Open Access Short Research Article

A Short Questionnaire for Assessment of Dietary Vitamin D Intake

Linnea Hedlund, Hilde K. Brekke, Petra Brembeck, Hanna Augustin

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 150-156
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2014/7192

Aims: Dietary vitamin D intake is difficult to assess as it is irregular. In Sweden, main sourcesare oily fish, fortified dairy products and margarines. This relative validation study intends to investigate the agreement in dietary vitamin D intake between a short vitamin D questionnaire and a four day food record.
Study Design: A cross sectional study design was implemented.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg. Assessments were conducted between January 2009 and December 2012. 
Methodology: Ninety-five female subjects (25-40 years old) performed a short vitamin D questionnaire (VDQ), covering the consumption of four foods with high vitamin D content (oily fish, milk, margarine and yoghurt/sour milk). They also performed a food record for four consecutive days in connection to the VDQ.
Results: Median (quartile 1-quartile 3) dietary vitamin D intake was 4.7 (3.6-7.4) µg/day assessed by food record and 3.4 (2.3-4.6) µg/day assessed by VDQ. The dietary intakes of vitamin D correlated significantly between methods (P=.007). The amounts of vitamin D derived from each of the four foods did not differ between methods (P>.05).
Conclusion: The short VDQ, including only four foods with high vitamin D content (oily fish, milk, margarine and yoghurt/sour milk), was able to capture the majority of the dietary vitamin D intake reported in food records. This relative validation study shows that the short questionnaire is a useful tool when assessing intake of major sources of dietary vitamin D on a group level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ghrelin Gly90Leu and Ghrelin Receptor Gly57Gly Gene Variants Are Not Associated with Saltiness Intensity Perception and Pleasantness Ratings

Hui-En Ti, Yong-Leng Lew, Yee-How Say

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 87-99
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2014/5906

Aims: The salty taste modality is modulated by epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and Transient Receptor Potential Vanniloid (TRPV1) ionic channel and more recently, the gastric hormone ghrelin and its signaling system are also thought to play a role. Taste perception plays an important role in modulating food preference, and intake and is partly determined by genetic variations in chemoreceptor genes. For the salty taste modality, no studies have yet identified any genetic determinants of salt taste in humans. Nevertheless, a single study has identified that common variations in genes encoding for TRPV1 (TRPV1) and ENaC (SCNN1B) may influence the perception of salt solutions in humans, while it is currently unknown whether it would be the same for ghrelin and its cognate receptor, GHSR. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to investigate the association of Ghrelin Gly90Leu and GHSR Gly57Gly gene polymorphisms with individual’s saltiness intensity perception and pleasantness ratings.
Study Design: A convenience sampling method was practiced in this study. The sampling was carried out among students between the age of 18–25.
Place and Duration of Study: Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), Perak campus, between January to December, 2011.
Methodology: We recruited 166 Malaysian university students (mean age: 20.33±1.68; 75 males, 91 females; 152 ethnic Chinese, 14 Indians; 113 normal weight, 53 overweight) by convenience sampling. Low and high sodium concentrations of foods, solutions and broths were tasted and rated for their perceived intensity and pleasantness using generalized Labeled Magnitude Scale and Labeled Affective Magnitude scale, respectively.
Results: The minor allele frequencies (MAF) of Ghrelin Gly90Leu and GHSR Gly57Gly were 0.48 and 0.31, respectively. Only the perceived intensity of salted egg was significantly different among Ghrelin Gly90Leu genotypes, where the individuals with T318T and A318T genotypes rated the intensity significantly higher than those with the A318A genotype. 
Conclusion: In conclusion, Ghrelin Gly90Leu and GHSR Gly57Gly SNPs did not serve as markers for individual’s saltiness intensity perception and pleasantness ratings, at least among Malaysian subjects in this study. This suggests that the ghrelin signaling mechanism in modulating salty taste responsivity in inconclusive at the moment, as the positive findings in mice might not be translatable to humans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Fruit Consumption among In-school Adolescents in Ibadan, South West Nigeria

Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi, Funmilayo Florence Ilesanmi, Ibidolapo Taiwo Ijarotimi

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 100-109
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2014/5087

