Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of the Insecticide/Acaricide Milbeknock with the Active Substance Milbemectin

Line Emilie Sverdrup, Christine Bjørge, Ole Martin Eklo, Merete Grung, Torsten Källqvist, Ingeborg Klingen, Marit Låg, Edgar Rivedal, Erik Ropstad, Steinar Øvrebø

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-3
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i530494

Milbeknock is a new insecticide/acaricide containing the new active substance milbemectin, which is a microbial fermentation product of Streptomyces. It is applied for control of mites and leafminers. The intended use is as a foliar spray in fruits (apples/pears), strawberries (only after harvest) and in ornamental plants growing in greenhouse and outdoors. The risk assessment was finalized at a meeting November 24, 2011, by VKM’s Scientific Panel on plant protection products (Panel 2). Panel 2 is in particular asked by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority to look at the following: 1) The human health risk for operators related to the properties of the active substance and the product. 2) The degree of oral absorption. 3) Acute toxicity. 4) The reproduction and developmental toxicity. 5) Establishment of reference values (ADI, AOEL and ARfD). 6) The fate and behaviour in the environment and environmental risk with regard to the  properties of Milbeknock and milbemectin. 7) Bioavailability of milbemectin. 8) The microcosm study. 

VKM Panel 2’s conclusion is as follows:  

Health: Panel 2 proposes to set the absorption to 50%, which is in agreement with the EU DAR report (propose 47%). For acute toxicicity, Panel 2 concludes that milbemectin probably has a LD50 for dogs between 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day. Dogs seem to be the most sensitive experimental species and should be considered for hazard classification purposes. With respect to reproduction and developmental toxicity, Panel 2 concludes that the documentation of the role of the P-glycoprotein transporter is not convincing, and that the CF1 mice study cannot be used to support the argumentation of no developmental toxicity put forward by the applicant. The following reference values have been estimated: ADI of 0.03 mg/kg bw/day; AOEL of 0.015 mg/kg bw/day and ARfD of 0.067 mg/kg bw/day for milbemectin. Provided that personal protection equipment is used, the AOEL for operators is not exceeded. 

Environment: With respect to environmental fate, the opinion of the Panel is that the relatively rapid degradation in soil indicates a significant bioavailability in both soil and water-sediment systems. Further it concludes that 0.058µg/L should be regarded as NOECpopulation for the microcosm study. Panel 2 concludes that there is a medium risk of toxic effects on aquatic organisms due to exposure of milbemectin sprayed in fruits with the proposed application regime, provided that a buffer zone of 30 meters to surface water is applied. There are minimal risks of toxic effects on aquatic organisms with sufficient buffer zones in other applied crops. Panel 2 further considers the risk for foliage dwelling non-target predators and parasitoids to be high, and the risk to earthworms to be medium. 

The strong sorption to soil suggests that the bioavailability in soil may be limited. However, the opinion of the Panel is that the relatively rapid degradation in soil indicates a significant bioavailability. Also, for a substance with such a high log Kow the reported water solubility is relatively high, which will contribute to the availability for biological uptake. The toxicity observed in the microcosm study indicates high bioavailability also in a water/sediment system.

Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of the Pesticide Envidor with the Active Substance Spirodiclofen

Line Emilie Sverdrup, Christine Bjørge, Ole Martin Eklo, Merete Grung, Torsten Källqvist, Ingeborg Klingen, Marit Låg, Edgar Rivedal, Erik Ropstad, Steinar Øvrebø

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 4-5
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i530495

Envidor is a new product in Norway containing the active substance spirodiclofen. The product is applied for use as an insecticide and acaricide in fruit, berries and ornamentals (field, glasshouses and tunnels). The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) was asked by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority to perform a risk assessment on human health, environmental fate and ecotoxicological effects of the active substance and the product. The risk assessment of the product was finalized at a meeting November 25, 2010, by VKM’s Scientific Panel on plant protection products (Panel 2). VKM Panel 2’s conclusion is as follows:  

Both Envidor and the active substance spirodiclofen showed low acute oral -, dermal - and inhalation toxicities in animal studies, but showed skin sensitising properties. The estimated risk for operators is assessed as minimal provided adequate use of personal protective equipment.  

