Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Proximate Compositions and Heavy Metals’ Profiles of Talinum triangulare L., Corchorus olitorius L. and Solanum macrocarpon L. Harvested from Some Farmlands, Roadsides and Markets in Badagry Division of Lagos State, Nigeria

Surukite O. Oluwole, Mautin L. Ogun, Victoria T. Oni, Alan E. Mecha, Ayomide M. Ogunsanya, Qudus Usamot

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 9-21
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i930445

The growing concern over the safety of vegetables consumed in some areas of Lagos due to increased discharge of pollutants that cannot be overlooked was the basis for this research. Thus, this study aimed at assessing the proximate compositions and heavy metals’ profiles of Talinum triangulare, Corchorus olitorius and Solanum macrocarpon harvested from some farmlands, roadsides and markets in Badagry division of Lagos State. Leaves of Talinum triangulare, Corchorus olitorius and Solanum macrocarpon were obtained from farmlands, roadsides and markets in different local government areas in Badagry division of Lagos State. Proximate and heavy metals’ analyses were done using standard analytical procedures. Proximate analyses of the three vegetables showed that the vegetables contained moisture, carbohydrate, lipid, crude fibre, fat, and ash at very appreciable quantities. Also, the results of the heavy metals’ analyses revealed the range of Pb(0.01-0.03 mg/kg), Cd(0.01-0.07mg/kg), Fe(1.83-3.78 mg/kg), Cu(0.05-0.23 mg/kg), Mn(0.01-1.06 mg/kg), Zn(0.08-1.01 mg/kg) for farmlands; Pb(0.01-1.06 mg/kg), Cd(0.01-0.07 mg/kg), Fe(1.00-3.30 mg/kg), Cu(0.01-1.03 mg/kg), Mn(0.01-1.06 mg/kg), Zn(0.86-1.08  mg/kg) for roadsides and P(0.01-0.02mg/kg); Cd(0.01-0.04 mg/kg), Fe(1.78-3.02 mg/kg), Cu(0.01-0.08 mg/kg), Mn(0.02-0.12 mg/kg), Zn (0.01-2.01 mg/kg) for markets among the three vegetables in three the local government areas of Badagry division. However, chromium was not detected in the vegetables for all the locations. These metals were below or within WHO permissible limits except for lead and cadmium which were higher in some vegetables from Ojo roadsides and farmlands; lead in Amuwo-Odofin roadsides and Badagry farmlands respectively. It could be inferred from this study that vegetables across the three locations are rich sources of nutrients irrespective of specific points of collections. However, vegetables from roadsides had the highest overall heavy metal concentrations compared to those from farmland and markets and this could be linked to pollution by vehicular emission among others in the study areas. Thus, regular monitoring of the vegetables should be encouraged to checkmate possible health hazards from consumption of these vegetables.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Lactoperoxidase Enzyme System in Improving Shelflife of Raw Milk from Dairy Farms in Khartoum State, Sudan

Wigdan Omer Ahmed, Yassir A. Almofti, Elniema A. Mustafa

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 22-30
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i930446

Lactoperoxidase enzyme (LP) is a natural component in milk with broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity applications in in vivo and in vitro. LP system (LPS) was developed to eliminate the growth of bacterial pathogens and augment the shelf life of raw milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of activation of LPS on the growth and survival of bacterial pathogens and preserving raw milk quality. A checklist was developed and filled in ten farms at the time of milking to detect the hygienic measures in these farms. Two liters of milk were collected in sterile containers and warmed to 37°C/15min. LPS was activated by dissolving 40mg and 30mg of sodium thiocyanate and sodium percarbonate, respectively, in one liter of milk and followed by thorough mixing. 50ml from this liter of milk was added to two new containers and designated as group B and C. Moreover, group C was supplied with E. coli (106-107 cfu/ml). While milk in group D, LPS was not activated, instead milk was only supplied with E. coli (106-107 cfu/ml). Group A was considered as the control group (neither activated nor supplied with Escherichia coli). Tenfold serial dilution was performed to determine the bacterial total viable count (TVC) and milk clotting time (per seconds) in each group for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 hrs. The TVC and the milk clotting time in each group were statistically expressed as pairs between the groups (A versus B; C versus D) with significance probability of P≤0.05. The checklist analysis reflected the bad hygiene measures in the dairy farms. For TVC, in 2hrs incubation; no significant difference was observed between group A versus group B. While group C versus group D showed high significant difference. After 4hrs incubation, TVC showed prominent significance difference between the control compared to group B. While group C versus group D showed no statistical significance differences. At 6hrs time period, a significant difference was observed between the compared groups. However, no significance differences were observed between the groups after 8hrs and 10hrs of incubation. For clotting time, in 2hrs incubation, a significant difference between the compared groups was observed. After 4hrs incubation, a significant difference between the control compared to group B was prominent, while group C versus group D showed no statistical differences in clotting time. However, no significant differences were observed between the groups after 6, 8 and 10hrs of incubation in the clotting times. Taken together these results indicated that the LPS system was efficient until 6hrs and could prolong milk shelf life and prevent milk clotting.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Dietary Pattern of Rural Residents in the South of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