Background: Fruit consumption helps to promote health and prevent chronic diseases. Adequate knowledge of the determinants of fruit intake is necessary in order to be more effective in promoting its intake among adolescents.
Objective: This study aimed to examine the determinants of fruit consumption among adolescent in Ibadan, Nigeria.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among Senior Secondary School students in a public school in Ibadan- North Local Government Area, Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of 294 respondents completed a structured self-administered questionnaire. Associations were explored with the chi square test, predictors of fruit intake were determined with logistic regression; level of significance was 5%.
Results: Respondents above 14 years were 159 (54%). Only 244 (83%) lived with both parents. In all 233 (79%) had four or less siblings. Apple is the fruit preferred by 165(56%) of the respondents. Only 27 (12%) out of the 229 that had fruit consumption the month preceding the study had adequate intake. Among children of mothers who were civil servants 23 (89%) ate fruit in the month preceding the study (p<0.05). The significant determinants of fruit intake were mothers who were professionals (OR:3.8(1.562- 20.690)), supportive physical environment (OR: 3.0 (1.148- 5.744)) and number of siblings ≤4 (OR:2.3 (1.093- 4.83)) P<0.05.
Conclusions: Fruit intake has been shown to be low in the study population. Personal interest is not a determinant of fruit intake in this study there is therefore need to increase the level of awareness with regard to the benefit of fruit consumption in ensuring health. Effort to reduce the price of fruits and increase its availability is also important.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioavailability of Ca, P and Zn and Bone Mineralization in Rats Fed Yoghurt and Soy-yoghurt Containing Bifidobacteria

Ibrahim A. Abd El-Gawad, Abou Elsamh M. Mehriz, Farag A. Saleh, Esmat A. Rayan

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 110-126
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2014/6856

Bioavailability of calcium, phosphorus and Zinc from probiotic dairy foods and other food sources has been an important issue of studies over recent years.
The aim of the present study was designed to asses and to compare therapeutic effect of milk yoghurt and soy yoghurt containing bifidobacteria with regards to their effect on the bioavailability of Ca, P and Zn and bone mineralization in rats.
Eight groups of rats were fed basal diet, cow milk, probiotic-free or probiotic-containing milk yoghurts (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 or Bifidobacterium longum Bb-46), soymilk and soy-yoghurts containing only the above mentioned probiotics for 45 days.
Upon feeding probiotic-containing milk and soymilk yoghurts, rat's serum Ca and P content were about two fold that of control and surprisingly the rat's serum Zn content was about 19-21 fold that of control. The increment of apparent absorption % as compared with control was ranged between 24.7–26.6, 24–38 and 51-70% for Ca, P and Zn, respectively. The above mentioned results clearly demonstrate the enhancement of Ca, P and Zn bioavailability when probiotic diets were fed. A significant increase (n=6;p<0.05) was observed in ash content and breaking force of femur of rats fed probiotic milk-and soy- yoghurts.
Moreover probiotic milk yoghurts were much better than soy-yoghurts fermented by Bifidobacteria in enhancing bioavailability of Ca, P and Zn as well as bone mineralization. These results suggest that intake of probiotic milk-and soy- yoghurts may be useful in enhancing mineral bioavailability and bone properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Consumers’ Perception and Willingness to Pay for Organic Leafy Vegetables in Urban Oyo State, Nigeria

Oluwakemi Adeola Obayelu, Ololade Modupeola Agboyinu, Bola Amoke Awotide

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 127-136
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2014/6498

Recent development of widely reported incidents of dangerous levels of pesticides in food, fertilizer contamination of ground water and the occurrence of livestock diseases attributable to the production methods of large scale agriculture have stimulated the demand for organic food. Food safety is also gaining prominence in developing countries as more and more people desire to consume chemical free foods. This study therefore assessed consumer’s perception of food safety standards and willingness to pay (WTP) for organic vegetables in Oyo state, Nigeria. Data were obtained from two hundred respondents through a multistage sampling procedure using the contingent valuation method and were analysed using descriptive statistics, principal component analysis and the logit model. Results showed that majority (87%) were in their economic active age (≤ 50 years) and 73% of the respondents had prior knowledge of organic vegetables. Furthermore, about 58% of the consumers preferred organic fluted pumpkin (Ugwu) to other organic vegetable probably owing to their awareness of the health advantages and nutritional constituent of the vegetable. The results of the principal component analysis showed that 49 percent of the respondents had information (awareness) about organic leafy vegetables. The logistic model showed that employment status, price, health benefit and label had positive relationship with WTP for organic vegetables while gender and household size had a negative relationship with WTP.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Dietary Intervention on Selected Biochemical Indices of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Nigerians with Metabolic Syndrome: A Pilot Study

Sheu Kadiri Rahamon, Mabel Ayebatonyo Charles-Davies, Kehinde Sola Akinlade, John Ayodele Olaniyi, Adesoji Adedipe Fasanmade, Oyediran Emmanuel Oyewole, Mayowa Ojo Owolabi, Jane Roli Adebusuyi, Olufunke Olayemi Hassan, Babatunde Muhammed Ajobo, Maria Onomhaguan Ebesunun, Kehinde Adigun, Unyime Aniekpon Fabian, Omolara Olutosin Popoola, Wemimo Okunbolade, Olatunbosun Ganiyu Arinola, Emmanuel Oluyemi Agbedana

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 137-149
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2014/6604

