Open Access Original Research Article

Scientific Opinion on the Regulatory Status of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA)

Bastiaan J. Venhuis, Dries de Kaste

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 93-100

1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a pressor amine often found in food supplements for athletes at dosages of 25-65 mg. Historically, the compound has been used as a nasal decongestant but its oral application is largely unstudied leaving the regulatory status of such food supplements as unlicensed medicines undetermined. We therefore reviewed the literature on DMAA and similar amines in order to deduce an effective oral dosage. Based on our findings we conclude that oral preparations with >4 mg DMAA per dose unit should be considered as effective as a bronchodilator. Food supplements that exceed that limit are in fact subject to the Medicines Act and require licensing. Dosages higher than 100-200 mg are expected to cause serious adverse events.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Irradiation and Chemical Preservatives on the Microbiological Quality of Refrigerated Fresh-Cut Mangoes

Emmanuel K. Gasu, Victoria Appiah, Abraham Adu Gyamfi, Josehpine Nketsia-Tabiri

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 101-110

Fresh-cut mangoes are nutritious and offer consumers freshness, flavour and convenience. They however have a shorter shelf life compared to whole fruits due to their high susceptibility to microbial contamination. The effects of gamma irradiation and chemical preservatives on the microbiological quality of refrigerated fresh-cut mangoes were evaluated. Well matured fruits of Kent and Keitt varieties sliced into cubes were microbiologically analysed initially to determine counts of total viable cells (TVC), coliforms, Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The samples were subjected to various irradiation doses (0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 kGy) and chemical preservatives (sucrose, citric acid, sodium benzoate and a combination of these chemicals in equal proportions) and stored at 6°C and 10ºC for 15 days. TVC was subsequently estimated at 3-day intervals for the treated samples. TVC was estimated as 3.53 ± 0.25 and 4.86 ± 0.38 log10cfu/g for the Kent and Keitt varieties respectively. No coliforms Salmonella sp., E. coli or S. aureus were detected in both varieties. Irradiation at doses of 1.5 kGy to 2.5 kGy in combination with storage at 6ºC was able to eliminate all viable cells after 9 days compared to 12 days of storage at 6ºC in the case of chemical preservatives. Irradiation is more effective and ideal compared to chemical preservatives in improving the microbiological quality and therefore extending the shelf life of refrigerated fresh-cut mangoes.