition, NK603 and MON810 has been evaluated by the VKM GMO Panel as single events and as a component of several stacked GM maize events (VKM 2005 a,b,c,d,e, VKM 2007 a,b,c,d,e, 2008b, 2009, 2010 a,b, 2011, 2012 a,b, 2013a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j). Due to the publication of new scientific literature and updated guidelines for risk assessment of genetically modified plants, the VKM GMO Panel has decided to deliver an updated food/feed and environmental risk assessment of maize NK603 x MON810.


The food/feed and environmental risk assessment of the maize NK603 x MON810 is based on information provided by the applicant in the applications EFSA/GMO/UK/2004/01 and EFSA/GMO/2005/26, and scientific comments from EFSA and other member states made available on the EFSA website GMO Extranet. The risk assessment also considered other peer-reviewed scientific literature as relevant.  


The VKM GMO Panel has evaluated NK603 x MON810 with reference to its intended uses in the European Economic Area (EEA), and according to the principles described in the Norwegian Food Act, the Norwegian Gene Technology Act and regulations relating to impact assessment pursuant to the Gene Technology Act, Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms, and Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 on genetically modified food and feed. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety has also decided to take account of the appropriate principles described in the EFSA guidelines for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed (EFSA 2011a), the environmental risk assessment of GM plants (EFSA 2010a), selection of comparators for the risk assessment of GM plants (EFSA 2011b) and for the post-market environmental monitoring of GM plants (EFSA 2011c). 


The scientific risk assessment of maize NK603 x MON810 include molecular characterisation of the inserted DNA and expression of novel proteins, comparative assessment of agronomic and phenotypic characteristics, nutritional assessments, toxicology and allergenicity, unintended effects on plant fitness, potential for gene transfer, interactions between the GM plant and target and non-target organisms and effects on biogeochemical processes. 


It is emphasized that the VKM mandate does not include assessments of contribution to sustainable development, societal utility and ethical considerations, according to the Norwegian Gene Technology Act and Regulations relating to impact assessment pursuant to the Gene Technology Act. These considerations are therefore not part of the risk assessment provided by the VKM Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. 


Molecular characterisation The stacked maize NK603 x MON810 was produced by conventional crossing of the single maize events NK603 and MON810. Southern blot and PCR analyses have shown that the recombinant inserts from the parental events are retained in the stacked event, and that their structures are intact. Genotypic stability of the inserts has previously been demonstrated for the single events. Protein measurements show comparable levels of CP4 EPSPS and Cry1Ab in forage and grain samples from maize NK603 x MON810 to those measured in maize NK603 and MON810, respectively.


The VKM GMO Panel considers the molecular characterisation of maize NK603 x MON810 and its parental events NK603 and MON810 satisfactory.


Comparative assessment The applicant has performed comparative analyses of data from field trials located in maize growing regions of Europe and USA in 2000 and 2002. With the exception of small intermittent variations and the insect resistance and herbicide tolerance conferred by the Cry1Ab and CP4 EPSPS proteins, the results showed no biologically significant differences between maize stack NK603 x MON810 and conventional control. Based on the assessment of available data, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that maize NK603 x MON810 is compositionally, agronomically and phenotypically equivalent to its conventional counterpart, except for for the introduced characteristics, and that its composition fell within the normal ranges of variation observed among non-GM varieties. Food and feed risk assessment A whole food feeding study performed on broilers did not indicate any adverse health effects of maize NK603 x MON810, and shows that maize NK603 x MON810 is nutritionally equivalent to conventional maize. The CP4 EPSPS or Cry1Ab proteins do not show sequence resemblance to other known toxins or IgE allergens, nor have they been reported to cause IgE mediated allergic reactions. Some studies have however indicated a potential role of Cry-proteins as adjuvants in allergic reactions.


Based on current knowledge, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that maize NK603 x MON810 is nutritionally equivalent to conventional maize varieties. It is unlikely that the Cry1Ab or CP4-EPSPS proteins will introduce a toxic or allergenic potential in food or feed based on maize NK603 x MON810 compared to conventional maize.


