Open Access Grey Literature

Assessment of the Potential Risks Associated with the Proposed Use of Composted Waste from the Production of Bacitracin as a Soil Additive

Hilde Kruse, Sigve Håvarstein, Georg Kapperud, Jørgen Lassen, Bjørn Tore Lunestad, Truls Nesbakken, Espen Rimstad, Lucy Robertson, Eystein Skjerve, Yngvild Wasteson

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 64-65
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i330485

Bacitracin is a hexapeptide antibiotic, with a substituted thiazolidine nucleus, produced by some strains of B. licheniformis. It is mainly active against Grampositive bacteria, although many differences in susceptibility exist among the bacterial species.

Alpharma A.S. Norway has produced bacitracin for use in human medicine since 1954. Until 1998, the fermentation waste from the production of bacitracin was added to animal feed in some European countries, including Norway, to promote growth of pigs and domestic fowl. In 1998, fermentation waste containing bacitracin as a food additive was banned by the EU to reduce the risk of developing bacitracin-resistant bacteria in animals, and the subsequent possible transfer of such bacteria to humans via the food chain. Use of fermentation waste containing bacitracin as a feed additive has not been officially banned in Norway, but it is no longer used for this purpose. Alpharma is therefore actively seeking alternative uses for their production waste. As the waste material is rich in nutrients, the company proposes that it could be developed as a soil additive by fermenting it with chipped bark and lime. The Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet) commissioned the Panel on Biological Hazards of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomitéen for mattrygghet) to develop a risk assessment regarding the use of composted waste material from Alpharma’s production of bacitracin, as a soil additive. In response, an ad hoc Working Group of experts was appointed with the mandate to draft a risk assessment which should include the following elements: assessment of risk to human health and/or the environment in relation to residual content of bacitracin in the finished soil additive product and assessment of the risk in relation to dissemination of the production strain and antimicrobial resistance genes.  The Panel on Biological Hazards concludes that the risks to human health and the environment posed by residual bacitracin present in the finished product are minimal. Furthermore, as Bacillus licheniformis is considered essentially non-pathogenic, occurring rarely as an opportunistic pathogen, the risk posed by this bacterium to human health or the environment is very low. It is reasonable to assume that during the early composting process horizontal transfer of bacitracin and erythromycin resistance genes, from the B. licheniformis producer strain to environmental bacteria, will exceed background levels. However, this is considered to represent a low risk to human health and the environment. 

Open Access Grey Literature

Environmental Risk Assessment of the Pesticide Simplex with the Active Substances Aminopyralid and Fluroxypyr

Line Emilie Sverdrup, Christine Bjørge, Ole Martin Eklo, Merete Grung, Torsten Källqvist, Ingeborg Klingen, Marit Låg, Edgar Rivedal, Erik Ropstad, Steinar Øvrebø

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 66-67
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i330486

Simplex is a new herbicide in Norway containing the active substances aminopyralid and fluroxypyr. Aminopyralid is a new active substance in Norway, but fluroxypyr is registered in several authorized products. The intended use of the plant protection product is in established grassland for forage, established ley and pasture and in grass at the first year of sowing.  

During the spring of 2010, the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) performed a human health risk assessment of the active substance aminopyralid and the product on request from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority. On further request from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority, VKM has performed a risk assessment on the fate and the behaviour in the environment and the environmental risk with regard to the properties of the active substance aminopyralid and the product Simplex, which was finalized at a meeting of VKM’s Scientific Panel on plant protection products (Panel 2) on November 25, 2010. VKM Panel 2’s conclusion is as follows: Aminopyralid is highly mobile in soil and the substance is very likely to reach ground water at concentrations above the threshold of 0.1 µg/L. Experimental data (watersediment studies) suggest that aminopyralid is persistent. However, aminopyralid concentrations in surface water are expected to decrease rapidly due to photolytic degradation. The overall risk for adverse effects on terrestrial and aquatic organisms following the proposed application of Simplex is considered to be minimal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Utilization of Treated Seed Kernel Flours of Some Fruits in Biscuit Manufacture

Mohamed, A. Sorour, Abul-Hamd, E. Mehanni, S. M. Hussein, Mustafa Abdelmoneim Mustafa