Brenda Gersanti Borba, Alicia Pupin Silverio, Pedro Ivo Sodré Amaral, Lidiane Paula Ardisson Miranda, Simone Caetani Machado, Alessandra Cristina Pupin Silvério

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 31-39
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i930447


Objective: We tried to learn about the eating habits and their possible consequences on the health of rural residents in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil in view of the importance of knowing dietary habits in the face of globalization and the risk of developing chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs).

Methods: For this, 1344 people were stratified and interviewed between January 2015 and November 2019, individuals aged 18 years or over, working or residing in the rural area of ​​the micro-region studied were included. Epidemiological, anthropometric and clinical data and assessment of dietary pattern were collected. A survey built and validated by Vigitel was used, and the interviewees received scores referring to food consumption in recent weeks. Thus, they were divided into 3 groups, according to their score, with the highest scoring tertile classified as “adequate”, the medium tertile as “intermediate” and the lowest as “inadequate”.

Results: As a result, most interviewees were men (62.7%), overweight (54.03%), between 44.1 years old, and the average educational level of 6.64 years. Women had higher averages of schooling time and higher values ​​of BMI and waist circumference when compared to males. In addition, a higher percentage of women fit the high dietary pattern when compared to men. Most respondents (54.03%) were classified as overweight, followed by normal weight (41.8%) and underweight (4.06%) when assessing BMI. Older age and level of education varied and were associated to a better quality of diet. It is remarkable that the eating habits of the rural population are increasingly like those in urban areas. Even with better food quality, women have worse anthropometric indices than men. Even though food consumption has changed, it does not appear in the habits of older people.

Conclusion: However, it is concluded that public policies that promote healthy eating for rural residents are needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection and Optimization of Multiple Pesticides Residues in Honey Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Nasra M. Abd El-Mageed, Ideisan I. Abu-Abdoun, Kaltham A. H. Kayaf

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 40-63
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i930448

This study aimed to optimize and validate a multi-residue method for identifying and quantifying pesticides in honey by using an accurate, rapid and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of 101 pesticide residues in honey by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry LC–ESI (+)-MS/MS operating in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The performance of the analytical method was validated in accordance with EU SANCO guidelines (SANTE/12682/2019). Acceptable values were obtained for the following parameters: linearity, recoveries, precision (reproducibility and repeatability) and measurement uncertainty tests (<50.0%).

A highly efficient approach for determining pesticide residues in honey with good recoveries was developed. The recovery values obtained at two fortification levels: 0.01 and 0.1 mgkg−1, were 73.2% and 119.7% respectively, with an average RSD<17% for all the tested compounds. The estimated linearity measured at five concentration levels presented good correlation coefficients (r2) average 0.99, all residue contaminants were detected at acceptable MRLs.

Open Access Review Article

Virgin Olive Oil and Its Use in Gastronomic Offer of Dalmatia and Istria

Diana Petričević, Damir Velimirović, Ana Mucić, Iva Tokić Sedlar

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2021/v13i930444

Olive growing is a significant, developing branch of the Croatian economy in total agricultural production. Virgin olive oil is one of the most nutritious fats in the Croatian gastronomic offer, especially in Istria and Dalmatia. For this reason, the chefs’ knowledge regarding virgin olive oil is required. The quality of olive oil is determined by live varieties, cultivation climate, and method of production. This paper aims to examine the presence of virgin olive oil in the food preparation of Croatian restaurants and the possibility of its application in Croatian restaurants. This study has shown that restaurants in Istria and Dalmatia use mostly virgin olive oil, produced exclusively in Croatia. Croatian hospitality workers have only domestic oil in their offer, mostly from their production. Many chefs from this study believed the consumption of olive oil should be higher. The results may encourage the olive oil producers, and hospitality workers, to monitor the competitiveness of the product in markets.