Open Access Original Research Article

Current Trend of Nutrigenomics of Geriatric Type 2 Diabetes

Viola A. Nwachukwu Nicholas-Okpara, Ifesinachi Anastacia Utazi, Chika Scholastica Ezeanyanaso, Blossom Ita, Adaeze Joy Ukaba, Maryam Olanshile Adegboyega

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 11-19
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i630427

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) is a growing burden in the global public health and economic systems. Older adults are more than two times predisposed to T2DM and they are more likely to develop T2DM-related complications. A complex interaction of genes, diet and environment is a key factor in the development of this chronic metabolic disorder. With nutrigenomics, researchers are beginning to understand this interaction. This review aims at examining gene-diet relationships concerning T2DM as well as the applications and potential of nutrigenomics in managing geriatric type 2 diabetes. Several genome-wide association studies have documented susceptibility genes for T2DM. Among these genes are TCFL2, PPARGγ, CAP 10, ADBR3, DPARGCIA, and ENPP genes. Several bioactive compounds in foods have also been shown to act as switches on T2DM susceptibility genes, aiding in the progression or inhibition of the disease. These findings have helped in developing nutritional recommendations that are relevant to the management of T2DM particularly in carriers of these susceptibility genes. In this comprehensive review, the current trends, and prospects of nutrigenomics as an intervention for geriatric diabetes is explained.

Open Access Original Research Article

Consumption of Cattle Hide Singed with Scrap Tyre is Detrimental to the Liver, Heart and Kidney of Rats

E. C. Woko, C. O. Ibegbulem, C. S. Alisi

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 29-43
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i630429

The presence of essential amino acids in meat makes it a complete protein, this makes meat a highly sort after source of protein in the human diet. The World’s demand for animal-derived protein has been projected to double by 2050. As a result there is a resultant increase in livestock industries to meet this demand. While meat is generally consumed as a source of protein, processed cattle hide popularly known as “Kanda” in southeastern Nigeria is consumed as a substitute for meat though it may not necessarily provide the same level of nutritional value with meat. The method of processing this food delicacy (Kanda) by singeing with scrap tyre or firewood has opened the door for heavy metal and or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) contamination, thereby putting unsuspecting consumers at health risk. This study therefore investigated the effects of consuming scrap tyre and firewood singed cattle hide on the kidney, liver and heart of male Wistar rats. The study took place for 21 days at the department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology Owerri. 35 rats were divided into 7 groups of 5 each, allowed to acclimatize for 7 days and fed with the cattle hide processed with scrap tyre (group 1-3) and cattle hide processed with firewood (group 4-6) while group 7 which served as control was fed with normal standard rat pellet feed. It was observed that consuming these processed hides increased the marker enzymes for heart, kidney and liver damage like lactate dehydrogenase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase with groups that were fed with the hide singed with scrap tyre showing severe elevations. Consuming the singed Kanda also significantly decreased the serum concentrations of K+, Na+, Cl- , and significantly increased HCO3- and urea concentration. An examination of the organ tissues also revealed serious morphological changes. In conclusion, consuming singed Kanda had detrimental effects on the vital organs studied.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Commonly Consumed Crayfish in Nigeria and Health Risk Implications

E. O. Nwaichi, B. G. Ibiama, J. O. Akaninwor

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 44-57
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i630430

Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common environmental pollutants. Its increased presence in the aquatic environment has raised serious concerns about its effect on aquatic life and by extension, a man who is at the apex of the food chain. This research investigated the concentrations of selected heavy metals (Lead, Nickel, Cadmium and Chromium) and PAHs in two species of commonly consumed crayfish in Nigeria and their health risk implications. Wet digestion procedure and atomic absorption spectrometry were used for heavy metal determination while the United States environmental protection agency (USEPA) test method for evaluation of solid waste was used for PAHs analysis. Results showed that Pb, Ni and Cd in both species of crayfish were above tolerable limits. The mean level for Ni in Litopenaeus setiferus was 3.0630.116mg/kg and 5.1571.676mg/kg in Litopenaeus stylirostris. The mean value for Cd in L. setiferus was 0.8330.070 mg/kg and 0.6000.025 mg/kg for L.stylirostris. The mean value for Pb in L. setiferus was 4.5500.656mg/kg and 3.6430.486 mg/kg in L. stylirostris. Mean values for Cr in L. setiferus was 0.0870.082 mg/kg and 0.000 mg/kg in L. stylirostris. Mean PAHs concentrations in L. setiferus and L. stylirostris were 0.0036±0.002 ppm and 0.0083±0.004 ppm respectively. Health risk assessment revealed an increasing health risk due to the consumption of both species of crayfish. Results for PAHs in both species of crayfish showed compliance with set limits. Its presence in fish food however suggests possible health concerns especially with regards to their carcinogenic tendencies. Anthropogenic activities should be closely monitored as bioaccumulation along the food chain is implicated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Fertility Effect and Hypolipidemic Activity of Carica papaya (Linn) Leaf Methanol Extract in Male Diabetic Rats

