Open Access Grey Literature

A Preliminary Risk Assessment of Yersinia Enterocolitica in the Food Chain: Some Aspects Related to Human Health in Norway

Hilde Kruse, Georg Kapperud, Jørgen Lassen, Bjørn Tore Lunestad, Truls Nesbakken, Espen Rimstad, Lucy Robertson, Eystein Skjerve, Yngvild Wasteson

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-2
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530412

This preliminary risk assessment is a result of self-tasking by the Panel on Biological Hazards, Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety. The suggestion was offered to the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet), which responded and requested a risk profile, or a preliminary risk assessment, to evaluate whether a full risk assessment would be needed at a later date.

Yersinia enterocolitica is one of a few zoonotic bacteria that have a stable reservoir within the domestic animal population in Norway. This bacterial species has been isolated from human patients with acute enteritis, who sometimes exhibit symptoms resembling appendicitis. Y. enterocolitica has attracted considerable attention due to its ability to cause serious post-infectious complications. Serious clinical consequences occur relatively often with Y. enterocolitica as a relatively high frequency of people in Norway possess the tissue type HLA-B27. A severe sequela linked to this tissue type is reactive arthritis. The cold climate in Norway may enhance growth of Y. enterocolitica. Although the predominant cause of yersiniosis in Norway is Y. enterocolitica O:3, and the pig is considered the main source of infection, the relative contribution of pork consumption compared with other risk factors, for example drinking untreated water, is unknown. In Norway, a decline in human cases of yersiniosis has been recorded since the beginning of the 1990s. This decline has been attributed to implementation of improved slaughtering methods, including enclosure of the anus into a plastic bag after rectum-loosening. In Norway, most fattening pigs are slaughtered at the age of 150 to 180 days. By this age the tonsils may be an even more significant source of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica than intestinal contents, since the occurrence in the intestinal tract and faeces is reduced at the time of slaughter. Accordingly, hygienic handling of the head and the plucks during slaughter and dressing is very important to avoid contamination of the carcass. The most efficient way to limit the spread from tongue and tonsils is probably decapitation early on in the carcass dressing procedure. In such a procedure, the head, including tongue and tonsils, should be removed on a separate line. Also, avoidance of incision of the sub-maxillary lymph nodes might reduce the spread, Epidemiological data suggest that it is possible to reduce the herd prevalence of Y. enterocolitica O:3 by minimising contact between infected and noninfected herds. Further, attempts to reduce the prevalence at the top levels of the breeding pyramids may be beneficial for the industry as a whole. The meat industry might be able to categorise herds using serological methods, and use these results in its strategy to reduce the risks for consumers. However, such a strategy has to be evaluated in a cost benefit context. The apparently low prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in food may be due to lack of suitable selective methods. The culturing methods, which are used routinely in microbiological laboratories, are insufficiently sensitive. There is a need for a standardised DNA-based technique, with improved sensitivity, for the detection of Y. enterocolitica in clinical, food and environmental samples.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Smoked and Oven-dried Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) on Haematological Parameters, Liver and Antioxidant Enzymes of Wistar Rats

I. K. Ndubueze, H. A. Ogbunugafor, A. A. Oladejo

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 3-13
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530415

Catfish is a traditional part of the diet of a large section of the world’s population. This study compared the effect of smoked and oven-dried catfish on hematological parameters, liver and antioxidant enzymes of wistar rats. Catfish samples were processed by smoking and oven-drying and used for formulation of the experimental feeds. Twenty one wistar rats were acclimatized for seven (7) days, weighed and allotted into three dietary treatments; control (standard feed), smoked and oven-dried fed groups. The study was conducted for a period of 21 days. Haematological analysis was carried out using haematology auto-analyzer. Liver enzymes (Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT)) were assayed using standard assay kits while antioxidant enzymes were assayed using spectrophotometric method. The result revealed a significant increase (P<0.05) in the body weights of rats maintained on experimental feeds; oven-dried catfish fed group (240.83±6.13g), smoked catfish fed group (246.83±4.97g). There were no significant difference (P>0.05) in the haematological parameters of the treatment groups except in their total red blood cell counts, mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin. A non-significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) of the test groups, indicating the absence of oxidative stress. The results of this research showed that both drying methods (oven and smoke drying) did not affect the palatability of the diets as the experimental diets were accepted by the experimental animals and their weight significantly improved. However, both diets have deleterious effects on the blood; hence, individuals with severe cases of anaemia and other blood disorders are encouraged to avoid them.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence, Risk Factors and Management of Type 2 Diabetes, and its Predictors among Patients Using Multinomial Logistic Modeling Approach: Case of a Semi-Urban Cameroonian

