Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Feeding Habits and Nutritional Status of Infants Admitted in Kumba Hospitals (South-West Region, Cameroon)

Giscard Kuaté Kaptso, William Tchabo, Juliet Egbe Nkongho, Gillian Nkeudem Asoba, Athanasius Fonteh Amungwa

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330386

Aims: Malnutrition remains an issue of public health concern in Cameroon. Optimal infant feeding habits and maternal risk factors influence the prevalence of malnutrition. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of feeding habits and risk factors on the nutritional status of infants in Kumba hospitals.

Study design: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out for a period of 3 months at the Maternal and Child Protection (PMI) and Kumba District hospitals.

Methodology: The age of the children were recorded from their immunization cards. The measurements of length and weight of children were recorded. Questionnaires were administered through simple random sampling to care givers of 227 infants at the welfare clinics from which information on feeding habits, anthropometric parameters and socio-demographic status was obtained. The Z-score classifications for malnutrition was used to estimate the deterioration in weight and height of children in reference to the children of same age and sex.

Results: There was a low prevalence (14%) of exclusive breast feeding. A high prevalence of early initiation of breast feeding within the first hour of birth at 85% was observed. Early introduction to energy dense complementary food at 67.2% was observed in infants between 0-5 months accounting for the high prevalence of overweight, and possible risk obesity. Furthermore, it was found that 17% of children were stunted, 14.60% were wasted, and 11.70% were underweight. Among them, stunting was highest in children 0-3 months who were on breast milk. Moreover, a significant relationship was observed between marital status and stunting (P<0.05), and underweight and unemployment (P<0.05).

Conclusion: This study revealed that exclusive breast feeding from 0 to 6 months was poorly practiced. Thus leading to a high prevalence of wasting, overweight and obesity among admitted children in Kumba hospitals. This was also found to be linked to malnutrition, marital and professional status.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Storage Control Points and Implicated Pathogens on Fast Moving Consumer Goods in Suburbs of South-western Nigeria

O. O. Afolabi, C.C. Okonofua, M. O. Adigun, E. Dosumu, R. B. Aderoju

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 20-31
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330387

Food borne illness prevention system will depend on the extent of food safety control in place through food production, processing, distribution, keeping food at safe temperature and using safe water and raw materials. These stages of production are some of the important points determining food safety. This suggests the need to implement strict hygienic control measures along the food production chain during manufacturing, handling, storage and commercialization of foods. Ninety samples comprising of fifteen Milo (beverage), fifteen golden Morn (cereal), fifteen Maggi (seasoning), fifteen Lucozade boost (energy drink), fifteen Gala (Sausage) and fifteen Indomie (noodles) were collected from five stores of various shops in Lagos, Agbara and Sango Ogun State, Nigeria. Samples were processed and cultured using pour plate and streak plate techniques. Samples were cultured in five media consisting of four selective media and a basal media; Maconkey agar, Mannitol Salt agar, Salmonella Shigella agar, Eosin Methylene Blue agar and Nutrient agar. Differentiation and isolation of various isolates were based on gram-staining technique and biochemical reactions using OXOID MICROBAT TM identification kits. The in vitro assay revealed the presence of five bacteria species namely Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiellia oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Morganella morganii. Prevalence of the various isolates in the culture were found to be 67.66%, 11.27%, 9.77%, 7.51% and 3.75% respectively. The highest colony count (140.6) was obtained from samples (Maggi) from Agbara while the lowest colony count (21.0) was obtained from (Milo) Sango. The mean bacteria load of the isolates was 1.0*107CFU/ml. It was concluded that the hygienic quality of the sampled fast moving consumer products in term of microbiological standards compare favourably with international benchmarks as defined by Codex Alimentarius Commission all the observed ranges of aerobic colony count fall well below the upper threshold of microbial levels for class A products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Evaluation of Custard Produced from Blends of Sweet Potato and Corn Starch Enriched with Defatted Soybean

C. C. Ezegbe, H. O. Agu, M. C. Ezeh, C. S. Anarado, C. R. Abah, K. S. Okocha

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 32-44
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330388

