Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Traditional Foods and Diets in Rural Areas of Bauchi State, Nigeria: Analysis of Nutrient Components

Mercy E. Sosanya, Jeanne H. Freeland-Graves, Ayodele O. Gbemileke, Funke F. Adeosun, Folake O. Samuel, Olutayo S. Shokunbi

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i730432

Objectives:  Bauchi is one of the 36 states in Nigeria, the seventh most populous country in the world. This area has the second highest prevalence of thinness among women; with unacceptably high proportions of children 0 – 5 years being stunted. Household dietary intake is believed to be an underlying factor for this nutrition situation. Determination of the nutritional composition of traditional foods is essential in order to evaluate the dietary drivers of undernutrition, and to design interventions to promote sustainable, healthy diets. Yet data on the nutritional composition of traditional foods are lacking.  Thus, this study measured the proximate and mineral composition of 31 traditional, composite foods consumed in Bauchi State, Nigeria. 

Methods: Proximate analyses and assays for iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and calcium (Ca) were conducted according to methods stipulated by AOAC International.

Results: The protein content (9.12%) of dambun tsakin masara da alaiho (maize grits and spinach) and the Ca, Fe and Cu concentrations (89.64 mg, 6.01 mg and 0.31 mg per 100 g, respectively) of dambun gero da zogale (millet and Moringa) were the greatest among granulated dumplings. Danwake wake da dawa (cowpea and sorghum) had the greatest protein composition (4.78%) while danwaken gujiya da masara (Bambara nut and maize) had the highest Fe, Zn and Cu concentrations (3.97 mg, 1.20 mg and 0.28 mg, respectively) per 100 g of cooked dough balls. Miyan karago (powdered peanut cake soup) had the greatest protein concentration (11.40 %) per 100 g of soup. Among cereal paps, puddings and porridges, Chanchangan dawa (sorghum, peanut and beans porridge) had the highest protein content (6.43%). Of all foods analyzed, dambun naman rago (shredded, fried mutton) and awara (spicy, fried tofu) were richest in protein (49.31% and 16.86%) and iron (9.20 and 8.32 mg/100g), respectively.

Conclusion: Traditional foods with good nutrition profiles are available to support adequate nutrition of women and children in rural households in Bauchi State, despite widespread undernutrition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of the Safety and Chemical Composition of Commercially Available Fruit Juices and Soft Drinks in Southwest Nigeria

Islamiyat Folashade Bolarinwa, Segilola Maryam Oladepo, Mary Oluwatosin Adesola, Sekinat Qadri

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 17-30
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i730433

Aims: Fruits juices and soft drinks are among the most important and convenient foods which are commonly consumed to quench thirst, and as sources of micronutrients. However, most fruit juices commercially sold in Nigeria are not pure juice but contain additives which may affect the safety and quality attributes of the product. This study therefore, evaluated the chemical composition and microbiological safety of some commercially sold fruit juices and drinks and compared their quality with pure fruit juices.

Methodology: Twenty commercially sold fruit juices and soft drinks were analyzed for physicochemical properties, vitamins and minerals composition, and microbiological quality using standard analytical procedures.

Results: Pure fruit juices contain similar pH, total titratable acidity, and specific gravity as the commercial fruit juices and soft drinks, but significantly higher total solid contents. The total soluble solid recorded for the pure pineapple (22 g/100ml) and watermelon juice (25.9 g/100ml) were significantly higher than the values (11.1 – 15.5g/100ml) recorded for the commercial fruit juices. The vitamin C content of the commercial soft drink ranged from 22.94 to 26.14 μg/100g, and that of commercial fruit juices and pure fruit juices ranged from 14.89 to 22.81μg/100g with pure fruit juice having the lowest value.

Conclusion: The physicochemical properties of the pure fruit juices and commercial fruit and soft drinks were similar except for total solids and Brix level. Commercial fruit juices and soft drinks contain higher vitamins and minerals than pure fruit juices due to addition of synthetic vitamins and minerals. All the commercial fruit juice samples and soft drinks were free of microbial loads and would not cause any health problems if properly handled after purchase. The study however, recommends the consumption of hygienically prepared pure fruit juices because they are free from synthetic additives.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of the Characteristics of Farmers on Practicing Coping Strategies towards Household Food Security during Flood Period

M. E. Haque, M. N. Islam, M. Y. Uddin, M. J. Alam, M. A. Rahman, M. A. Majid, M. M. Haque, M. R. Islam, M. Z. Turin, J. Tasnim

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 31-38
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i730434

A study was carried out at flood affected reverine villages of three upazilas under Jamalpur district in Bangladesh during September, 2011 to May, 2012 to explore the relationship, contribution and direct–indirect effect between personal attributes and their coping strategies towards household food security practiced by the farmers during flood. Data were collected from randomly selected respondents through both the qualitative and quantitative techniques and analyzed with the help of SSPS. Out of 18 personal, economic, social and psychological characteristics of the farmers, the personal education, housing condition, annual income, annual expenditure, savings, organizational participation, participation in IGAs, cosmopoliteness, environmental awareness, knowledge on flood coping mechanisms and household food security had positive and credit received and utilization of received credit had negative while age, family size, training received, risk orientation and involvement in safety net programmes had no significant relation with coping strategies towards household food security during flood period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Food Security Status and Coping Strategies to Food Insecurity among Rural Crop Farming Households in Ondo State, Nigeria