Aim: This study assessed the impact of dietary modification on cardiometabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress indices in Nigerians with metabolic syndrome (MS).
Subjects and Methods: Sixty participants with MS were selected using the International Diabetes Federation criteria from a cohort participating in “Risk Assessment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and Dementia in Nigerians with Metabolic Syndrome” study. The subjects were seen by a Dietitian and the approximate percentages of total calories from total protein, total fat, polyunsaturated fat, and carbohydrate were calculated from dietary history and pegged at 20%, 30%, 14% and 50% respectively. To ensure compliance, each participant was seen monthly (for 6 months) by the Dietitian. Glucose and lipid profile were determined using enzymatic methods. Serum activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and levels of nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), total protein and albumin were determined using spectrophotometric methods while high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and tumuor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were determined using ELISA. Student’s t-test (paired) and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used for statistical analysis as appropriate. P-value <0.05 was considered significant. 
Results: The mean blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), body fat, NO, hsCRP, H2O2, total protein and globulin were significantly reduced while the mean HDL, MDA, albumin and activities of CAT and MPO were significantly increased post-dietary modification compared with baseline. 
Conclusion: Short-term dietary intervention improved cardiovascular risk, inflammation and oxidative stress indices in Nigerians with MS.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Grey Literature in the Field of Nutrition, Health and Food Safety Quantity, Retrievability and Scientist’s Point of View

Liliana François, Miriam L. Haaksma, Astrid S. M. van der Harst, L. Cristobal Monraz Gomez, MaartjeA . C. Schreurs, Roderick Gielis, Nick Vos, Renger Witkamp, Hans Verhagen

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 157-176
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2014/8527

Aims: Grey literature covers all reports from public research institutes, which are not peer-reviewed scientific papers. The aim of this article is to explore the amount and extent of grey literature in the field of nutrition, health and food safety, the retrievability and the view of several scientists on this matter. 
Study Design: An explorative descriptive, semi-quantitative study.
Methodology: During a three week survey in June 2013, a questionnaire was sent to 97 scientists in the field of nutrition, health and food safety, of which 44 were returned. Most of the scientists were working in European governmental, academic or research institutes. Questions included an estimation of the quantity and retrievability of the grey literature at that institute, as well as questions about better ways to make grey literature more accessible. To compare the current needs for grey literature and its accessibility with future needs, a questionnaire was also designed and distributed via email and social media among students in the Netherlands; in total 134 replies were received of which 96 were included in the analysis. Outcomes of the research were compared with literature. 
Results: Scientists were aware of the existence of grey literature, but had mostly no idea about the amount and extent of it within their own institutes, which was an important drawback in this study. Also, the reported number by scientists did not match the number found on websites of the institutes, which may be due to language barriers, costs and the use of passwords. Although there are various repositories especially for the storage of grey literature, most scientists are not aware of them. The results also gave some insight in the perceived needs and problems with retrievability.
Conclusion: This study should be considered as a first attempt to explore the grey literature in the field of nutrition, health and food safety. The main finding was that the quantity and impact of grey literature is not to be underestimated. Scientists indicated that they want to improve retrievability of the documentation since they are considered often very valuable to the scientific community and the general public. Increasing the awareness of the amount grey literature and ways to improve the accessibility are points of attention for further research.

Open Access Review Article

An Overview of Healthy and Functionality of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Dairy Industry

Forough Sadat Tabibloghmany, Elham Ehsandoost

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 63-86
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2014/6948

Exopolysaccharides (EPS) synthesized by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a major role in the manufacturing of fermented dairy products such as yoghurt, drinking yoghurt, cheese, fermented cream, milk based desserts. The demand of consumers for natural dairy products with a smooth and creamy texture, low in fat and sugars, can be satisfied by a judicious use of LAB producing EPS. One of the major sensory attributes important for consumer preference of dairy products is ï¬rmness and creaminess. EPS’s may act both as texturizers and stabilizers, ï¬rstly increasing the viscosity of a ï¬nal product, and secondly by binding hydration water and interacting with other milk constituents, such as proteins and micelles, to strengthen the rigidity of the casein network. As a consequence EPS can decrease syneresis and improve product stability. Furthermore it has been reported that EPS can positively affect gut health. The heteropolysaccharides from both mesophilic and thermophilic lactic acid bacteria have received renewed interest recently. Nowadays, in regard to demand of modern consumers focusing towards safe and healthy food without additives, new perspectives of development appear for these biopolymers. The GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) and probiotic status of some lactobacilli give to them more preference for consumable EPS production. One of their most described applications is their utilization as texturing agents naturally synthesized in the fermented food products. A better understanding of the structure-function relationship of EPS in a dairy food matrix remains a challenge to further improve applications of EPS to better satisfy the consumer demand for appealing, tasty and even healthier products.