Custard is a thick, rich, creamy sweet or savory dessert, made mixtures of eggs or egg yolks, milk or cream and commonly consumed in most part of Africa especially Nigeria. This research was carried out to determine the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of custard produced from the blends of sweet potato and corn starch enriched with defatted soybean flour. The sweet potato was peeled, washed and diced into small cubes to aid milling while the maize grains were cleaned and soaked in water for 24 hours, and they were separately milled and filtered. The filtrates were allowed to settle for four hours, the starches were obtained and dried at 70°C and 60°C for 8 hours and 5 hours respectively. The soybean was cleaned, soaked, boiled, toasted, dehulled, milled and defatted in petroleum ether. Ten custard samples were then formulated using sweet potato starch, corn starch and defatted soybean flour respectively in the following ratios: 100:0:0; 80:10:10; 70:20:10; 60:30:10; 50:40:10; 40:50:10; 30:60:10; 20:70:10; 10:80:10; 0:100:0. The custard formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical and sensory characteristics, using commercial custard (Checkers custard) as control. The result of the proximate composition showed that moisture, ash, crude fibre, crude protein and carbohydrate content in % ranged from 5.40-18.08, 0.70-3.07, 1.16-6.52, 0.82-5.23, 1.31-9.91 and 68.87-85.25, respectively. The functional properties also showed that least gelation concentration (%), bulk density (g/cm), swelling power and gelatinization temperature (oC) ranged from 4.00-10.00; 0.59-0.83; 6.37-8.02 and 69.2-80.1, respectively. The result showed that the swelling power differed significantly (p<0.05) from each other and some of the samples differed significantly in bulk density, least gelation and gelatinization temperature, respectively. Sensory evaluation carried out on different samples of the custard formulation showed that the control sample (Checkers custard) had the highest score of overall acceptability. The 100% corn starch and 100% sweet potato starch were accepted by the consumers as an alternative to the commercial custard product. The enrichment of custard with soybean contributed to an increase in the nutritional value of the custard.

Open Access Original Research Article

Loss Assessment of Stored Maize at Different Storage Durations and Maize Weevil Densities

Mamudou Jallow, Olufemi O. R. Pitan

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 45-53
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330389

Aims: The extent of stored grain losses depends on varieties and duration of storage, and  most of the quantitative losses are attributed to insect pest infestations. The study was  conducted to determine the damage caused by Sitophilus zeamais on maize stored at different durations.

Methodology: Sitophilus zeamais at four varying population densities (5, 10, 15, 20 adults) and four storage durations (30, 60, 90 and 120 days) reared on 200 g sample of Jeka maize variety was kept in glass jars covered with muslin cloth in a 4 x 4 factorial fitted in a completely ramdomised design with four replicates at room temperature for 120 days.

Results: Weight loss, seed damage and weight of dust caused by S. zeamais on maize seeds at 5-insect and 20-insect levels were statistically similar at 30 and 120 days but show  significant difference at 60 days after storage. Sitophilus zeamais population continued  to grow exponentially on maize grains after 120 days of storage, indicating that  factors are not limiting, thereby causing significant losses to stored grains. Temperature and relative humidity were found to affect insect population growth positively (r = 0.73 and r = 0.70, respectively).

Conclusion: The study concluded that S. zeamais, which is a major pest in The Gambia, in the absence of control measures at any number of infestations greater than 5 weevils could result to severe damage to stored seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytosociological Surveys and Monitoring of the Bromatological Parameters According to the Age of Regrowth of Savannah Pastures Perfectly Reconstituted in the Central Zone of Côte d'Ivoire

Gouagoua Séverin Kouadja, Adam Camille Kouamé, Kouakou Eugène Kouadio, Brou Jean Kouao, N’Gouan Cyrille Kouassi

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 54-61
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330390