Environmental risk assessment Considering the intended uses of maize NK603 x MON810, excluding cultivation, the environmental risk assessment is concerned with accidental release into the environment of viable grains during transportation and processing, and indirect exposure, mainly through manure and faeces from animals fed grains from maize NK603 x MON810. 


Maize NK603 x MON810 has no altered survival, multiplication or dissemination characteristics, and there are no indications of an increased likelihood of spread and establishment of feral maize plants in the case of accidental release into the environment of seeds from maize NK603 x MON810. Maize is the only representative of the genus Zea in Europe, and there are no cross-compatible wild or weedy relatives outside cultivation. The VKM GMO Panel considers the risk of gene flow from occasional feral GM maize plants to conventional maize varieties to be negligible in Norway. Considering the intended use as food and feed, interactions with the biotic and abiotic environment are not considered by the GMO Panel to be an issue.


Overall conclusion Based on current knowledge, the VKM GMO Panel concludes that maize NK603 x MON810 is nutritionally equivalent to conventional maize varieties. It is unlikely that the CP4 EPSPS and Cry1Ab proteins will introduce a toxic or allergenic potential in food or feed based on maize NK603 x MON810 compared to conventional maize.


The VKM GMO Panel likewise concludes that maize NK603 x MON810, based on current knowledge, is comparable to conventional maize varieties concerning environmental risk in Norway with the intended usage.

Open Access Short communication

Strategies to Mitigate the Impact of COVID-19 on Food Security and Malnutrition in Nigeria

H. Onyeaka, I. Agbugba, O. C. Ekwebelem, C. Anumudu, A. Anyogu, O. Odeyemi, S. Agbagwa

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 103-109
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i230380

As a developing nation and the most populous nation in Africa, Nigeria has faced challenges associated with meeting the food needs of its expanding population over the years. This is due to the nation transitioning from a net exporter of foods to being dependent on food imports, leading to many people suffering from stunting and severe malnourishment. The COVID-19 pandemic has compounded this food insufficiency within the country with its attendant global impacts. The restrictions in the movement of people and goods in the country, due to the current pandemic, have affected access to food and agricultural input, heavily affecting the financial ability of families. This mini-review highlights the impact of COVID-19 on the country's nutritional status, the rising incidence of food insecurity and proposes approaches that can be employed to mitigate these adverse effects. Approaches to improving food security and the nutritional status of the country during the pandemic and post-pandemic era will involve deliberate policies of the government which focuses on increasing funding to local food producers, lifting restrictions on the transport of food commodities, encouraging markets for the retail of locally produced foods and more importantly instituting nutritional intervention programmes for children and the vulnerable within the community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Solvent Extraction on Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activities from Fresh and Dried Wheatgrass

Towkir Ahmed Ove, Anwara Akter Khatun, Said Bin Saifullah, Maruf Ahmed

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i230370

Aims: This study was intended to investigate and quantify the phytochemicals and the antioxidant activities of fresh and powdered wheatgrass.

Study Design:  The experiment was performed by solvent extraction technique for determining the phytochemicals of wheatgrass samples.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Food engineering laboratory in Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh between June 2018 and December 2018.

Methodology: Fresh and powdered wheatgrass were used for the experiment. Methanol and ethanol solutions were separately utilized, in an attempt to assume the efficient solvent for extraction. UV-Vis spectrophotometric methods were employed in general throughout the study. Total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), DPPH scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and the total chlorophyll contents of both solvent extracts were analyzed.

Results: Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity were found lower in both solvent extracts of powdered wheatgrass than fresh leaves. Phenolic content and Chlorophyll were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in fresh samples (extracts). Due to heating, a significant decrease was observed in the DPPH radical scavenging activity of powdered extracts. Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in methanolic extracts than in ethanolic extracts. No significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed in total flavonoids contents.