Kuaté Giscard Kaptso, William Tchabo, Winifred Manyaka, Isabelle Mulango, Mbafor Brain Chebelem, Amungwa Fonteh Athanasius, Carl Moses Mbofung

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 14-34
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530416

Background: Diabetes is a health problem worldwide. The prevalence of diabetes has been steadily increasing for the past three decades. Diabetes prevalence is growing most rapidly particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Areas undergoing rapid westernization and rapid nutrition transition are seeing the greatest increase in prevalence suggesting that environmental factors are important. Diabetes is known to have no cure but can be managed through diet and modification of lifestyles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and the predictors of diabetes and its management in Kumba District Hospital (KDH).

Study Design: A retrospective, and a cross sectional survey was done where semi structured questionnaires were administered to subjects.

Methodology: Information from the hospital record for the past four years was used to evaluate the trend in the prevalence of diabetes. Information from questionnaires was used to assess the prevalence and management of the disease. Fasting plasma glucose was measured to know their diabetic status.

Results: The results revealed an increasing trend in the prevalence but the increase was not statistically significant. The results showed that, there was an association between diabetes prevalence and management. The overall prevalence of diabetes from the study was evaluated at 43.98%. Age, level of education, dietary habit and alcohol were found to influence the prevalence of diabetes significantly. Management with respect to therapeutic education, and monitoring of blood sugar were statistically significant. The significant predictive variables of the occurrence of diabetes base on Ordinary least squares were found to be age, level of education, therapeutic education, alcohol consumption, sex, and frequency of eating white rice.

Conclusion: The study revealed that, diabetes is highly prevalent among older persons and the less educated in KDH. Public health officials should educate the public on the risk factors of diabetes, and implement guidelines for adequate control and management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Experimental Investigation of the Functional and Proximate Properties of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) Using Fermentation Process

Bosesde Folake Olanipekun, Joy A. Ilevbare, Olusegun James Oyelade, Oluyemisi Elizabeth Adelakun, Ajekigbe Sola Olajire

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 45-52
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530418

Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) is a leguminous crop rich in protein and widely cultivated in Nigeria but underutilized due to high anti-nutritional properties. Several processing methods such as fermentation using non-pathogenic micro fungi have been used to address these problems. This study evaluated the effect of fermentation on the functional and proximate properties of pigeon pea using Rhizopus species. The following ranges of values were obtained for bulk density, water absorption, oil absorption and swelling capacities (0.74-0.98g/ml; 71.67-189.00%; 120.00-205.00%; 6.81-10.93g/ml), respectively. Values of proximate composition were in ranges of 6.67-7.87, 16.09-22.09, 2.83-4.00, 0.84-1.23,1.33- 2.00 and 65.47- 71.35% for moisture, protein, ash, fat, fibre and carbohydrate contents, respectively. Improvement in functional and proximate properties of fermented pigeon pea flour were observed. Hence, it can also serve as functional and supplement ingredients in different food formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Physico-chemical Properties, Cholesterol and Vitamin A Levels of Vegetable Oils commonly Sold in Ado Ekiti Metropolis

F. A. Ishaya, A. A. Oladejo, A. B. Olaoye

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 53-61
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530419