Although pastures in central (Affouvansou) Côte d'Ivoire are abundant, signs of undernutrition are observed in the animals towards the end of wintering, possibly due to insufficient quality pastures, poor grass quality, or poor herd distribution. Using the in-vivo digestibility method, bromatological monitoring of the fodder from these pastures was carried out according to the development age of the regrowth using Djallonke sheep. The objective is to help in the judicious use of these pastures. At regrowth age intervals between the 4th and 8th week, the nitrogen content in the grass decreases, the energy value increases at 6 weeks, and decreases slightly to remain at a correct value in the following weeks. Due to its nitrogen value, this pasture can be classified as a more or less poor quality savannah fodder. However, the savannah studied is of excellent quality from an energy point of view at 5 - 6 weeks of regrowth age. Depending on the nitrogen value, the forage can be said to be of average quality from the 5th to the 7th week. Beyond 8 weeks, the forage is of poor quality. The nitrogen content is therefore a limiting factor here. It cannot meet the maintenance needs of the UBT. It, makes sense to use the pastures in the center of the country between the 6th and 7th week of regrowth to get the most out of it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies of the Functional Properties of the Cortex and Pulp of Ripe and Unripe Berries of Solanum Aethiopicum Variety Striped Toga

Fagbohoun Jean Bedel, Dan Chepo Ghislaine, Kone Fankroma Martial Thiery, Djedji Wilfried Frejus, Kouame Lucien Patrice

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 62-73
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330391

The African eggplant Solanum aethiopicum var. striped toga is a widely consumed vegetable-fruit in Côte d'Ivoire. Although produced in abundance in the rainy season, they are subject to post-harvest losses and these commodities are expensive in the dry season. Also during culinary preparations, the cortex is often removed for various reasons (difficulty to be crushed, aesthetics, presence in the stool...). This study was carried out by determining the functional properties of powders obtained from the cortex and pulp of blackberry and non blackberry berries. The apparent density was between 0.25 and 0.35g/mL with higher values in the cortex than in the pulp. The cortex powders had higher water absorption capacities than the pulp in both ripening levels (Cortex unripe (Cnm): 657.51% versus Pulp unripe (Pnm): 622.12% and Cortex ripe (Cm): 600.33% versus Pm: 486.26%). The oil absorption capacity of pulp was lower than that of cortex in unrefined and refined oil. After analysis, it appears that the powders obtained from the cortex have the same physico-chemical properties as those obtained from the pulp but at different proportions. Indeed, at the biochemical level, the eggplant (S. aethiopicum striped toga) cortexes contain the same compounds as the pulp but in small quantities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Natural Fermentation Period on Nutritional, Anti Nutritional, I Total Phenols, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Contents of Finger Millet Flour

V. F. Abioye, J. A. Adejuyitan, A. O. Adeoye, I. O. Gbadegesin

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 74-82
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330392

Aims: This study determined the changes in the chemical and nutritional composition of naturally fermented finger millet studied at ambient temperature (28±2°C) for 72 h.

Study Designs: Finger millet seeds were cleaned and fermented (72 h; 28±2°C). Samples were taken at 24 h interval and dried at 50°C for 48 h.

Methodology: The fermented finger millet samples were analyzed for microbial, biochemical changes, chemical, proximate and mineral composition.

Results: Biochemical changes showed a drop in pH from 6.74 to 6.04 while titratable acidity (lactic acid equivalent) increased from 0.04 to 0.62% after 72 h. The moisture, protein, ash, fat, fibre and carbohydrate were in the ranges of 7.08-9.449%; 5.31-7.274%; 1.10-3.392%, 1.296-2.47%, 1.154-2.46% and 77.44-81.58%, respectively. Significant increase were observed in the mineral composition with phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sodium, and iron identified in the fermented finger millet flour in the ranges of 93.5-176 mg/100 g; 171-247.5 mg/100 g; 87.04-196.5 mg/100 g; 1.30-3.075 mg/100 g and 5.28-11.95 mg/100 g, respectively. Tannin, oxalate, phytate and trypsin were in the ranges of 1.537 to 3.23 mg/100 g; 0.875 to 1.59 mg/100 g; 0.195 to 0.85 mg/100 g. and 2.731 to 6.23 mg/100 g, respectively. The total phenols and total flavonoids ranged between 11.605-40.29 mg/ 100 g and 63.36 -172.872 mg/100g while the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) of the flour samples ranged between 28.109 and 68.238 mg/ml. Microorganisms identified were Bacillus cereus, Lactobacillus Plantarum, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus brevis. This study shows that fermentation decreased the anti-nutrients, increased the proximate and minerals contents and also improved the anti-oxidative properties of finger millet flour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inactivation Kinetics and Thermodynamics Parameters of Polyphenol Oxidase and Peroxidase Activities in an Extract from of Violet Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)