Conclusion: These findings endorsed that both solvents demonstrate competitive potentials to extract bioactive compounds from wheatgrass and its derivatives and hence can be chosen specifically according to the components.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cooking Methods on the Nutritive Value and Lipid Oxidation of Two Cricket Species Consumed In Cameroon

Noel Tenyang, Bernard Tiencheu, Abazidi Mamat, Ludovine Ateufack Mawamba, Roger Ponka

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 11-23
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i230372

Aims: The present study was performed in order to evaluate the effect cooking on the proximate composition and lipid oxidation of two cricket species (Hieroglyphus daganensis and Paracinema tricolor) commonly consumed in Cameroon.

Study Design: Paracinema tricolor and Hieroglyphus daganensis harvesting, cleaning, killing, cooking and drying, evaluation the effect cooking treatment on the nutritive value and lipid oxidation of these crickets species.

Place and Duration Study: University of Maroua, Cameroon and University of Yaounde I in Cameroon from November 2018 to July 2019.

Methodology: The two types of crickets after harvesting and transporting to the laboratory, were killed by freezing at -20°C for 24 hours. Common cooking methods (pan roasting and pan frying) were used to cook it. The raw, roasted and fried crickets were left at ambient temperature and then one part was transformed into powder using an electric grinder. Before analysis, the powders and the whole samples were stored at 4°C. The ash, lipid, protein, carbohydrates and crude fibber content were determined in powder samples. The oil was extracted from whole samples of raw, roasted and fried insects. Various chemical parameter (acid value, peroxide value, iodine value and thiobarbituric acid) were used to assess crickets’ lipid qualities during the cooking methods.

Results: The proximate analysis of raw samples revealed that the ash content of Paracinema tricolor and Hieroglyphus daganensis was 3.17% and 3.49% (% of dry weight) respectively. The lipid content was generally high ranging from 15.80% to 18.10% and the protein content ranged from 41.69% to 48.59%. The raw Paracinema tricolor compared to Hieroglyphus daganensis was found to have the higher contents of lipid, protein and energyAll the cooking methods increased the lipid, protein and ash contents, as well as the calorie values of the two cricket’s species, while the moisture content was reduced. The free fatty acids and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values of the two crickets’ oil were significantly increased after roasting and frying processing. Iodine value decreased.

Conclusion: From these results, it can be concluded that soaking combined with frying method appeared to be the best cooking method in the two species of crickets in terms of caloric content and lipid oxidative stability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Evolution of Solutions from Beans Soaking and Cooking Processes: Case Study of Phaseolus vulgaris L

J. C. Fopoussi Tuebue, I. N. Tchinda

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 24-51
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i230373

The present paper aims to highlight the physicochemical evolution of solutions from soaking and beans cooking processes. For that purpose, solutions from soaking were produced by putting in contact 2kg of sorted and quickly washed beans seed with 8kg of water with known physicochemical characteristics. Concerning the solutions from cooked beans, they were produced by putting on fire the pot containing the water mixture from soaking and bean seeds. The beans were a variety of Phaseolus vulgaris L.,known as “Meringue”. The cooking process was done without salts. The samples of solutions were collected as follows: 30 and 60 minutes respectively after the start of the soaking, 30, 60, and 90 minutes after the beginning of the cooking process of the beans soaked for 60 minutes. After each sampling, the cooking solution was brought back to the gauge line using the water prepared for the cooking process. Solutions obtained from beans soaking and cooking gradually enriched in mineral salts, particularly major macro-elements (N and K), minor macro-elements (Ca, S, Mg) and oligo-elements compared to the situation noticed in the water used for the cooking process. Concerning the third main macro-element, notably the phosphorous, it is present in low amounts. The pH and the electric conductivity (EC) of the solutions increase with the duration of soaking and cooking processes. The amounts start their weak increasing thirty minutes after the beginning of the soaking, and continue their shy increasing up to the end of the sixtieth minute of the soaking. With the opening of the cooking process, the increase becomes abrupt. The correlation between all the parameters are globally positive. But the study of the clouds of dots reveals the impact of the temperature as the major responsible for the behavior of some of those elements despite the positive correlations established. The Pearson index in the correlations including sodium is the lowest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Phytochemical and Nutritional Profiles of Cnidoscolus chayamansa (Mc Vaugh) Leaf Collected in Jos, North Central, Nigeria

M. K. Jiyil, R. J. Kutshik, C. E. Mafuyai, V. P. Dalong, D. H. Edward, C. N. Okoyeukwu

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 52-58
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i230374

Background: Plants could either be ornamental, medicinal, as well as nutritional, hence there has been a high level of reliance on plants as a whole by both man and animals for survival.