Edible vegetable oils are very important resource that are in high demand globally, and used in a variety of ways as they are considered a concentrated source of energy for human beings and carriers of oil-soluble vitamins which supply the essential fatty acids that are required for a wide range of biological and physiological functions. This work was aimed at evaluating the physicochemical properties, cholesterol content and analyzes the vitamin A contents of commonly sold vegetable oils in Ado Ekiti metropolis. The physicochemical parameters such as density, acid value, iodine value, peroxide value and saponin value, cholesterol content as well as Vitamin A content were all analyzed using standard analytical methods. Results of the physicochemical analysis showed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the densities of the oil samples, It was observed that sample 4 oil showed maximum (1.58 mgKOH/g) and sample 6 showed minimum (1.38 mg KOH/g) acid values. Highest iodine values were observed in sample 8 (68.13 g/I2/100g) and lowest in sample 4 (56.38 g/I2/100g). Peroxide value was found to range from 2.18 meq O2/kg to 2.67 meq O2/kg, while saponin value was highest in sample 6 (130.3 mg KOH/g) and lowest in sample 8 (122.4 mg KOH/g). All the oil samples were found to contain cholesterol which ranged from 1.21±0.04 mg/dl (sample 1) to 4.58±0.01 mg/dl (sample 4), while the vitamin A content ranged from 674.80±10.26 IU/g (sample 2) to 877.97±20.52 IU/g (sample 8). Findings from this research showed that the researched oils meet the acceptable physicochemical standard. However, the cholesterol levels were against the inscriptions of cholesterol free on the labels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Processing Methods on Proximate Composition of Cassava Varieties Manihot esculenta (Crantz) Before and After Infestation by Prostephanus truncatus (Horn)

Eze U. Miriam, N. J. Okonkwo, Iroka F. Chisom

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 62-72
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530420

In Africa, Prostephanus truncatus is a destructive pest of economic importance which has assumed a serious pest status on stored maize and dry cassava chips. This study investigates the effect of processing methods of cassava varieties Manihot esculenta on the proximate composition before and after exposure to P. truncatus. The four cassava varieties used for this study were; TMS 0505, TME 419, NR 8082 and TMS 0581 subjected to two processing method parboiling and plain sun-drying at temperature 28-34oC and relative humidity of 65-75%. The experiment was carried out in a Complete Randomized Design. Proximate composition was carried out to determine the Moisture, Ash, Crude fibre, Fat, Crude Protein and Carbohydrate of the different samples. Analysis of Variance was used for the statistical analysis of the data obtained. The result reveals that the proximate composition of the sundried chips are significant at P<0.05%. All the proximate contents of the sample were significant at P<0.05% before the introduction of P. trucatus. After the introduction of P. truncatus and the storage period of 30days, the sundried sample had a higher reduction in the moisture contents of TMS 0505 with 13.05±0.00a and carbohydrate contents of NR 8082 with 50.0±0.00a. The activity of P. truncatus also has a negative impact on some of the nutritional components of cassava chips.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Compositions and In-vivo Antioxidant Effect of Corchorus olitorius Ethanol Leaf Extract in CCl4-induced Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats

Josiah Ndukwe, Antoinette N. C. Okaka, Victor Henry Azubuike Enemor, Uchechukwu Chibuzo Ogbodo, Precious Uchenna Ezeobi

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 73-81
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530421

Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various disease conditions with concomitant toll on the body’s defense mechanism against free radicals. To continuously sustain and support the efficiency of the body’s antioxidant defense system, natural plant sources are required. Thus, the need for alternative options especially of plants that are neglected and under-utilized. Hence, this study aimed at investigating the proximate and phytochemical compositions and in-vivo antioxidant effect of ethanol leaf extract of C. olitorius on antioxidant enzyme activities in CCl4-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats.

Methods: Thirty albino rats of Wistar strain (120-150g) were divided into six groups (A – F) of five rats each. Groups A, B and C served as test groups and were administered 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg doses of C. olitorius leaf extract respectively while Group D served as normal control. Groups E and F served as the positive and negative controls and were administered 50 mg/kg Silymarin and distilled water respectively. The administration lasted for 15 days after which blood was collected via cardiac puncture.

Results: Findings showed that the leaf was rich in total phenol (21.47 ± 0.00 mgGAE/g) and tannin (23.34 ± 0.75 mgTAE/g) with little quantity of oxalate (0.48 ± 0.09 mg/g), cardiac glycosides (0.30 ± 0.07 %) and phytate (0.25 ± 0.01 %). The result of the proximate composition revealed that the leaf was rich in carbohydrate (44.16 ± 1.21 %), ash (20.31 ± 0.51 %) and protein (11.29 ± 2.06 %) with negligible quantity of lipid (0.46 ± 0.11 %). More so, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were all increased in the extract treated group when compared to the controls.