Adegoroye, Ademola, Olutumise, Adewale Isaac, Aturamu, Oluyede Adeleke

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 39-50
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i730435

This study examined the food security status and coping strategies to food insecurity of rural arable crop farming households in Ondo State, Nigeria. Primary data were used and a multistage sampling procedure was used to select 150 respondents. Food Security Index (FSI), Probit regression model and Coping Strategy Use Index (CSUI) were employed to carry out the analysis. The empirical findings revealed that (54%) of rural arable crop farming households in the study area were food secure based on the recommended minimum calorie of 2260Kcal. Furthermore, the empirical analysis revealed that gender of the household head, household size, farm size and farm income of the household head had significant influence on the household food security status. The most widely employed coping strategy was withdrawal from personal savings as indicated by 14.82 percent of household and while reliance on less expensive food and purchasing food on credit were ranked second and third respectively with 13.66 and 12.85 percent by the food insecure households. In other to ensure sustainable food security among the households, the study recommended effective household size management, and enlightenment programmes on family planning in the study area. Farmers should increase their farm sizes. Farmers should use more inputs and technologies to increase output. Farmers should also be encouraged to have additional source of income towards attaining food security in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Fermented Soymilk Drink Containing Probiotic Bacillus coagulans

Okey-Nwankwo Chinaza Joyce, Ogbo Frank Chinweike, Chigbo Chisom Godswill, Okafor Onyedika Ifeanyi, Iduu Nneka Vivian, Soludo Obumneme Christian

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 51-61
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i730436

The aim of this study is to produce a fermented soymilk drink using Bacillus coagulans. This was performed in the Microbiology laboratory of Nnamdi Azikiwe, University. 20ml aliquots of soymilk containing Bacillus coagulans was fermented at 28°C, 37°C, 42°C and 50°C for period of 9 h. The pH of the soymilk and growth of Bacillus coagulans was checked during the fermentation period. The effect of sugar supplementation and adjustment of initial pH on soymilk fermentation was also checked. A 9-point hedonic scale was used by the sensory panelist for the sensory evaluation of the fermented soymilk. At 28°C, pH of soymilk did not decrease and cell count did not increase throughout the fermentation period. Fermentation at 37°C, 42°C and 50°C recorded decrease in pH and increase in cell count. Addition of 0.5% sucrose improved acid production and maintained a good cell count. Concentrations above 0.5% sucrose saw a slight decline in cell count. Glucose concentration of 0.5% to 2% improved acid production. Glucose concentration of 0.1% to 1% improved the growth of the probiotic cells. Concentration above 1% caused a drop in probiotic cell count. Adjustment of soymilks initial pH and addition of 0.5% glucose resulted in pH drop to 4.5 after 9h fermentation at 50°C. The fermented soymilk had moderate overall acceptability by the sensory panelist. Bacillus coagulans can be used as probiotic of choice to produce a fermented soymilk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of the Microbial Quality of Locally Consumed Palm Wine Sold in Elele Community of Rivers State Nigeria

I. M. Ikeh, B. C. Anele, C. C. Ukanwa, S. O. Njoku

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 62-69
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i730437

Palm wine is generally consumed due to its nutritive composition to the human body system particularly when fresh and unfermented state. A total of 20 Palm wine samples obtained from two different locations in Elele community of Rivers state, were analyzed for their microbiological qualities. A ten-fold serial dilution method was used. For Total Aerobic Plate Count (TAPC) nutrient agar was used, MacConkey for coliform count (CC), Eosin methylene blue for Escherichia coli count (EC), and Potato dextrose agar for the fungal count. Microbial counts in the palm wine sold in the drinking bar were higher than that of the palm wine tapper.  TAPC, the sample from the drinking bar has a mean value (6.73+ 0.22 log10cfu/ml) which was higher than the value obtained from the palm wine tapper (6.70+0.15log10cfu/ml). The coliform count of palm wine from the drinking bar was (6.57+ 0.10log10cfu/ml) but not significantly different from those with minimum counts (6.56+ 0.9log10cfu/ml) obtained from the tapper. Escherichia coli of palm wine from drinking bar were (5.73+ 0.23 log10cfu/ml) which were higher than (5.71+ 0.18 log10cfu/ml). The Fungal counts of palm wine sampled from the drinking bar were higher but not significantly different from those obtained from the tapper. Bacteria isolated from the two respective palm wines sampled included Staphylococcus spp 50% and 30% respectively, Klebsiella spp 20% and 30% respectively, Proteus spp 40% and 10% and 30% respectively, Aspergillus spp 30% ,  10% and Saccharomyce cerevisae 20% and 30% respectively. For the analysis of variance, bacteria and fungi count was not significant. Consumers of palm wine are advised to purchase the product from the tapper to reduce the chances of contamination.