Aim of the Study: This study aimed to evaluate the Phytochemical contents and Nutritional Profiles of Cnidoscolus chayamansa  Leaf Collected in Jos, North Central, Nigeria.

Study Duration: This study was conducted on 30th June, 2019 at the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria.

Methodology: The proximate and phytochemical compositions were investigated in accordance with standard procedures. Mineral concentrations were determined by using flame photometer, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, calorimetry.  Crude protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method and amino acid profile were analyzed using Technicon sequential Multi-Sample Amino Acid Analyzer (TSM).

Results: The preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoids, tanins, saponins, terpenes and steroids, balsam and phenol with the absence of cardiac glycosides, and resin. The proximate analysis showed high carbohydrate (27.48±0.02), crude fibre (25.18±0.02) and protein (18.63±0.01), moderate concentration of moisture content (12.62±0.00) and ashes content (11.68±0.01), low concentration of crude lipid (4.40±0.01). The minerals detected were calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, manganese, cobalt, sulphur, aluminium, zinc, molybdenum, and Phosphorus. Seventeen amino acids were analysed; nine essential amino acids namely; Leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, trptophane, valine, threonine, arginine, methionine and histidine and Eight non-essential amino acids namely; proline, tyrosine, cysteine, alanine, glutamate, gycine, serine and aspartic. Glutamic and leucine acids were found in higher concentration as 10.14+ 0.016 and 8.99+ 0.000 respectively.

Conclusion: This investigation shows that Cnidoscolus chayamansa leaf from Jos, Nigeria contains high medicinal and nutritional compositions which could be exploited for the treatment of diseases as well as nutritional supplements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Complementary Food for Infants Made from Sweet Potatoes, Soybeans, Maize and Guinea Corn

Adeoso Abiodun, Adetona Olayinka, Awe Omotola

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 59-64
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i230375

The transition from breastfeeding to family or complementary food is challenging for most mothers. This is a critical period of growth during which nutrient deficiencies and illnesses contribute globally to higher rates of under-nutrition among children less than five years of age. This study was carried-out to compound an indigenous complementary food that is nutritious, cheap, and with considerable shelf life. Blends of soya beans, sweet potato, yellow maize and guinea corn flours were mixed in proportions and proximate analysis was carried out to determine the nutritive and preservative quality. Carbohydrate (80.33-84.72 g) was 123% more and protein (3.43-4.26 g) was 26.6% less than commercially available complimentary food. More research is needed in this area to achieve our goal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness and Use of Food Adulterants among Food Vendors and Market Women in the Northern Part of Ghana

Janet Agyarkwaa Oti

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 79-94
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i230378

Ingestion of unsafe/adulterated foods is on record to have caused devastating health conditions and deaths around the world. Accordingly, an investigation to unearth this revelation is crucial in saving lives. This study, within the context of the Theory of Planned Behaviour investigated the awareness level, affordances and effects of food adulterants from the perspectives of market women and food vendors in the Bolgatanga Municipality. The study employed a sequential explanatory mixed-method design including both questionnaire and semi-structured interview guide in data collection. Using purposive, convenience and simple random sampling techniques, 106 respondents comprising 46 food vendors and 60 market women were sampled for the study. Quantitative data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics while the qualitative data followed the thematic approach. The study discovered that respondents were moderately aware (3.34±0.82) of the use of food adulterants. Again, factors such as, improve food colour, desire to increase profits, quest to improve food appearance, adding to weight and improvement of taste predominantly trigger food adulteration. Furthermore, the study revealed that food adulterants pose various health threats to consumers as perceived by respondents. Finally, the study established that there was no statistically significant difference between food vendors and market women on their level of awareness on the use of food adulterants [t(104)=0.670,p=0.504]. Hence, the study recommends that, the Bolgatanga Municipal Assembly and health directorate should embark on intensive public education campaigns to educate the entire populace to increase awareness levels and improve food safety knowledge to curtail the predominant use of food adulterants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dietary Habits and Anthropometric Measures of a Dental Student Population