Jocelyn Constant Yapi, Gbocho Serge Elvis Ekissi, Kouame Claude Ya, Patrice Lucien Kouamé

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 83-92
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330393

Enzymatic browning is associated with the action of polyphenol oxidases (PPO) and peroxidases (POD). The products of these enzymes cause undesirable changes of color and flavor of processed eggplant products. The present study aimed to evaluate kinetic properties and thermodynamics parameters of PPO and POD activities for controlling this undesirable process in extract from of violet eggplant. The effect of heat treatment on polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities in violet eggplant were studied over a range of 30 to 80 °C. T1/2-values of enzymatic activities are between 6.15 ± 0.03 and 13,27 ± 0,04 min at 80 °C, they decreased with increasing temperature, indicating a difference thermostability of each enzyme. D- and k-values decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing temperature, indicating faster of these enzymes inactivation at higher temperatures. Results suggested that polyphenol oxydase and peroxidase were relatively thermostable enzymes with a Z-value which from 50.25 and from 88.33 °C and Ea of 41.21 and of 27.78 kJmol-1. Thermodynamic parameters were also calculated. The Gibbs free energy ΔG values range from 43.24 ± 0,03 to 91.45 ± 0,01 kJ/mol. These kinetic data can be used to predict prevention of browning in the violet eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) by thermal inactivation of enzymes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Gluten-Free Sorghum Cookies with Different Vegetable Oil Sources

Mahamadé Goubgou, Fabrice Bationo, Laurencia Toulsoumdé Songré Ouattara, Daouda Fofana, Yves Traoré, Savadogo Aly

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 93-101
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330394

Aims: Lipids have important role in cookies production depending on their nature and function. In this study, the effect of refined cottonseeds oil (RCO), refined palm oil (RPO), and red (or crude) palm oil (CPO) on physicochemical characteristics of gluten-free sorghum cookies was evaluated and compared to control gluten-free cookies produced with a margarine (M20).

Methodology: RCO and RPO were incorporated at the level of 20 % and CPO at the level of 16%. The physicochemical characteristics were determined according to standard methods of analysis.

Results: Moisture, ash, proteins, lipids, sugar, fiber, pH, fat acidity, and energy value were  ranged  respectively between 0.12 ± 0.05 and 1.72 ± 0.02 % ; 2.00 ± 0.00 and 2.34 ± 0.01% (g/100g DM) ; 6.91 ± 0,08 and 7.49 ± 0.07% (g/100g DM) ; 20.61 ± 0.01 and 25.62 ± 0.53% (g/100g DM) ; 61.71 ± 0.52 and 65.79 ± 0.23% (g/100g DM) ; 3.41 ± 0.52 and 8.02 ± 2.04% (g/100g DM) ; 7.01 ± 0.00 and 7.36 ± 0.00; 0.03± 0.00 and 0.11 % of H2SO4 ; 462.70 ± 8.17 and 505.79 ±5.32 Kcal. The use of RCO and RPO induced significantly increase of the fat content. But, the moisture, ash, fat, sugar and the energy of the experimental and control cookies are in accordance with the recommended value of the guidelines of codex Alimentarius on supplementary foods for older infants and young children.

Conclusion: RCO, RPO and CPO exhibit the potential to be used as substitutes to margarine in the production of gluten-free cookies with interesting nutritional values.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Raw Groundnuts from Makurdi Markets in Nigeria for Aflatoxin B1

I. T. Ityo, I. W. Nyinoh, R. E. Kukwa, M. E. Okoh

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 102-112
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330395

Aims: The contamination of groundnut by aflatoxins (AF) results in financial losses to farmers’ as well as severe food safety and public health challenges globally. This study was carried out to; (i) assess the levels of AFB1 in husked groundnut seeds in Makurdi (ii) determine the relationship between moisture content and AF levels, and (iii) investigate vendors’ knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of AF and their approach towards groundnut storage.

Study Design: Quantitative research method was employed in this study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Department of Microbiology, Benue State University, Makurdi from May – June 2019.

Methodology: Duplicate groundnut samples were collected from ten market locations in Makurdi and analyzed using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) quantification method.

