Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Extrusion Conditions on the Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Millet – Cowpea Based Fura

K. B. Filli, I. Nkama, V. A. Jideani, U. M. Abubakar

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-23

A three-factor three level Response surface methodology central composite retortable design (CCRD) was adopted to study the effect of feed composition (X1), feed moisture content (X2) and screw speed (X3) on proximate compositin, amino acid and sensory evaluation during extrusion of pearl millet and cowpea flour mixtures for the purpose of fura production. The mean observed value of protein for the fura extrudates ranged from 11.2 – 16.8%. Analysis of variance indicates that linear and quadratic effects significantly (P<0.05) affected the protein content of fura extrudates as expected. The mean value of lysine for the extrudates ranged from 5.1 - 6.6g/100g protein and the methionine content ranged from 1.3 - 3.8g /100g protein. The regression models fitted to the experimental data showed high coefficients of determinants with R2 = 0.96, 0.94, 0.94, 0.85 and 0.80 for protein (CHON), carbohydrate (CHO), fat (FAT), ash (ASH) and water (HOH) respectively. The R2 = were 0.90, 0.85, 0.86, 0.92, 0.88, 0.85 and 0.93 for lysine, i/leucine, leucine, valine, methionine – cystine, threonine and tryptophan respectively. The coefficients shows good fit. The importance of process variables on system parameters and physical properties could be ranked in the following order: Feed Composition (X1)>Feed Moisture (X2)>Screw Speed (X3). The optimum values obtained for feed composition, feed moisture and screw speed are 36.5% cowpea level, 22.3% feed moisture content and 186.7 rpm respectively. The corresponding optimum values of lysine, protein content, expansion ratio and bulk density are 6.6g/100g protein, 16.6%, 2.8 and 0.52 Kgm-3 respectively. The data obtained from the study could be used for control of product characteristics and possible projection for the commercial production of fura or any enriched protein based food from the blends pearl millet and cowpea.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Combination of a High-protein Formula Diet and Polyglucosamine Decreases Body Weight and Parameters of Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Overweight and Obese Men and Women

Janina Willers, Stefanie C. Plötz, Andreas Hahn

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 29-45

Aims: To examine the efficacy of a weight loss strategy using a high-protein formula diet in combination with a lipid adsorbing fibre, polyglucosamine, over 12 weeks.
Study Design: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study.
Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Food Science, Unit of Nutrition Physiology and Human Nutrition, Leibniz University of Hannover, Germany, between February 2010 and July 2010.
Methodology: 120 overweight and obese subjects participated in this study and ingested a protein-rich formula diet as a meal replacement once daily. Half of the participants
(n = 60) additionally took two lipid-adsorbent tablets (F+LA), polyglucosamine, once daily, while the other half (n = 60) received two placebo tablets (F+P). Measurements were taken at weeks 0, 6 and 12 to determine the response to intervention.
Results: Both groups achieved a highly significant (P < 0.001) weight loss (F+LA: -5.5 ± 3.8 kg vs. F+P: -4.7 ± 3.9 kg, Full Analysis Set (FAS) population). There was a significant decrease in HbA1c (P < 0.01), total cholesterol (P < 0.001), LDL cholesterol (P = 0.002), and triacylglycerol (P = 0.001) in the F+LA group, while the F+P group experienced no changes.
Conclusion: The investigation demonstrated that a formula diet alone or combined with polyglucosamine were both effective in weight reduction. The additional administration of polyglucosamine was more effective on the reduction of glucose and lipid parameters than the formula diet alone.

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