Ah Reum Yoo, Philip Hyunbae Son, Karl Kingsley, Joshua M. Polanski

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 95-102
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i230379

Introduction: Health professionals are expected to understand the relationship between diet and nutrition and overall health. Many relationships between oral health and diet and nutrition are known to contribute to health or disease development. However, few studies to date have evaluated the current dietary habits and behaviors of dental students in the United States. The objective of this study was to complete a longitudinal study of diet and exercise behaviors among dental students during their academic experience at UNLV SDM.

Methods: Using and Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved protocol, students in four dental cohorts were asked to take a survey regarding their dietary behaviors, nutrition intake and exercise. A total of n=302/327 students participated, yielding an overall response rate of 92.3%. Self reported age, ethnicity and body mass index (BMI) were also collected.

Results: A total of n=302 students completed the survey, for an overall response rate of 92.3% (n=302/327). Males represented 57.9% of respondents, which closely matched the overall percentage of males among the student population overall (56%, P=0.6870), while the percentage of minority respondents in the study sample (58.9%) was slightly higher than in the overall student population (51.6%, P=0.1095). Self-reported height and weight were higher among males (as expected) – although body mass index (BMI) measuring the ratio of height-to-weight was lower for females (24.53 +/- 4.65) than males (26.15 +/- 3.84), P=0.3711. To determine if dietary factors may account for these differences both positive dietary health behaviors (fruit and salad consumption) and negative health behaviors (processed snacks and sugar sweetened beverages) were assessed. Females reported higher consumption of fruits and salads (P=0.0131) and lower consumption of processed foods and snacks (P=0.0114) than males. However, analysis of exercise found that males reported more sessions of physical activity per week than females (P=0.023) and also reported more overall minutes of vigorous exercise (P=0.002).

Conclusion:  Although many populations face significant dietary and related behavioral challenges, medical and dental students face particular stress and time-limited challenges that may negatively influence positive health outcomes.  In addition, the perceived clinical relevance of nutrition education may impact future dietary and nutrition-related discussions and provider recommendations. This is among the first dietary studies of self-reported dental student dietary patterns and health behaviors, which demonstrates areas for education and improvement may be needed to increase student wellness, overall health and well-being - as well as targeted points for clinical education that might increase the perceived relevance of dietary and nutrition education.

Open Access Original Research Article

Storage Stability of Probiotic Soy Yoghurts with Enzyme Hydrolyzed African Breadfruit and Rice Additives

Lucretia I. Barber, Ngozika C. Onuegbu, Chijioke M. Osuji, Chika C. Ogueke

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 110-121
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i230381

Aims: This study investigated the effect of culture type and storage time on pH, titratable acidity (%Lactic acid), viscosity and syneresis, probiotic viability and sensory properties of probiotic soy yoghurts with enzyme hydrolyzed African bread fruit (HABF) and rice syrup.

Methodology: Three sets of Soy-HABF Yoghurt were formulated by supplementing soymilk with 4% HABF and the addition of enzyme hydrolyzed rice syrup. The formulations were inoculated separately with Bifidiobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophillus as mono- and co-cultures and fermented at 42 °C for 8 h. Using standard methods, the samples were analyzed after fermentation representing day 1 and on the 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th days of storage at 4 C.

