Open Access Grey Literature

An Assessment Framework to Delineate Between Dietary Foods for Special Medical Purposes and Normal Foods

Marieke Hendriksen, Hans Verhagen

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 74-86
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2013/5185

This paper describes an assessment framework (‘decision tree’) to delineate between ‘dietary foods for special medical purposes’ and normal ‘foods’. The Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority commissioned this work in 2010. The background for the 2010 request was that some normal foods to which the EU Nutrition and Health Claims Regulation 1924/2006 applies [1], were presented on the market in the Netherlands as ‘dietary foods for special medical purposes’ falling under Directive 1999/21/EC [2]. In order to assist in the enforcement of the EU Nutrition and Health Claims Regulation 1924/2006 it was necessary to have an assessment framework. In 2010, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) produced its final report. This report was since then used by the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority to enforce appropriate law in Europe/the Netherlands. Although since 2010 this decision tree has worked satisfactory, it was available only in the Dutch language on the website of the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority [3]. Hence, it could not be communicated internationally. However, once international experts became aware of this document existing in Dutch and indicated their active interest, it was decided to have a full translation of the original document in the public domain. This paper shortly describes the relevant definitions of “foods” in the applicable EU legislations and then the full translation (in English) of the original document (in Dutch). In an annex, the definition of ‘food’ in the applicable EU legislation is given.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic and Genotypic Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Staphylococcus aureus From Raw and Spontaneously Fermented Camel Milk

Patrick Murigu Kamau Njage, Stefania Dolci, Christoph Jans, John Wangoh, Christophe Lacroix, Leo Meile

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 87-98
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2013/2853

Aims: To pheno- and genotypically characterise Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw and fermented camel milk from Kenya and Somali for their antibiotic resistance. 
Methodology: Microdilution assays to determine minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were done using to 20 different antibiotics. Further tests with selected antibiotics were done using disk diffusion test. Genotypic antibiotic resistance was tested using by microarray hybridization with selected isolates and consequent screening of antibiotic resistance genes by PCR.
Results: Prevalence of antibiotic resistance among the 47 S. aureus tested were ampicillin 26% (12), gentamicin 26% (12), streptomycin 11% (5), tetracycline 13% (6), trimethoprim 6% (3) and fusidic acid 2% (1). Multi-resistance was detected with three isolates resistant to two antibiotics, six to three antibiotics and six to four or more antibiotics. Three multi-resistant S. aureus isolates were positive for the β-lactamase resistant genes (blaZ), the tetracycline resistance gene tet38 and the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene pvlaccording to microarray hybridization assays. Two of the three isolates harbored additionally streptomycin resistance gene ant(6)-Ia. The tetracycline resistance gene tet(K) was also detected by microarray in four isolates. PCR detected tet(K) and blaZ in 2 and 7 additional isolates respectively. 
Conclusion: Controlled antibiotic therapy in camels should be introduced to prevent the increase of AB resistant bacteria for this and similar milk and hygienic situations in similar production environment. Detection of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene pvl by microarray hybridization calls for further research on possibility of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) in the milk as CA-MRSA with high virulence potential has been associated with the gene lukF-PV (pvl).

Open Access Original Research Article

Food Safety Knowledge: The Case of Domestic Food Handlers in Accra

P. T. Akonor, M. A. Akonor

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 99-111
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2013/3227

The Food safety knowledge of 608 respondents in Accra was assessed under five food safety themes using a Likert-type scale questionnaire, and Mean Aggregate Score (MAS) for each theme computed. Further, the Mean of the MAS was calculated and used as an index of interpreting overall food safety knowledge of food handlers who participated in the study. The themes considered in this study were “Concern” for food Safety, “Cross-contamination”, “General and personal hygiene”, “Knowledge of pathogenic microbes” and “Handling left-over food”. The relationship between respondents’ knowledge of food safety and demographic characteristics was also explored. Some of the demographic factors that were found to influence food safety knowledge significantly were education and age but not gender.MAS ranged between 3.0 – 4.0 (Indifference – Agree) for “Cross-contamination” and “Handling-leftover”, while the overall score for food safety knowledge was 3.6, interpreted largely as Good on the scale adopted for the study. Generally, however, respondents were well-informed in the areas of food safety concerns, general and personal hygiene and handling leftover food but not, as far as cross-contamination and pathogenic bacteria are concerned.