Spirodiclofen may have endocrine disrupting effects, but the in vivo data are not sufficient to make a firm conclusion at this point. Adrenals and other organs of the endocrine system, including the reproductive system, are target organs for chronic toxicity of spriodiclofen. Males seem to be more sensitive than females for adverse reproductive effects of spirodiclofen. Decreased testes and epididymides sizes, testes atrophy and decreased number of sperm were seen both in the parental and subsequent generation of rats. No teratogenic effect of spirodiclofen was seen. 

The disturbances in the endocrine system may account for the carcinogenic potential of spirodiclofen as evidenced by tumours in testicles, uterus and liver of animals. Spirodiclofen is not considered genotoxic. The Panel regards spirodiclofen to be carcinogenic and toxic to the reproduction in laboratory animals. 

Both spirodiclofen and its metabolites are rapidly degraded in soil, but while spirodiclofen has a low mobility due to high soil sorption, its metabolites are highly mobile.  

Use of Envidor with the proposed application regime implies a very high risk for adverse effects on bees and non-target arthropods due to exposure to the active substance spirodiclofen. The risk for adverse effects of spirodiclofen on other terrestrial organisms, and on aquatic organisms provided that a buffer zone of 30 m to surface water is applied, is considered to be minimal.

Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of the Pesticide Centium with the Active Substance Clomazone

Line Emilie Sverdrup, Christine Bjørge, Ole Martin Eklo, Merete Grung, Torsten Källqvist, Ingeborg Klingen, Marit Låg, Edgar Rivedal, Erik Ropstad, Steinar Øvrebø

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 6-8
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i530496

Centium is a new product in Norway containing the active substance clomazone. The product is applied for use as a herbicide in potato, carrot, cabbage, brussel sprout, swedes, oil seed rape, pea and bean. The Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research recommend approval in potato, carrot, swedes and pea. They do not recommend approval in oil seed rape, cabbage and bean because of lacking documentation on efficacy. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) was asked by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority to perform a risk assessment on human health and environmental fate of the active substance and the product. The risk assessment of the product was finalized at a meeting May 18, 2011, by   VKM’s Scientific Panel on plant protection products (Panel 2). VKM Panel 2’s conclusion is as follows: 

 

The active ingredient clomazone is of moderate acute toxicity after oral and inhalation exposure and of low dermal toxicity. The product Centium is of low acute toxicity after oral exposure, by skin contact or by inhalation; however the product may contain a co-formulant, monomeric isocyanate, with sensitizing properties. Due to the lack of documentation on the monomer content, the Panel cannot evaluate the risk of sensitization. UK Poem model estimation of exposure show that exposure to operator is below AOEL and the health risk is therefore  minimal. 

The effects observed in the dog study were considered due to the exposure of clomazone and should therefore be used to determine the NOAEL value.  

The fertility index used in the two-generation study in rats is not considered relevant as a measure of critical effect. The Panel suggests to use 4000 ppm (354 mg/kg bw/day) which is the highest dose tested in the study. 

Dose dependent responses were not always evident in the rat teratology study, but significant effects were found at the two highest dose levels (300 and 600 mg/kg bw/day).  The observed effects were considered adverse. The proposed NOAEL of 100 mg/kg bw/day was therefore supported. 

The teratology study with rats is considered relevant for determination of acute reference   dose (ARfD) since skeletal malformations can be induced after short exposure  periods if the exposure is taking place during a sensitive period of foetal  development.  

The Panel also concludes that based on the results from modeling with MACRO (4.4.2) using the Nordic groundwater scenarios and the input parameters agreed upon in the EU there is a potential for contamination of groundwater exceeding the trigger value of 0.1µg/L for the active ingredient following prescribed usage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Evaluation of Milk Beverages Produced From African Breadfruit, Tigernut, Coconut and Date Fruit

O. Ogbuele Chinedu, U. Nwabueze Titus, U. Enyi Chukwunwike, Okorie Chinasa, N. Emecheta Wisdom, C. Iwuamadi Adaobi

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 9-19
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i530497