Opeyemi O. Ayodele, Ifeoluwa M. Dada, Rotimi K. Adekunle

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 58-69
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i630431

Aim: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a prevalent metabolic disorder that leads to other microvascular and macrovascular complications. Diabetes affects fertility and blood clotting, and also cause impaired lipid profile thus leading to increased atherogenic risks and coronary diseases. This research investigates the effects of Carica papaya leaf methanol extract on fertility indices and lipid profile of male diabetic rats.

Methodology: Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into five groups of six rats each. Diabetes was induced in the rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). Diabetic rats were treated orally with 100 and 200 mg/kg C. papaya methanol extract for 14 days. At the end of administration, the plasma glucose concentration and lipid profile were assayed by spectrophotometric methods; seminal analysis was carried out for evaluation of morphology, motility and sperm count under the microscope. The bleeding and clotting times of the rats were also determined.

Results: C. papaya leaf methanol extract caused significant (p = 0.05) reduction in plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL-C, LDL-C, bleeding and clotting times of diabetic treated rats, while the HDL-C of treated groups were significantly (p = 0.05) elevated compared to the diabetic control. Percentage normal cells were lower in diabetic control rats (41.4±4.4%) and C. papaya treated groups (50.0±8.5% for 100 mg/kg; 47.5±9.1% for 200 mg/kg) compared with the normal control group (69.5±5.6%). Similar results were recorded for sperm count. The qualitative phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, anthraquinone, tannin, and other bioactive compounds.

Conclusion: findings from this study indicated that C. papaya leaf methanol extract could possess hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities. Thus, could be considered as a potential source of bio pharmacological agent for management and control of DM and its complications. Prolonged administration of C. papaya leaves may negatively affect male fertility.

Open Access Review Article

Positive Health Effects of Olive Oil

Diana Petričević, Damir Velimirović, Tonči Drlje Drlje

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i630426

Olive oil is the main source of fat in the Mediterranean diet. Although the use of olive oil has a long history, in recent decades it has experienced a full bloom all over the world. The consumption of olive oil in Croatia, as a Mediterranean country, is modest (2L per capita). This paper discusses basic characteristics of olive oil, with special emphasis on its health effects. Olive oil is rich in chlorophyll, carotenoids, and vitamin E, all of which serve as natural antioxidants, whereas its phenolic components, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, impact health positively in several ways. In addition to being powerful antioxidants, phenols in olive oil have anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, and anticancer properties. They modulate the immune system by affecting white blood cell proliferation and producing cytokine. The oil’s anticancer properties are of particular importance.

Mono-unsaturated fatty acids raise the level of “good cholesterol,” thus preventing the atherosclerosis process. Oleic acid in olive oil is less sensitive to oxidation, which is why it reduces the risk of harmful oxidation products. It has a high biological value and is easily digestible. Its antioxidant components slow down the ageing process and prevent the formation of cancer cells by neutralizing free radicals. It is important to preserve as many biologically active substances of olive oil as possible by properly storing and preparing the oil in order to maximize its effectiveness.

Open Access Review Article

Corrosive Effect of Tomato, Pepper and Onion Pulps on Selected Grinding Machine Components

J. O. Babalola, B. F. Olanipekun, V. E. Onyiaoha, O. C. Adejumobi, N. O. Oladipo, O. J. Oyelade

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 20-28
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i630428

As a result of cost considerations, local grinding machine manufacturing outfits are employing non-stainless-steel components for equipment fabrication. Despite the fact that the components are known to corrode, the number of the manufacturing outfits has increased over the years. Corrosion is a major concern to the food industry because the ingestion of corroded metals can harm and affect the function of some body organs. Potentiodynamic polarization method and a weight loss approach at room temperature was used to investigate the influence of tomato, pepper, and onion pulps on the electrochemical characteristics and weight loss of mild, galvanized, and stainless steel over a period of 30 days, at 5-day intervals. The results revealed that highest corrosion rate was found in mild steel (2.95x10-8mm/y) but low compared to the corrosion value obtained for galvanized steel (3.4x10-8mm/y) in the hybrid medium. Consequently, the use of mild steel as a substitute for stainless steel is suggested, provided that it is coated, and that the machine is cleaned regularly to remove residues from the metal surface or to inhibit microbiologically induced corrosion.