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i330481

During the processing of fruits, large quantities of wastes are generated, these by-products contain large amounts of oil, starch and protein that can be exploited due to their good nutritional, technological, and functional properties. However, due to the presence of several antinutritional factors, such as polyphenolic compounds, phytic acid, cyanogenic glycoside and oxalates, the use of fruit wastes in human food is limited. The present investigation was aimed to study the effect of soaking and heating on antinutritional factors. It also examines the effect of substituting defatted apricot, peach, and mango seed kernel flours for wheat flour in various ratios (5, 10, and 15%) on the chemical composition, physical features, and sensory properties evaluation of biscuits. The results revealed a significant effect of soaking and heating on the antinutrients, detoxification led to a significant (p≤0.05) decrease in antinutritional factors with ratios 43.63-52.73% total phenols, 78.17-86.16% tannins, 45.92-54.34% phytic acid and 40.42-44.70% oxalates, along with the complete removal (100%) of hydrocyanic acid (HCN). Wheat biscuit contained 3.20% moisture, 6.31% protein, 15.46% fat, 0.64% crude fiber, 1.25% ash and 76.33% carbohydrate. Highly acceptable biscuits could be obtained by incorporating 5% of defatted apricot, peach and mango kernel flours in the wheat biscuits formulation. As a by-product, apricot, peach and mango kernels offer an exciting potential as a food ingredient permitting to enrich biscuits and enlarge the food base for consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Oxidative Impact of Liquid Smoke and Thyme Essential Oil on the Quality Characteristics of Chicken and Turkey Meatballs Products during Frozen Storage

Mohamed A. Sorour, Adel A. Abd El-Hamied, El Sayed A. Mohamoud, Ahmad Rashad Mahmoud

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 14-26
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i330482

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of liquid smoke (LS) produced from beech sawdust and thyme essential oil (TEO) as natural antioxidants in chicken and turkey meatballs during frozen storage. The LS and TEO were added to chicken and turkey meatballs at levels of 1% and 0.1%, respectively, and storage at -18 ± 1°C for 6 months.  pH value, water holding capacity (WHC), total volatile nitrogen (TVN), thiobarbituricacid (TBA) value, peroxide values (PV), total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant activity (DPPH %) were determined. The results demonstrated that the addition of LS or TEO had a positive effect on storage stability and a little change in the physical properties, quality attributes, and significantly (p≤0.05) increased the values of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of chicken and turkey meatballs during frozen storage compared to the control sample. The data revealed that the application of liquid smoke had decreased the value of TBA, TVN, and PV as well as increased shelf life and could be useful to achieve high stability of activity of chicken and turkey meatballs during storage and was better accepted compared to TEO and control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate and Mineral Composition of Aerial Potato (Dioscorea bulbifera Linn) after using Different Fermentation Methods

D. A. Bukola, F. A. Akinyosoye, B. J. Akinyele

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 27-38
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i330483

This study evaluated the nutritional value of aerial yam potato fermented with different methods and other food processing. Aerial potato was subjected to different treatments (peeled, unpeeled, peeled and blanched, unpeeled and blanched, peeled and boiled, unpeeled and boiled) before fermentation with different methods like submerged fermentation and back slope (BS) fermentation. The proximate and mineral compositions were monitored using standard methods. 

Crude Protein (%) of the peeled aerial potato significantly increased from 4.12 ±0.13 at the initial to 10.11±0.85 at the end of the fermentation while unpeeled aerial potato slightly increased from 3.66a±0.04 at the initial to 4.19±0.03 at the end of the fermentation. Peeled and blanched; unpeeled and blanched as well as the unpeeled and boiled samples had the highest iron (0.143±0.01 ppm), magnesium (6.40±0.02 ppm) and calcium (6.32±0.03 ppm) contents in fermented aerial potato sample. Generally, the different of methods of fermentation employed improved the nutrient contents of fermented aerial potato.

Open Access Review Article

The Potential use of Phenolic Compounds Recovered from Olive Mill Wastewater in Food Model Systems

Asma Mami Maazoun, Mohamed Karim Aounallah, Sofiene Hammami, Chokri Damergi

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 39-63
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i330484

In terms of economic growth, health benefits, and culture, the olive oil industry is a critical sector for many countries. However, olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is one of the most polluting by-products of the manufacture of virgin olive oil. Several studies have reported that OMWW is a valuable resource of usable compounds for recovery and valorization. Because of its high content of phenolic compounds, it may serve a significant function in food because of the phenolics' strong antioxidant value. The current paper provides a survey of OMWW's phenolic recovery methods, focusing on their application as active constituents in food products. In addition, this contribution provides an overview of key research describing the potentialities of OMWW phenolics in food model systems. The Scopus, Web of Science, and Science Direct databases were chosen as our paper references. Based on the available studies, traditional techniques like solvent extraction, membranes, and, more recently, innovative technologies that promise minimum impact on these phytochemicals’ compounds are used to recover phenolics from OMWW. Various food products, such as vegetable oils, bakery products, milk beverages, and meat products, can be fortified. All of these applications are based on phenolics' antibacterial and antioxidant properties to minimize food matrix alteration and contamination.