Conclusion: From the above findings, it can be concluded that the ethanol leaf extract of C. olitorius may possess exploitable nutritional components and potential antioxidant activity against the debilitating effects of free radicals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dietary Practices of Health Professionals during Working Hours in a Tertiary Referral Teaching Hospital In Ghana: A Neglected Vulnerable Group

Christiana Naa Atsreh Nsiah-Asamoah, Deborah Amoasi, Jacob Setorglo

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 82-97
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530422

Aim: Generally, it is assumed that health professionals are knowledgeable about healthy eating and as such studies aimed at assessing their dietary practices and the factors that influence these practices have been largely neglected. These studies are important because the dietary habits of healthcare professionals (HCPs) can have an impact on their well-being, health status and even their work output. Largely, there is a dearth of information about the dietary practices of HCPs during working hours. This study was aimed at assessing the dietary practices of HCPs during working hours at a referral teaching hospital in Ghana.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study in which a questionnaire was administered to 320 HCPs.

Methodology: A questionnaire was administered to the HCPs in the hospital after obtaining informed consent (written) from the HCPs. The questionnaire solicited information about their socio-demographics, dietary practices and nutritional knowledge. Descriptive statistics were summarized as frequencies and proportions.

Results: Approximately 13.1%, 47.5% and 39.4% were underweight, normal weight and overweight respectively. Carbonated beverages, baked foods and fried foods were consumed four (4) or more times in a week by more than half of the HCPs because they were regarded as convenience foods which could be eaten while working. About 76.9%, 52.8% and 58.4% skipped their breakfast, lunch and supper meal respectively at least once in the past one (1) week before the study.

Conclusions: The findings reveal concerns about the unhealthy dietary habits and basic nutrition knowledge gaps among the surveyed HCPs. Most HCPs skipped breakfast and ate a lot of unhealthy foods such as carbonated beverages, baked foods and fried foods frequently during working hours. Recommendations made include the need for hospital management to provide canteens that serve healthy meals for HCPs at their job sites. There is also the need for management to organize the work-schedules of HCPs in order to manage their workloads in a manner that enables them have adequate breaktimes to access and eat healthy foods while at work.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological and Proximate Analysis of Orange (Citrus scinesis) Peel and Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

Zia Parveen, Sunita Mishra

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 98-105
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530423

The main objective of the study is to evaluate the nutritional composition of orange peel and tomato for the development of natural colour to increase the awareness about the use of natural food colour which reduces the risk assessment of artificial colour. Fruits are very important constituents of the diet and provide nutrients such as, vitamin, minerals, and fibre etc. Orange is one of the most popular fruits in the world. It is rich in nutrient like vitamin C, folic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids etc. These nutrients are very useful for boosting immunity. In this study we discus about nutritional composition of orange peel and tomato. Proximate analysis of each sample was conducted to evaluate the moisture, fat, protein, ash etc. The morphological analysis of the samples was done by using scanning electron microscope which helps in identifying the different structural forms of the samples. Results of the study suggest that orange peel and tomato both have a good nutritional property. The fat, protein, ash and fibre content in orange peel was found to be 3.4, 4.8, 4.2 and 8.3 respectively while in tomato the values are 0.24, 2.26, 0.18 and 1.19 respectively. Orange peel removed the amount of cholesterol and fight against heart diseases in your body because orange peel contains pectin and natural fibre, it controls our blood pressure and helpful for weight loss. Tomato is an edible, red berry types of fruits. Tomatoes contribute to a healthy well-balanced diet. Because they are rich in nutrients like minerals, vitamins (B and C), sugar and dietary fibre. Tomato is a good source of lycopene; it is a red colour pigment present in high amount (2573 μg) per 100 tomatoes is a very good sources of raw materials for fruits and vegetables industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity of Filamentous Molds Producing Mycotoxins in Rice Called "Deni Kachia" Sold on the Markets of Daloa (Côte d’Ivoire)

Kra Athanase Kouassi, Ano Guy Serge Ehouman, Kouassi Clément Kouassi, Ibrahim Konate