Results: Culture type and the storage time had significant (P≤0.05) effect on physicochemical, probiotic count and sensory properties of the probiotic soy-HABF yoghurt. pH decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) with storage time from 4.36 - 4.06, 4.30 – 3.97 and 4.35 - 4.26 for B, L and BL (B. bifidum, L. acidophilus and the co-culture of B. bifidum, and L. acidophilus fermented samples). L. acidophilus had highest pH decrease. Titratable acidity, viscosity and syneresis index increased significantly (P≤0.05) with increase in storage time. Probiotic counts varied from 7.72-6.54 and 8.56 – 7.70 Log CFU/ml for B. bifidum and L. acidophilus respectively in the mono-culture samples B and L and from 7.66 – 5.65 and 7.90 – 6.57 Log CFU/ml for B.bifidum and L. acidophilus in sample BL. Assessors’ degree of likeness for the aroma, appearance, taste and texture of the probiotic soy-HABF yoghurt varied from neither like nor dislike to moderate likeness. The overall acceptability indicated that the L. acidophilus fermented product (sample L) was more acceptable to the assessors within the first 5 days of storage.

Conclusion: This study have shown that B.bifidum and L.acidophillus retained a viability of > log 6 within 15 days of storage. The physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soy/HABF yoghurt were also at optimum within the first 5 days at 4 C. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Assessment and Food Potentials of Flour Obtained From Sprouted and Non-Sprouted Watermelon Seeds (Citrulus lanatus) and Its Akara Making Potentials

Olawale Paul Olatidoye, Sunday Samuel Sobowale, Wasiu Ajani Olayemi, Abdulrazak Shittu

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 122-138
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i230382


This study formulated different flours from sprouted water melon seed and evaluated the proximate and sensory properties akara-analogue potential in Nigeria. The results showed that proximate composition: moisture (7.06-8.46%), protein (19.14%-37.24%), fibre (0.23-0.36%), fat (22.77-26.58%), ash (2.44-3.47%) and carbohydrate (30.58-41.91%) were significantly different at p<0.05. The bulk density ranged from 0.51-0.53g/ml, solubility index (40.30-40.01%), water absorption capacity (1.21-1.25%), swelling capacity (5.32-6.67%), pH (6.13-6.14); for sprouted and non-sprouted samples. Tannins, saponin, sterols, oxalate and phytate were detected in sprouted and unsprouted flour. Sprouting enhanced the amino acid content of composite flour. Mineral contents of Ca, P, K, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn and Mn were increased due to sprouting. The sensory analysis showed that the control samples have the highest taste score (7.35) and aroma (7.60) and were significantly different at p<0.05. Enhanced amino acid composition of watermelon may enhance the use of this flour as protein supplement for the development of new food product.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Quality and Safety of Fruits and Vegetables from Open Market and Shopping Complex in Port Harcourt Metropolis

Patience C. Obinna-Echem

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 139-148
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i230383

Aims: Physicochemical and microbiological quality of fruits and vegetables from open market and shopping mall in Port Harcourt metropolis were determined to ascertain the effect of the sales environment.

Methodology: pH and titratable acidity (TTA) of bananas (Musa sapientum), tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) and cabbage (Brassica oleracae var. capitata L) were determined using standard analytical methods. Conventional microbiological method was used for the microbial analysis.

Results: pH (4.30 - 6.00) and TTA (0.05 - 0.28% lactic acid) of samples from the two locations did not differ significantly (P>0.05). Aerobic colony count (ACC), Coliform, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, ranged from 4.49 – 5.96, 3.70 – 4.59, 3.69 - 4.39 and 3.68 – 4.17 Log10 CFU/g respectively for the shopping mall samples, and 6.14 - 6.19, 3.66 – 5.23, 4.60 – 5.66, and 3.69 – 5.15 Log10 CFU/g respectively for the open market samples. Salmonella was detected at a level of 3.74, 4.30 and 4.65 Log10 CFU/g respectively in banana from the shopping mall; and lettuce and cabbage from the open market. Mould growth for the open market samples ranged from 4.01 - 4.40 Log10 CFU/g. Shopping mall samples had no mould and yeast growth except for mould count of 4.29 Log10 CFU/g in banana and yeast count of 4.30 and 3.69 Log10 CFU/g in tomatoes and lettuce. Banana and lettuce from the open market had no yeast count, but tomatoes and cabbage had counts of 4.30 and 4.46 Log10 CFU/g respectively.