This study was carried out to extract milk from African breadfruit, tigernut, coconut and date fruit and to observe the changes in the microbial load of milk during storage. The formulated plant milk beverages were compared to conventional plant milk beverage “Vita milk” which served as the control sample. Microbial counts, characterization and identification were carried out on the beverage samples every 7 days for up to 35 days. The total viable count of the toasted breadfruit-based samples ranged from 3.7 × 102 cfu/ml to 5.1 × 102cfu/ml and the values were lower than those recorded from the cooked breadfruit-based samples which ranged from 3.95 ×102 cfu/ml to 6.10 × 102 cfu/ml. There were no presence of coliform bacteria in the formulated beverage samples and the reference sample from 1 to 21 days of storage. After these periods, coliform bacteria were recorded in 3 samples of the formulated plant milk and in all the formulated beverage samples after 35 days of storage. The percentage occurrence of Staphylococcus species according to the result was low on the 1st day of storage (18.2%), but increases with storage period up to 28.7% after 35 days of storage. The percentage occurrence of Aspergillus species which is another organism of public health concern as recorded from the beverage samples throughout the period of storage were low and below the specified tolerable set by Codex Alimentarius which is < 50ug/ml. The overall microbial qualities of the formulated beverage were safe and stable for the 1st 21 days of storage and up until 28 days for the control sample. The study revealed that milk beverages formulated from these plants gave products that are comparable to the conventional soy bean based vitamilk. The microbiological stability of the formulated plant milk samples were relatively less compared to the vitamilk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Contents of Two Varieties of Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam ) Cultivated IN North Western Nigeria

Ibrahim Ahmad Muhammad, Tasi’u Abdulmumin Mika’il, Abdulmumin Yunusa, Sadiya Ahmad Bichi, Maimuna Muhammad Dalhatu, Hauwa Ibrahim Danjaji, Rabi’atu Kabir Mustapha, Binta Sunusi Shuaibu

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 20-29
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i530501

Background and Objectives: Food shortages and nutritional imbalances are among the main food security problems in many countries around the world. In this study, the nutrients content of the yellow and red-fleshed sweet potatoes varieties cultivated in Nigeria were assessed.

Materials and Methods: The proximate composition, mineral elements analysis, phytochemicals, and vitamins content of the red and yellow-fleshed sweet potatoes were determined using the standard methods of analysis.

Results: The proximate analysis has shown that, the moisture (17.927%) and fat (2.703%) content of the yellow sweet potato were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in the red potato with a content of 16.68% and 1.693% respectively. The protein and fiber content of the red potato are 14.280% and 14.572% respectively, this is quite higher than in the yellow cultivar having 12.987% and 10.443% of the nutrients respectively. The ash and carbohydrate content were same in both. The red potato  exhibits high level of sodium (11.420 mg/l), potassium (1.206 mg/l), and magnesium (8.468 mg/l) in contrast to the red potato containing 10.270 mg/l, 1.035 mg/l and 6.127 mg/l of the respective elements. Iron and zinc content were comparable in both cultivars while the calcium content (1.444 mg/l) of the yellow cultivar is significantly higher than in the red variety (1.144 mg/l). The vitamin A, B and E content of the red potato are 8.740 µmol/L, 2.977 mg/dl, and 13.267 mg/dl respectively. These values are significantly (p<0.05) higher than in the yellow potato containing 6.047 µmol/L, 1.680 mg/dl, and 11.110 mg/dl of the respective vitamins. There is no significant difference with respect to the vitamin C content of both yellow (11.850 mg/dl) and red potato (12.520 mg/dl). The phytochemicals: tannins, flavonoids, phenols, terpenes, and anthocyanins content of the red sweet potato are 0.967 mg/g, 1.577 mg/g, 1.867 mg/g, 6.590 mg/g and 2.660 mg/g respectively. Terpenes and anthocyanins were not found in the yellow cultivar. However, saponins (0.823 mg/g) were found in the yellow variety but not in the red potato. Amount of the tannins, flavonoids and phenols observed in the yellow-fleshed potato are 0.667 mg/g, 1.027 mg/g and 1.287 mg/g respectively. These values are lower than in the corresponding red potato.

Conclusion: In this study, the nutritional contents of sweet potato varieties have been assessed which will immensely contribute to reducing the menace of malnutrition bedeviling the Northwestern part of Nigeria.