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 106-112
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530424

Filamentous fungi are frequent contaminants of many plant substrates and certain animal products. Their presence can improve the organoleptic quality of the product or alter it and lead to the accumulation of toxic secondary metabolites, such as mycotoxins. The objective of this work is to characterize the filamentous fungi isolated from the rice "deni kachia" stored and sold on public markets in the city of Daloa. A count and isolation of filamentous fungi, followed by macroscopic and microscopic identification was carried out. Several genera of filamentous fungi was identified. These are the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and others. The different species of molds identified by conventional biochemical techniques were confirmed by the API 50 CH freezer.The genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are the most predominant in the samples analyzed. The presence of these species with their ability to produce mycotoxins suggests that contaminated rice poses a risk to the health of consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Fertilizer on the Yield and Quality Parameters of Garri from Two Improved Cassava Cultivars (TME 419 and TMS 01/1412)

Patience Abisola Ayeni, Islamiyat Folashade Bolarinwa, Gani Oladejo Kolawole, Beatrice Iyabode Olayemi Ade-Omowaye

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 113-126
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530425

Aims: Food insecurity is a major problem in developing countries, to overcome this problem, fertilizers are used to increase yield of agricultural produce. However, fertilizer may affect the quality of processed products. This study aimed to investigate the influence of fertilizer treatments levels on yield and quality properties of garri from two improved cassava varieties (TME 419 and TMS 01/1412).

Methodology: Cassava roots were planted with varying fertilizer levels [50% (45, 20 and 35 kg/hectare of NPK-12-12-17, Muriate of Potash and Urea, respectively) and 100% (90, 40 and 70 kg/hectare of NPK-12-12-17, Muriate of Potash and Urea, respectively)]. Garri yield, chemical, physicochemical, pasting properties, and sensory attributes of garri were evaluated.

Results: Results showed 30% and 22% increase in garri yield from 100% fertilized TME and TMS cassava root, respectively. The chemical contents of the garri samples increased with increasing fertilizer level. Cyanide contents of the garri samples decrease with increasing fertilizer level. Garri from 100% fertilizer treatment had higher water absorption capacity (3.51 g/ml and 3.32 g/ml), reconstitution index (72.75% and 77.20%) and gelation index (7.0% and 8.0%), but lower swelling capacity (3.43 g/ml and 3.02 g/ml) and bulk density (0.55 g/cm3 and 0.51 g/cm3) in TME and TMS cultivar, respectively.

Conclusion: High level of fertilizer application improved the chemical components, reduced the cyanide contents and pasting properties of garri samples from the two cassava cultivars.

Open Access Review Article

Food Poisoning from Local Food Processing Methods: A Review

Chigozie Johnbosco Muoneke, Anuli Augusta Nwachukwu, Assumpta Ifunanya Okoye

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 35-44
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i530417

Food processing links food production to the provision of food of improved quality and nutrient availability, acceptability, preservation to curtail losses and availability in time of need. To maintain these attributes, a critical look at our local food processing methods is required, with a view to improving it; for instance through the application of modern technology, so as to minimize food poisoning, and improve local food stability. In this review, we wish to highlight the various possible pathogenic poisoning routes of some African food processing methods and possible preventive measures. The food processes involved are fermentation, drying and salting. The source of food contaminant is evidently a portal for contamination by more potent pathogenic microbes, which may cause an epidemic, considering the popularity of the food products. The influx of contaminants; which may be a source of food-borne disease(s), maybe through the original food materials, unhygienic practices of the handlers or the process machinery. The incidence of food poisoning in local food processing can be drastically reduced with improved process operations, increased sensitization of food handlers on their possible contributions to food contamination, regular medical checkups and mandatory certification of vendors, etc. The standard for processing and preparing human food should be improved and researches should be carried out, to ascertain facts and prevent death due to ingestion of poisoned food. Investments in biotechnology should also be made in the most conscious and profound manner, to provide species for better food fermentation processes, and as well, advanced sensitive screening procedures to ascertain contamination, especially by non-culturable microorganisms. Hygienic practices in food processing and preservation are indispensable in food security, as we try to sustain food abundance and minimize food poisoning.