Conclusion: Fruits and vegetables from the shopping mall generally had lower microbial count indicating the influence of the chilled storage environment. The detection of pathogens in the fruits and vegetables is unsatisfactory and can pose a health risk to consumers as well as the contamination of other produce.

Open Access Original Research Article

Expression of Phosphofructokinase-1 Gene in Streptozotocinized Diabetic Rats Fed Fermented and Non-Fermented Maize Diets

Chukwudi Nze, Osaretin Albert Taiwo Ebuehi

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 149-164
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i230384

Aim: This nutrigenomic research study is to investigate the impact of fermented maize (FM) and non-fermented maize (N-FM) diets on the expression of phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1) gene in a diabetic state.

Methodology: The rats were equally grouped into four for the subsequent two weeks after acclimatization; Group 1 contained streptozotocinized-diabetic rats fed with FM diet (DFM), Group 2 contained streptozotocinized-diabetic rats fed with N-FM diet (DNM), Group 3 contained the normal control rats fed with standard rodent chow (NCG) and Group 4 contained diabetic control rats fed with standard rodent chow (DCG). The total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant capacity (in vitro) of the maize diets were analyzed.

Results: Rats fed the N-FM diet had higher concentration of phenols (73.20±0.9 mg/100 g) and flavonoids (82.83±1.02 mg/100 g). The in vitro antioxidant assay showed a statistically significant difference between the FM and N-FM diets (p<0.05). After the two weeks period, animals were sacrificed and blood samples obtained for blood chemistry and lipid profile tests. The livers were harvested for antioxidant activity and gene expression assay. The antioxidant assay showed no statistically significant difference among all groups, as well as the blood chemistry and lipid profile. The gene expression assay carried out using two-step Real-time qPCR, showed that PFK-1 gene was more expressed in the DFM group when compared to the DNM and DCG groups.

Conclusion: The FM diet enhanced the expression of PFK-1 gene in streptozotocinized-diabetic rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytoconstituent of Allanblackia floribunda Seeds

O. E. Ezim, F. Idih

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 165-175
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i230385

Allanblackia floribunda seed is one of the underutilized and under-exploited seeds in Nigeria, it is a flowering plant in the clusiaceae family that has been used over the years in folk medicine especially in managing hypertension in Africa. This study seeks to evaluate the phytoconstituents of Allanblackia floribunda. Qualitative phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and volatile compounds present in the seeds were evaluated using standard methods. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids and saponins in the seeds. The result from the proximate compositions showed that the seed had high fibre (4.21%), lipid (10.46%), protein (19.25%), and carbohydrate (61.26%) contents. The GCMS result revealed the presence of compounds with medicinal and nutritional potentials, among these compounds are caryophyllene (13.228%) and oleic acid (2.021%). This study revealed that an Allanblackia floribunda seed has phytoconstituent with nutritional and medicinal importance.

Open Access Review Article

Antioxidant Compounds and Health Benefits of Citrus Fruits

Omolara Adenaike, Grace Onyukwo Abakpa

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 65-74
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i230376

Citrus fruits are spread worldwide, grown across the globe and are well- appreciated for their refreshing juice and health benefits. This review aimed at investigating the applied health therapeutic uses of some citrus fruits exploited in the treatment of several health challenges as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, antimicrobial activities against cardiovascular diseases and macular degeneration. Citrus fruits abilities on the exploited benefits are not far from their rich bioactive compounds and phytochemical contents such as minerals, vitamins, flavonoids and carotenoids. These phytochemicals may act as antioxidants, boosting the action of protective enzymes in the liver, reverse lipid for oxidation of genetic material and improve immune system. We reviewed literature for the antioxidant compounds and health benefits of some citrus fruits (namely, oranges, lime, lemon and grapefruits) from electronic database search obtaining information from research studies and reports. We recommend more research into more varieties of citrus predominantly in the tropics.