Results: The moisture content of the groundnuts was determined, and data on Knowledge Attitude and Practice (KAP) relating to groundnut storage were obtained using mini-questionnaires. The results obtained showed that all the sampled groundnuts were contaminated with AFB1 levels ranging from 17.3 - 35.9 parts per billion (ppb). Furthermore, we found a correlation between high moisture content and high AFB1 levels and vice-versa. The knowledge of AF among the groundnut retailers was low (<40%), and 40.91% of the sellers confirmed that groundnuts were stored for ≤one month before sale.

Conclusion: The levels of AFB1 levels in stored groundnuts are above the permissible limit of 20 ppb for stored groundnut in Nigeria. The data obtained raises concerns for food safety considering that groundnuts are widely consumed in Makurdi. Regular evaluation of AFB1 levels in food should be conducted in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fermotein Does Not Exert Genotoxic Effects in Bacterial Reverse Mutation and in Vitro Mammalian Cell Micronucleus Tests

Marjolein Van Der Spiegel, José J. Van Den Driessche, Elisa Leune, Kirsten Knobel, Wim De Laat

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 113-123
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330396

Aim: Fermotein is an innovative single-cell protein obtained from fermentation of the filamentous fungus Rhizomucor pusillus. Like other filamentous fungi, a lack of information on this species exists to assess its safety for human consumption. The capability to induce gene mutations or structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations of this fungus and derived products has never been studied before. The objective of the current study was to investigate the genotoxic effects of Fermotein using a bacterial reverse mutation test and an in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test.

Methodology: The bacterial reverse mutation test and in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test were performed in accordance with GLP and concurrent OECD guidelines. Dose-range finding tests were used to select appropriate doses of Fermotein Dry. The highest doses in the genotoxicity experiments were determined by the solubility of the mycoprotein.

Results: The bacterial reverse mutation test and in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test were performed in accordance with GLP and concurrent OECD guidelines. Dose-range finding tests were used to select appropriate doses of Fermotein Dry. The highest doses in the genotoxicity experiments were determined by the solubility of the mycoprotein.

Conclusion: No safety concerns regarding genotoxicity were identified for Fermotein and no further in vivo genotoxicity testing is required. Information from the current study contributes to the body of evidence for a novel food authorisation of Fermotein in the EU and a GRAS notification in the US.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Changes during Thermal Processing of Unfermented and Fermented Red Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and effects on In Vitro Protein Digestibility

P. F. Wulam, M. K. Jiyil, C. E. Mafuyai, J. I. Oche, O. A. Olorunyomi, M. Silas

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 124-136
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i330397

Background: Legumes are outstanding sources of macronutrients, micronutrients, phytochemicals, as well as antinutritional factors. These components present a complex system enabling interactions with different components within food matrices. The interactions result in insoluble complexes with reduced bioaccessibility of nutrients. The development of appropriate preparation technologies for use at the household and village-level become so imperative to facilitate processing and dietary availability of beans.

Aim of the Study: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical contents of unfermented and fermented red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and the effects of the resulting changes on the in vitro protein digestibility. This will enhance food security and reduction in malnutrition.

Methodology: Unfermented and fermented P. vulgaris were boiled using ordinary cooking pot and a pressure pot and the chemical contents were evaluated by standard methods. In vitro protein digestibility was carried out by pepsin digestion.

Results: Fermentation resulted in a decrease in the traditional cooking time in the ordinary cooking pot by 40.32%. The protein content of the fermented sample increased by about 7%. The in vitro protein digestibility value was increased by more than 30% with greater percentage evident in fermented samples. Sulphur containing amino acids, methionine and cystein were the limiting amino acids but their contents appreciated by 6.64% and 10.92% respectively after fermentation. Total ash, crude fibre, crude fat contents of P. vulgaris were all affected by more than 20% during the open fermentation and cooking of unfermented beans. The antinutritional factors of P. vulgaris decreased most in boiled fermented samples compared with the other processing methods. There was overall improvement in the In vitro protein digestibility, reduction of cooking time and antinutritional factors when P. vulgaris was fermented and cooked.

Conclusion: The outcome of the reserach justifies the fact that combining both fermentation and cooking results in the overall improvement in the nutritional value of P. vulgaris as against cooking without fermentation.